Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ or ［D］ on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)
From childhood to old age, we all use language as a means of broadening our knowledge of ourselves and the world about us. When humans first 1 , they were like newborn children, unable to use this 2 tool. Yet once language developed, the possibilities for human kind's future 3 and cultural growth increased.
Many linguists believe that evolution is 4 for our ability to produce and use language. They 5 that our highly evolved brain provides us 6 an innate language ability not found in lower 7 . Proponents of this innateness theory say that our 8 for language is inborn, but that language itself develops gradually, 9 a function of the growth of the brain during childhood. Therefore there are critical 10 times for language development.
Current 11 of innateness theory(天生论) are mixed, however, evidence supporting the existence of some innate abilities is undeniable. 12 , more and more schools are discovering that foreign languages are best taught in 13 grades. Young children often can learn several languages by being 14 to them, while adults have a much harder time learning another language once the 15 of their first language have become firmly fixed.
16 some aspects of language are undeniably innate, language does not develop automatically in a vacuum. Children who have been 17 from other human beings do not possess language. This demonstrates that 18 with other human beings is necessary for proper language development. Some linguists believe that this is even more basic to human language 19 than any innate capacities. These theorists view language as imitative, learned behavior. 20, children learn language from their parents by imitating them. Parents gradually shape their child's language skills by positively reinforcing precise imitations and negatively reinforcing imprecise ones.
1. ［A］ generated ［B］ evolved ［C］ born ［D］ originated
19. ［A］ acquisition ［B］ appreciation ［C］ requirement ［D］ alternative
20. ［A］ As a result ［B］ After all ［C］ In other words ［D］ Above all
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ or ［D］. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1. (40 points)
When Howell Raines was made executive editor of the New York Times in 2001, he brought with him a reputation as a fearless and independent newsman. Within days, al-Qaeda (基地组织) struck the World Trade Centre, and the coverage he oversaw turned him into an editorial legend, his army of reporters winning an unprecedented number of Pulitzer prizes.
Yet, not a year and a half later, the discovery of fabrication by a young reporter triggered a managerial crisis that destroyed Mr Raines's career and exposed the newspaper to ridicule for being unable to detect a pathological(病态的) liar in its own newsroom. Not long afterwards, another reporter, who was also a favourite of Mr Raines's, departed as questions were being raised as to whether he had actually reported the stories appearing under his name. A year on, many inside the world's best known paper of record and integrity still worry if its reputation can be restored.
Mr Raines got the editorship after pledging to raise the paper's "competitive metabolism" (新陈代谢). The newspaper's publisher, Arthur Sulzberger, had had ample opportunities to see his flaws. As bureau chief in Washington, DC, Mr Raines had treated a small group of reporters like pets, earning the dislike of the rest. Similar opinions had been voiced when he ran the newspaper's editorial page. But in each place, Mr Raines had made the New York Times noticed. And for Mr Sulzberger, that seemed to be an answer to a problem.
Circulation had been stagnant for years, despite attempts to establish the New York Times as America's national paper. According to Seth Mnookin, a noted columnist, Mr Sulzberger and Mr Raines both felt that the newspaper was badly in need of a change. In Mr Raines's hands, this meant putting enormous pressure on getting the impossible story. The paper had also been making an effort to diversify the racial mix of its employees, a goal that Mr Raines endorsed. Both objectives converged in the career of Jayson Blair, whose talent as a writer was matched by his dishonesty as a reporter. His career was advanced by Mr Raines despite the trail of errors and suspect scoops (独家新闻) that he left.
After the Blair disaster, a painful self-examination began at the New York Times which continues today. Among other things, a kind of devil's advocate was hired to criticise the paper's workings, and to go public about its contradictions. Daniel Okrent's column is one of the newspaper's more provocative, addressing its left-of-centre world view and its use of outside sources to provide false objectivity for its own conclusions. Perhaps the result of all this will be the change that Mr Sulzberger was seeking.
