Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.( 10 points )
In the past few decades, remarkable findings have been made in ethology, the study of animal social behavior. Earlier scientists had 1 that nonhuman social life was almost totally instinctive or fixed by genetics. Much more careful observation has shown that 2 variation occurs among the social ties of most species, showing that learning is a part of social life. That is, the 3 are not solely fixed by the genes.
4，the learning that occurs is often at an early age in a process that is called imprinting. Imprinting is clearly 5 instinctive, but it is not quite like the learning of humans; it is something in between the two. An illustration best 6 the nature of imprinting. Once, biologists thought that ducklings followed the mother duck because of instincts. Now we know that, shortly 7 they hatch, ducklings fix 8 any object about the size of a duck and will henceforth follow it. So ducklings may follow a basketball or a briefcase if these are 9 for the mother duck at the time when imprinting occurs. Thus, social ties can be considerably 10, even ones that have a considerable base 11 by genetics.
Even among the social insects something like imprinting 12 influence social behavior. For example, biologists once thought bees communicated with others purely 13 instinct. But, in examining a "dance" that bees do to indicate the distance and direction of a pollen source, observers found that bees raised in isolation could not communicate effectively. At a higher level, the genetic base seems to be much more for an allpurpose learning rather than the more specific responses of imprinting. Chimpanzees, for instance, generally 14 very good mother but Jane Goodall reports that some chimps carry the infant upside down or 15 fail to nurture the young. She believes that these females were the youngest or the 16 child of a mother. In such circumstances, they did not have the opportunity to observe how their own mother 17 for her young. Certainly adolescent chimps who are still with their mothers when other young are born take much interest in the rearing of their young brother or sister. They have an excellent opportunity to learn, and the social ties that are created between mother and young 18 Goodall to describe the social unit as a family. The motheroffspring tie is beyond 19;there is some evidence to 20 that ties also continue between siblings of the same sex, that is "brotherbrother" and "sistersister".
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(40 points)
New figures from France,Germany and Italy-the three biggest economies in the 12 country Eurozone -suggest the continent's economic woes may have been exaggerated.In France, evidence emerged that consumer spending remained solid in July and August,rising 1.4%and 0.6%respectively.Forecasters had generally expected the July figure to show a 0.1% slippage,with August unchanged.But the figures were flattered slightly by a down grade to the June figure,to 0.7% from1.5%.
With manufacturing in the doldrums across Europe and the US,consumer spending has been increasingly seen as the best hope of stopping the global economic slowdown from turning into a recession.The French government said the news proved that the economy was holding up to the strain of the slowdown.
Meanwhile in Germany,new regional price figures went someway towards calming fears about inflation in Europe's largest economy-a key reason for the European Central Bank's reluctance to cut interest 15 states said consumer prices were broadly stable,with inflation falling year on year.The information backed economists' expectations that inflation for the country as a whole is set to fall back to a yearly rate of 2.1%,compared to a yearly rate of 2.6% in August,closing in on the Eurowide target of 2%.The drop is partly due to last year's spike in oil prices dropping out of the yearonyear calculation.
The icing on the cake was news that Italy's job market has remained buoyant.The country's July unemployment rate dropped to 9.4% from 9.6% the month before,its lowest level in more than eight years.And a business confidence survey from quasigovernmental research group ISAE told of a general pickup in demand in the six weeks to early September.But the news was tempered by an announcement by Alitalia,the country's biggest airline,that it will have to get rid of 2，500 staff to cope with the expected contraction as well as selling 12 aeroplanes. And industrial group Confindustria warned that the attacks on US targetsmeant growth will be about 1.9% this year,well short of the government's 2.4% target. And it said the budget deficit will probably be about 1.5%,nearly twice the 0.8% Italy's government has promised its European Union partners.
21We know from the first paragraph that.
Anew figures from the three European countries show the prediction of forecasters is exactly right
BEuropean economy gets on better than forecasters have predicted
Call of the forecasters expect the fully figure to show a reduction
Din three European countries the consumer spending continues to rise
22The term"in the doldrums"in Paragraph 2 refers to .
Ain the process of rising Bexperiencing a sharp turning
Cin the recessionDrising rapidly
23Which of the following statements is true according to the text?.
AThe reason for the ECB's unwilling to cut interest rates is inflation was actually expected to fall in Germany
BIn Germany consumer prices were falling
CLast year's oil prices dropping out of the yearonyear calculation directly leads to the drop of inflation
DThe European Central Bank is willing to cut interest rate
24ln this passage,the word"buoyant" in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to the word.