21. Jason Blair was hired by the New York Times, because he .
［A］ he proved to be a good reporter in getting some hot stories
［B］ he was a long time favorite reporter of Mr Raines'
［C］ he promised to boost the circulation of the newspaper
［D］ he was talented and racially correct at the right time
22. Mr Raines' career was destroyed because he .
［A］ failed to notify his publisher of the change of the editorial policy
［B］ was held responsible for allowing unfounded stories to be published
［C］ supported a young reporter in making up unfounded stories
［D］ took no action when the reputation of the newspaper was questioned
23. Mr Raines was made executive editor of the newspaper because .
［A］ he promised to enhance the competiveness of the newspaper
［B］ he had run the bureau in DC and the editorial section of the newspaper
［C］ Mr Sulzerberger believed that he could reshape the newspaper
［D］ he knew how to spur his reporters and get hot stories done
24. The author thinks Daniel Okrent .
［A］ never hesitates to expose the contradictions of the newspaper
［B］ always supports his conclusions with his own investigations
［C］ is critical of the management of the newspaper
［D］ fails to offer a balanced view on the subject he addresses
25. The expression "the impossible story" (Line 4, Para. 4) most probably means .
［A］ a news report of unusual proportions［B］ an unfounded news report
［C］ a report completed with difficulty ［D］ a news story aiming at making a stir
For the generation that grew up during the feminist revolution and the rapid social change of the 1960s and 1970s, it at first seemed achievement enough just to "make it" in a man's world. But coupled with their ambition, today's women have developed a fierce determination to find new options for being both parent and professional without sacrificing too much to either role or burning themselves out beyond redemption.
Women have done all of the accommodating in terms of time, energy, and personal sacrifice that is humanly possible, and still they have not reached true integration in the workplace. For a complicated set of reasons-many beyond their control-they feel conflict between their careers and their children. All but a rare few quickly dispel the myth that superwomen ever existed.
For many women, profession and family are pitted against one another on a high-stakes collision course. Women's values are stacked against the traditions of their professions. In the home, men and women struggle to figure out how dual-career marriages should work. Role conflict for women reaches far beyond the fundamental work/family dilemma to encompass a whole constellation of fiercely competing priorities. Women today find themselves in an intense battle with a society that cannot let go of a narrowly defined work ethic that is supported by a family structure that has not existed for decades. The unspoken assumption persists that there is still a woman at home to raise the children and manage the household. But the economic reality is that most people, whether in two-parent or single-parent families, need to work throughout their adult lives. As a consequence, the majority of today's mothers are in the labor market.
The first full-fledged generation of women in the professions did not talk about their overbooked agenda or the toll it took on them and their families. They knew that their position in the office was shaky at best. With virtually no choice in the matter, they bought into the traditional notion of success in the workplace-usually attained at the high cost of giving up an involved family life. If they suffered self-doubt or frustration about how hollow professional success felt without complementary rewards from the home, they blamed themselves-either for expecting too much or for doing too little. And they asked themselves questions that held no easy answers: Am I expecting too much? Is it me? Am I alone in this dilemma? Do other women truly have it all?
26. According to the passage, today's women .
［A］ want to achieve a balance between her loyalties to work and family
［B］ are stronger advocates of gender equality than the older generation
［C］ do not want to sacrifice anything at all for the desired liberation
［D］ are getting no nearer to achieving their ambition in life
27. What is the myth held by some "superwomen"?
［A］ Personal careers can be reconciled with parental responsibilities.
［B］ The devotion to career weighs more than the regard for children.
［C］ They can resist the temptation of ambition to make great achievements
［D］ The conflicts between careers and children can be resolved.
28. In what way do women today find themselves in an intense battle with the society?
［A］ The society regards women as less able to perform social tasks.
［B］ Women do too much about their career and too little about their families.
［C］ The society still holds the traditional image about a family.
［D］ Women no longer regard the family as a basic unit of the society.
29. When women fail to achieve a balance between work and children, they .
［A］ let things go their own courses［B］ admit that they are not superwomen
［C］ usually choose to give up their work［D］ often blame themselves for it
30. The author's attitude towards women dilemma seems to be one of .
The entrepreneur, according to French economist J. B. Say, "is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield." But Say's definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and non-monetary rewards.
The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonald's. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fast-food chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.
Many of the sharp, black-and-white contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faced to a gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive, or market oriented. They were "above" the market-driven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the independent individuals of society. They were risk-takers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more price-conscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents, and competencies; Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses (e. g. consulting and law) to serve clients.
Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors. Searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. Many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonald's is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.
31. According to the passage, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?
［A］ A person knowing how to run his business.
［B］ The owner of a profitable restaurant.
［C］ An innovative business starter.
［D］ A person who disregards business risks.
32. "Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common" probably means .
［A］ there wasn't much difference between entrepreneurs and professionals
［B］ entrepreneurs in the past seemed to were live in an isolated world
［C］ both entrepreneurs and professionals were workaholic in the past
［D］ entrepreneurs were those professionals conscious of risks
33. From the passage, we learn that .
［A］ an entrepreneur always has the courage to take risks
［B］ an entrepreneur understand the market is fluctuating
［C］ opportunities never favor those who don't understand the market
［D］ an entrepreneur is sensitive and responsive to the market
34. The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to .
［A］ complete the definition of entrepreneur
［B］ explain the main characteristics of entrepreneurs
［C］ show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs
［D］ illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur
35. What will most possibly follow the text?
［A］ An example of how an entrepreneur operates.
［B］ Another theory about entrepreneurship.
［C］ The bad effects of entrepreneurs.
［D］ The good effects of entrepreneurs.
If there is one thing scientists have to hear, it is that the game is over. Raised on the belief of an endless voyage of discovery, they recoil (畏缩) from the suggestion that most of the best things have already been located. If they have, today's scientists can hope to contribute no more than a few grace notes to the symphony of science.
A book to be published in Britain this week, The End of Science, argues persuasively that this is the case. Its author, John Horgan, is a senior writer for Scientific American magazine, who has interviewed many of today's leading scientists and science philosophers. The shock of realizing that science might be over came to him, he says, when he was talking to Oxford mathematician and physicist Sir Roger Penrose.
The End of Science provoked a wave of denunciation in the United States last year. "The reaction has been one of complete shock and disbelief," Mr. Horgan says.
The real question is whether any remaining unsolved problems, of which there are plenty, lend themselves to universal solutions. If they do not, then the focus of scientific discovery is already narrowing. Since the triumphs of the 1960s-the genetic code, plate tectonics (板块构造说), and the microwave background radiation that went a long way towards proving the Big Bang-genuine scientific revolutions have been scarce. More scientists are now alive, spending more money on research than ever. Yet most of the great discoveries of the 19th and 20th centuries were made before the appearance of state sponsorship, when the scientific enterprise was a fraction of its present size.
Were the scientists who made these discoveries brighter than today's? That seems unlikely. A far more reasonable explanation is that fundamental science has already entered a period of diminished returns. "Look, don't get me wrong," says Mr. Horgan. "There are lots of important things still to study, and applied science and engineering can go on for ever. I hope we get a cure for cancer, and for mental disease, though there are few real signs of progress. "
36. By saying that "most of the best things have already been located", the author means .
［A］ man now enjoys most of the best things that life can offer
［B］ man has discovered most of the great treasures in the world
［C］ so many discoveries are waiting to made by man
［D］ we should not expect to see many genuine scientific revolutions
37. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
［A］ John Horgan is shocked by the reaction to The End of Science.
［B］ The End of Science becomes a target of criticisms in the United States.
［C］ There are many unresolved problems in the world.
［D］ The discovery of the genetic code is hailed as a revolutionary discovery.
38. Genuine scientific revolutions in the past few decades are scare because .
［A］ there have been decreased returns in the research of fundamental science
［B］ there are too many important things for scientists to study
［C］ applied science and engineering take up too much time and energy
［D］ scientists in our times are not as intelligent as those in the past
39. The term "the scientific enterprise" (Line 8, Para. 4) probably refers to .
［A］ enterprises funded or supported by scientists
［B］ any undertaking initiated by scientists
［C］ the industriousness that scientists demonstrate
［D］ the number of scientists all over the world
40. Which of the following statements may be TRUE of the passage?
［A］ Great scientific discoveries will never be possible.
［B］ Scientists have to be ready for the challenge in our times
［C］ State sponsorship is not necessary to facilitate scientific discoveries.