25lndustrial group Confindustria warned that.
Athe attacks on US targets lead to the comparatively lower growth
Bthe growth had been well short of the government's target
Cthe budget deficit must be about 1.5%
Dthe budget deficit will probably be great different from the country's promise
Survey results indicate that smoking and alcohol and marijuana use increased among residents of Manhattan during the 5～8 weeks after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center which took place on September 11, 2001. Almost onethird of the nearly 1,000 persons interviewed reported an increased use of alcohol, marijuana, or cigarettes following the September 11th attacks. The largest increase was in alcohol use. About onefourth of the respondents said they were drinking more alcohol in the weeks after September 11; about 10% reported an increase in smoking, and 3.2% said they had increased their use of marijuana.
The investigators found survey participants by randomly dialing New York City phone numbers and screened potential respondents for Manhattan residents living in areas close to the World Trade Center. Interviews were conducted with 988 individuals between October 16 and November 15, 2001. Participants were asked about their cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and marijuana use habits before and after September 11. During the week prior to September 11, 2001, 22.6% of the participants reported smoking cigarettes, 59.1% drinking alcohol, and 4.4% using marijuana. After September 11th, 23.4% reported smoking cigarettes, 64.4% drinking alcohol, and 5.7% smoking marijuana. Among those who smoked, almost 10% reported smoking at least an extra pack of cigarettes a week and among those who drank alcohol, more than 20% reported imbibing at least one extra drink a day.
The researchers found that people who reported an increase in substance abuse were more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and from depression. People who reported an increase in cigarette smoking or marijuana use were also more likely to have both PTSD and depression, while those who reported an increase in alcohol use were more likely to have depression only. Persons who were living closer to the World Trade Center were more likely to increase their cigarette smoking, but other factors such as being displaced from home, losing possessions during the attacks, or being involved in the rescue efforts were not consistently associated with increased substance use. Symptoms of panic attack were associated with an increase in the use of all substances.
Increase in substance abuse did not differ significantly between men and women or among racial or ethnic groups. Demographic factors such as age, marital status, and income seemed to play a more critical role in determining if the events of September 11th led to an increase in substance use.
26. The survey results suggest that the largest increase in substance use was .
A alcoholB marijuanaC cigarettesD cocaine
27. The survey participants were .
A randomly selected United States citizens
B randomly selected New York City citizens
C randomly selected Manhattan residents who live close to the World Trade Center
D randomly selected American citizens who witnessed the terrorist attack
28. The author is trying to show that .
A use of substances may vary from time to time
B abuse of certain substances is harmful for health
C the attack of september 11th has left incurable harm to peoples mental health
D terrorist attack increase anxiety and sense of insecurity among residents
29. What can be said about substance abuse after September 11?
A People who reported an increase in alcohol use were more likely to have PTSD.
B People who were living closer to World Trade Center were most likely to increase cigarette smoking.
C Displacement from home and involvement in rescue efforts were consistently associated with increased substance use.
D Symptoms of panic attach were unrelated with increased use of substances.
30. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
A Demographic information such as gender, race and marital status was not collected.
B Gender and race do not have much effect on the amount of substance abuse.
C Age and marital status do not make any difference on substance abuse.
D Income is a better predictor of substance abuse than age.
The entrepreneur, according to French economist J.B. Say, "is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield."But Says definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and nonmonetary rewards.
The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonalds. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fastfood chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.
Many of the sharp, blackandwhite contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faced to a gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive, or market oriented. They were "above" the marketdriven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the mavericks of society. They were risktakers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more priceconscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents, and competencies; Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses(e.g., consulting and law) to serve clients.
Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors; searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonalds is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.
31.According to the first paragraph, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?
A.The CEO of a big company.
B.The owner of a profitable restaurant.
C.A man who started a new kind of business but eventually failed after 5 years because of some financial problems.
D.A successful salesman.
32.Which of the followings are necessary for an entrepreneur?
①a resource shifter②one who starts a new business
⑤a risk taker
33.From the text, we learn that .
A.an entrepreneur should be very extroverted
B.an entrepreneur should be quick to seize opportunities
C.change is not norm in an entrepreneurs eyes
D.the French economist J.B. Say is the first person who gave the definition of "entrepreneur"
34.The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to .
A.complete the definition of entrepreneur
B.tell the readers what is entrepreneur and the main characteristics of entrepreneurs
C.show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs
D.illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur
35.What will most possibly follow the text?
A.An example of how an entrepreneur operates.
B.Another theory about entrepreneurship.
C.The bad effects of entrepreneurs.