［D］ Chances for great scientific discoveries have become scarce.
You are going to read a text about the tips on marketing success, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1.
Philip Kotler is the S. C. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Amongst his many books is Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, the most widely used marketing book in graduate business schools worldwide.
In his interview with CNN, Professor Kotler offers his top tips for marketing success.
Look at what you are doing now
"Start by looking at the marketing activities you use and the marketing skills you have. You are probably doing a lot of the right things already. However, you should: 1) research what your market wants; 2) decide on your objectives, identify and choose your target customer groups and position your business to serve your chosen market profitably; 3) put the plan to work through selling and promoting your products and services to customers, through pricing and using appropriate distributors and agents effectively; and, finally, 4) monitor the effectiveness of your marketing activities in terms of customer satisfaction and the impact on your bottom line."
(41) Come in under the radar
Building a brand is a roll-out process, not a drop everywhere in the world at one time.
(42) Know your customer
"There are still too many CEOs who identify marketing with selling and advertising. But marketing has evolved to be not only product centered but customer centered. We are saying you've got to understand and choose the customers you want to serve. Don't just go after everyone. Define the target market carefully through segmentation and then really position yourself as different and as superior to that target market. Don't go into that target market if you-re not superior.
(43) Own your branding
"We are not in a state of competition anymore; we-re in a state of hyper-competition. So people are desperately looking for handles-functional features, emotional appeals-that will draw people to their product.
(44) Stay ahead of the competition
"The worst thing is that if something works, your competitors are going to clone it and before you know it anything that you had as a differentiator is imitated by the others. So you're in the business of constant innovation. Constantly asking yourself, three years from now, what will our differentiator be?
(45) Make it an experience
"There's a big movement to say, we're not just adding services to our business and our product, we're actually trying to design an experience. You'll see that language being used. We're in the experience design business."
Mr Kotler concluded, "Every person, every organization, every place, every celebrity is going to be known in some fashion. Now you can manage that or you can leave it to chance. I don't know of any sector that is not involved in marketing whether they call it that or something else.
［A］ An increasing number of business schools are teaching marketing communications using an IMC-oriented textbook. First, this prepares the student to understand the role of different communication vehicles. Second, it makes the point that the company's brand and customer message must be communicated consistently through all media. Thus, if a company wants to be known for its high quality, it has to produce high quality and communicate high quality in all of its messages. "
［B］ We are trying to make the case that it's much more important for a company to be customer-centric than product-centric. The same customer you have for product X may be available for product Y and Z and so on. And you won't know that if you have separate product managers, each only concerned with selling his or her product. "
［C］ We should think of owning a word or a phrase that helps to build customer retention and loyalty. Look at how we buy the Mercedes because it's the best engineered car. We buy a BMW because it's the best driving performance. We buy the Volvo because it's the safest automobile. A lot of these companies lose that edge too, but they don't lose the impression. "
［D］ "I had the CEO of a large company approach me and ask me to sign a copy of my book, which I always do, but this was a first edition from 1967. I looked at the book and I said I won't sign it. 'Why not?' he asked. I said, that book is from before there was the Internet. It has very little on branding, so I think it's useless. At which point he said to me, 'Are you trying to sell me a new copy?'And I said, 'Yes, but it's not for my benefit-I don't need the money.' Markets change, so marketing has to change."
［E］ Do you know what the best selling imported beer is in the United States? It's Corona. Who would expect a beer from Mexico to be popular? The fact is it's a terrific beer. But they didn't just come to the U.S. and put it everywhere. They went to the cities with a Mexican population-Los Angeles, Chicago, New York -and then they put it in restaurants and stores there. The key to brand-building is to have something good that you roll-out in a very intelligent way. Maybe even invisibly for a while because you want to be under the radar screen of competitors. "
［F］ Starbucks is a very good example where coffee is coffee but they decided to sell it differently, put a higher price, make it good-tasting and make it an experience rather than just some coffee. In fact, I've heard that if Starbucks closed its shops, a lot of people would go crazy. They are in such a habit of going to the Starbucks before work, taking the coffee, and they'd become desperate otherwise. "
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on Answer Sheet 2. (10 points)
Every year college enrolment time in China brings many controversies and stories. Rising tuition fees, the chances of poverty-stricken students entering colleges, enrolment corruption, regional equality of enrolment, curriculum reforms-all are themes of vigorous public debate. A topic of hot debate is the regional equality of the country's college enrolment.
(46) China's colleges are mostly publicly invested, with some key national universities, such as Peking University and Tsinghua University, financed by the central government, with the others mainly funded by local governments. The Ministry of Education sets quotas for these key colleges and universities concerning how many students they should enroll from different regions. They are entitled to make small adjustments to the quota plan.
(47) The issue of regional equality arises from the fact that many of the high-quality national universities financed by the central government admit a large proportion of students from where they are located, putting applicants from other regions at a "disadvantage."
Some people argue that since these national universities are financed by the central government funds, or taxation paid by people from all regions, they should not favour local candidates. By not doing so, they are damaging educational equality. (48) Proponents of the differentiated enrolment policy argue that these universities have received various policy supports from local governments and it is justifiable for them to offer preferential terms to local applicants. Both arguments hold water, since this is a complicated question with no easy answers.
It is a practice in many countries to favour, to a varied extent, local candidates in the enrolment programmes of colleges and universities. In China's case, these top national universities are mostly located in economically prosperous regions, where local taxpayers contribute relatively more to the central government's revenues.
On the other hand, since the country's college enrolment is mainly based on the marks applicants achieve in the national examinations, the region-based selective enrolment policy would lead to the scenario that some students with lesser marks can enter the top universities while others who get higher marks cannot.
(49) Admittedly, given China's unbalanced educational levels among different regions, the enrolment of a top national university cannot be equally split among different regions if it is to pick the best students. But an excessive preferential policy does not contribute to equality, either.
(50) A long-term solution would lie in the improvement of China's overall higher education system, in which more colleges and universities can offer quality services and compete with those top national ones. In this way, students would have more choices and educational equality would be better achieved.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Write a letter to a professor indicating that you wish to pursue your postgraduate study under his supervision. Your letter should include:
1) a brief introduction to your academic background;
2) the reasons why you wish to study under him;
3) your wish to get a reply from the professor.
Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on Answer Sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should first describe the drawing, interpret its meaning, and give your comment on it.
You should write neatly on Answer Sheet 2. (20 points)
19. ［答案］ A名词辨析。A）acquisition意为 "获得"语言习得；B）appreciation意为"欣赏,感激"；C）requirement意为"要求"；D）alternative意为"抉择；选择余地"。本句中的"this"和"even more basic"分别指代上句的"interaction with other human beings"和"necessary",此处所填词对应上文中的language development。也就是说,language acquisition语言习得。故A正确。
I am writing in the hope that I may obtain an opportunity to further my study in Applied Physics toward Master's degree under your supervision.
My name is Li Ming, an undergraduate student of the Department of Applied Physics, Fudan University. Next summer, I will graduate with my BS degree. I've long taken a strong interest in applied physics and I wish to continue my study and research in this field. I've been doing pretty well in the three years since I came to Fudan University. More importantly, I believe I'll be able to benefit from your instructions if I am lucky enough to study under you.
Enclosed in this letter are a transcript of my grades and two letters of recommendation from my two professors, which will testify my academic background.
I will be very grateful if you can write back soon. My mailing address is shown on the top of this letter.
Let's Save Our Natural Resources
What is depicted in the cartoon is not an uncommon phenomenon: the public tap is running non-stop and a man is about to fetch some water for his own use. Clearly the man has not the least intention of turning off the tap to save water. He seems to be enjoying the running of the water. The drawing reveals the wasteful disposition in some people.
We know that the world is faced with a great resource crisis. Time and again we read in papers about shortage of water, energy, grain, etc. With a huge population, China, in particular, is under even great pressure of natural resources. Statistics show that half of the population in China suffers from water shortage. The guy in the picture should be ashamed of himself, for he is wasting a precious resource. Water means life to people in drought-stricken areas.
Now our country is striving for building an economical society, which calls on everyone to do his or her share to save the limited resources we have. Maybe we can begin with a good habit of switching off the light when we leave, and turning off the tap after using it. Let's save our natural resources.