D.The good effects of entrepreneurs.
Modern technology and science have produced a wealth of new materials and new ways of using old materials.For the artist this means wider opportunities.There is no doubt that the limitations of materials and nature of tools both restrict and shape a man's work.Observe how the development of plastics and light metals along with new methods of welding has changed the direction of sculpture.Transparent plastic materials allow one to look through an object,to see its various sides superimposed on each other(as in Cubism or in an Xray).Today,welding is as prevalent as casting was in the past.This new method encourages open designs,where surrounding and intervening space becomes as important as form itself.
More ambiguous than other scientific inventions familiar to modern artists,but no less influential,are the psychoanalytic studies of Freud and his followers,discoveries that have infiltrated recent art,especially Surrealism.The Surrealists,in their struggle to escape the monotony and frustrations of everyday life,claimed that dreams were the only hope.Turning to the irrational world of their unconscious,they banished all time barriers and moral judgements to combine disconnected dream experiences from the past,present and intervening psychological states.The Surrealists were concerned with overlapping emotions more than with overlapping forms.Their paintings often become segmented capsules of associative experiences.For them,obsessive and often unrelated images replaced the direct emotional message of expressionism.They did not need to smash paint and canvas;they went beyond this to smash the whole continuity of logical thought.
There is little doubt that contemporary art has taken much from contemporary life.In a period when science has made revolutionary strides,artists in their studios have not been unaware of scientists in their laboratories.But this has rarely been a oneway street.Painters and sculptors,though admittedly influenced by modern science,have also molded and changed our world.If breakup has been a vital part of their expression,it has not always been a symbol of destruction.Quite the contrary:it has been used to examine more fully,to penetrate more deeply,to analyze more thoroughly,to enlarge,isolate and make more familiar certain aspects of life that earlier we were apt to neglect.In addition,it sometimes provides rich multiple experiences so organized as not merely to reflect our world,but in fact to interpret it.
36.According to the passage,it is true that.
A artistic creations seem to be the reproductions of modern technology
B artistic creations have made great strides scientifically
C artistic creations appear to be incapable of ignoring material advances
D artistic creations are the reflection of the material world
37.The welding techniques.
A can cause a lot of changes in sculpture arts
B permit details of an object to be seen clearly
C can superimpose multiple sides of sculptor's designs
D can make artists adaptable to be surroundings
38.We can learn from the text that Freud's studies.
A are more ambiguous than any other scientific invention
B have influenced other scientific inventions
C cause Surrealism
D have infiltrated Surrealism
39.Which of the following is true about Surrealists?
A They diminished all time barriers and moral judgements to combine disconnected dream experiences.
B They tried to express their subconscious world.
C They could transform real existence into incoherent dreams.
D They wanted to substitute direct expressions for fragmented images.
40.The sentence "But this has rarely been a oneway street."in the last paragraph means that.
A contemporary art has been nourished by modern science
B modern science has been nourished by art
C artists can become scientists and scientists can become artists
D the impacts of modern art and science are actually mutual
In the following article,some sentences have been removed .For Questions 41-45,choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank.There are two extra choices,which do not fit in any of the gaps.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
Aremote Patagonian town that's just beginning to prosper by guiding tourists through the virgin forests nearby is being shaken by the realization that it's sitting on a gold mine. Literally. 41)___________________________________________________________________
Esquel's plight is winning attention from international conservation and environmental groups such as Greenpeace. 42)__________________________
About 3.2 million acres already are under contract for mineral exploration in poor and sparsely settled Chubut Province, where Esquel is, near the southern tip of South America. 43)______________________________________
Meridian's project, about 5 miles outside Esquel at a higher elevation, is about 20 miles from a national park that preserves rate trees known as alerces, a southern relative of California's giant sequoia. Some of them have been growing serenely in the temperate rain forest for more than 3,000 years.
The greatest fear is that cyanide, which is used to leach gold from ore, will drain downhill and poison Esquel's and possibly the park's water supplies. The mine will use 180 tons of the deadly chemical each month. Although many townspeople and some geologists disagree, the company says any excess cyanide would drain away from Esquel.
"We won't allow them to tear things up and leave us with the toxic aftermath," said Felix Aguilar, 28, as he piloted a boatload of tourists through a lake in the Alerces National Park."We take care of things here, so that the entire world can hear and see nature in its pure state. The world must help us prevent this."
A young English botanist named Charles Darwin, the author of the theory of evolution, was the first European to see alerces, with trunks that had a circumference of 130 feet. He gave the tree its generic name, Fitzroya cupressoides, for the captain of his ship, Robert Fitzroy.
Argentina, pressed by the United States, Canada, the World Bank and other global lenders, rewrote its mining laws in the 1990s to encourage foreign investment.45)________________________________________
Argentina took in more than＄1 billion over the past decade by granting exploration contracts for precious metals to more than 70 foreign and domestic companies. If the country were to turn away a major investor, the message to its mining sector would be chilling.
［A］Whether Meridian Gold Corp. gets its openpit gold mine outside Esquel could determine the fate of mining in Patagonia, a pristine region spanning southern Argentina and Chile.
［B］Forest ecologist Paul Alaback, a University of Montana professor who studies the alerces, said Argentine authorities could gain from Alaska's successful naturebased tourism.
［C］More than 3,000 worried Esquel residents recently took to the streets in protests aimed at assuring that their neat community of 28,000 becomes a ecotourism center, not a goldrush town.
［D］American Douglas Tomkins,the founder of the Esprit clothing line and a prominent global conservationist, has bought more than 800,000 wilderness acres in Chile to preserve alerces and protect what's left of the temperate rain forest. Ted Turner, the communications magnate, also has bought land in Argentine Patagonia with an eye to conservation.
［E］Residents also complain that Argentina hasn't given naturebased tourism a chance.
［F］Mining companies received incentives such as 30 years without new taxes and dutyfree imports of earthmoving equipment.
［G］In Argentina, the town has become a national symbol in the debate over exploitation vs. preservation of the country's vast natural resources.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
For better or worse,multiple marriages aren't just for actress Elizabeth Taylor (renowned for her eight marriages) anymore.
More Americans than ever are tying the knot (getting married) for the third time or more.
Lynn Y. Naugle Haspel,a 53yearold family therapist in New Orleans,says that people's personal needs and desires simply changes as their life evolves.
"What functions well in the first part of our lives may not function well in the second or third parts of our lives,"she explains.She didn't start her career as a therapist until her children from her first marriage went to school.That marriage lasted 21 years,her second marriage five years.Two years ago,she wed for a third time,and she describes this union as an "extremely easy marriage".
Today,at an estimated one of seven weddings,the bride,the groom or both are making that trip down the aisle for at least the third time.That's twice as many as a generation ago,according to the US National Centre for Health Statistics.
46)In part,the surge in multiple marriages is a side effect of the 1970s divorce boom that has supplied an everexpanding pool of divorced singles.Even the simple fact that people are living longer has opened the door to marrying more often.Nofault divorce laws (meaning no one is blamed for the failure of the marriage),and cultural changes have also meant there's less peer pressure than in past generations to stay in a joyless or abusive marriage.
47)While a single divorce didn't block either Ronald Reagan or Bob Dole from seeking the most highly scrutinized job in America - the US presidency - modern society still raises an eyebrow at more than one matrimonial mistake.
Indeed,there are signs that attitudes are changing.Even the language is softening.Clinical papers in social science journals no longer probe for "neurosis" or mental depressive disorder among the "divorce prone". More and more marriages are said to "end," not "fail," and one author has coined the term "encore marriages".
"It's coming out of the closet or becoming more accepted," says Glenda Riley,a Ball State University professor who wrote a book on the history of divorce in the US.48)"There's still embarrassment on the personal level,while there is growing acceptance on the public level" for three or more marriages in a lifetime.
49)Some experts say that the trend toward multiple marriages shows an erosion in Americans' capacity for commitment."We live in the age of light.We have light cream cheese,light beer,light mayonnaise,"says Wayne Sotile,a psychologist and marriage counselor in WinstonSalem,North Carolina.But,he adds,"There's no such thing as light,longterm,intimate,romantic marriage.You've got to commit yourself to those things."
There's no guarantee,of course,that the third time is the best.50)To the contrary,second and third marriages run an equal or greater risk of divorce than first marriages,which today are given 4outof10 odds of failing,and they tend to end more quickly.Divorce statistics show that failed second marriages typically end two years sooner than first marriages,lasting six years on average rather than eight.That leaves some doubly divorced people open for a third try at a relatively young age.
Section Ⅲ Writing
You've just come back from a tour in JiuZhaiGou, and you're writing to your friend Mary.
1)tell her that you've been back at the very day
2)share your travelling experience with her
3）invite her to a tour in ZhangJiajie in the coming year
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Jane" instead. You do not need to wirte the address.(10 points)
52.Direction:study the following picture carefully and write an essay of about 200 words.In the essay you should
1)interpret the picture's meaning
2)give your comments on the phenomenon
3)give your suggestions to solve the problem
Section Ⅰ Use of English
根据题意，"早期的科学家，假定非人类动物的社会生活几乎完全是天生的，或是由遗传决定的",assume多用于未证实的假定；adopt 意为"采用，接受"；believe 意为"相信"；surmise 意为"猜测，推测"，相当于"guess"。如：She surmised as much. 她如此猜测。
21B由第一段第一句：从法国等国获得的新数据表明，对欧洲大陆的经济危机的预测可能有所夸大，A项"来自于三个欧洲国家的新数据显示预测者们的预测是完全正确的"与题意不符，B项"欧洲经济的进展比预测者们的预测要好些"显然符合题意。C项说"all of the forecasters 则与文中"Forecasters had generally expected"不符，过于绝对。D项中指三个欧洲国家的消费情况，文中则仅谈到France，所以D项错误。"
26. A文章第一段介绍说，9·11事件后，吸烟、喝酒以及吸食大麻的比例有所上升。其中，The largest increase was in alcohol use.（其中增加最快的是喝酒现象）。
27. C文章第二段的开头说，The investigators found survey participants by randomly dialing New York City phone numbers and screened potential respondents for Manhattan residents living in areas close to the World Trade Center.研究人员先是随机地抽取纽约的电话号码，然后只挑选了那些曼哈顿岛上，住所离世界贸易中心比较近的居民。
33B文中第四段提到"entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors,""Some qualities many of them share. Viewing change as the norm",所以一个"entrepreneur"，并不一定要是"extroverted"，也不能认为"change is not norm"，而是要抓住机遇。所以，A、C错，B对。至于D，文中并没有说J.B.Say是给entrepreneur定义的第一人，因此D也错误。
35A文章最后说："Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident."但并没有例子证明，怎样使用其创造力、经验和信心，所以A最合适，而B、C、D都没有什么明显的标志表明会被讲到。
weld 锻焊，焊接(金属物)infiltrate 渗透，透入
capsule 蒴果；胶囊sculpture 雕塑，雕刻
superimpose 将某物置于另一物上(尤指后者仍可见，可闻)overlap 重叠，重合，重复
canvas 帆布，画布obsessive 萦绕于心的，有执着想法的
36.C本文是讲现代科技中新材料的出现和使用原有材料的新方法的运用对艺术创造的影响。A项reproductions of modern technology(现代技术的复制品)过于广泛，不合原文；B项文中没有提及；D项the material world(物质世界)过于广泛，不合原文；C项最符合文意，故选C。本题各选项中分别使用了文中出现过的modern、technology、scientifically、material等词，具有很强的迷惑性。
I' ve been back this morning. What a tiring but exciting trip.
JiuZhaigou is an excellent place and really worth going. The tour guide led us visited several travelling sites, which made us feet like in heaven. The most wonderful site is the Huohuahai Lake. The water there was so clear that we could see different colors of stones at the bottom, as if the water didn' t exist except for the pure blue. We also visited the waterfall which was found scene by the famous TV play "Xiyouji ".
How are you at present ?Is anything coming along successfully ?Don' t be so occupied with your work, try a little bit to relax yourself. I' m planning to a tour in ZhangJiajie next year. It is said to be another wonderful place to visit.I hope you could go together with me to share the happiness. Please write back to let me know your idea.
September 24th, 2004
Be Kind to Our Mother Earth
This depiction is to some extent a heartrending dramatization of our present life. Skyscrapers stand in clusters, and trees lining on both sides of the street are all made of artificial materials. Mankind's dwelling place on earth no longer looks green, but is in the colour of gray.
Are we still living in a natural world? Definitely not! With the steps of modernization and mechanization, the serene poetic life of former times has vanished. Vast green pastures are replaced by factories belching out columns of thick smoke; rivers once teemed with all kinds of fishes are now polluted by sewage water. In addition to that, environmental pollution has given rise to a number of serious problems, such as the extinction of some species of animals owing to the desertification, the greenhouse effect owing to the depletion of ozone layer, and the dwindling away of fresh water. Mother earth is the only home we live in. Therefore, she exists more for our protection than for our destruction. Supposing our planet is a vessel made of cake, and it is going to carry us across the ocean to the other side, namely, the paradise. Could we gnaw a hole in the cakevessel and still sail across the ocean safe and sound? On the contrary, my friends, we will get drowned.
Now it is high time that measures be taken to counter the negative effects of modernization. The strategy of sustainable development has been launched, but this is not enough, because it is each citizen's business to be kind to our mother earth.