Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.( 10 points )
Some call it the Smart Shooter, a new rifle for American infantry troops that is two weapons in one, is accurate up to 1,000 yards and in 1 fires 2 corners. Its message to enemies is that they can run but they can't hide.
Still in the development phase, the rifle for 2006 has just been 3 off with great 4 by the Pentagon to members of Congress who will be asked to 5 the money. The makers, Alliant Techsystems, say that the weapon will revolutionize 6 combat much as the machine gun.
Pentagon jargon has given the new gun a(an) 7 title: the Objective Individual Combat Weapon. 8 one trigger, the rifle can fire a standard 5-56mm Nato bullet and a 20mm high explosive shell that will burst in the air. It can 9 shrapnel behind, 10 or even from the side of enemy troops who have taken 11 behind a building. The shell can be 12 to explode after a short delay. The weapon's 1,000 yard accuracy is twice 13 of other rifles, made possible by a laser system built into the sight. This rangefinder fixes the target, measures the distance and passes it along to a computer chip in the shell.
The gunsight has an infrared lens for night 14. It can also have video camera with a zoom lens that is linked to a video display attached to the soldier's helmet, allowing him to aim 15 without exposing himself to enemy return fire. But there are snags still be 16 out. Two men were 17 when a shell burst in a barrel during firing tests. The rifle weighs more than 181b. There are questions whether its electronic innards will be rugged enough for rain, snow and difficult 18.
Michael Klare, a professor of peace and world security issues and a board member of the Arms Control Association, says that the Pentagon is seeking this combination of firepower and automation to compensate for the uncertain aim of GIs. He said: "Soldiers won't have to worry about careful steady aim. They'll just look 19 the viewfinder and 20 the trigger."
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(40 points)
It is all very well to blame traffic jams, the cost of petrol and the quick pace of modern life, but manners on the roads are becoming horrible. Everybody knows that the nicest men become monsters behind the wheel. It is all very well, again, to have a tiger in the tank, but to have one in the driver's seat is another matter altogether. You might tolerate the odd road-hog, the rude and inconsiderate drive, but nowadays the well men neared motorist is the exception to the rule. Perhaps the situation calls for a "Be kind to Other Drivers" campaign, otherwise it may get completely out of hand.
Road politeness is not only good manners, but good sense too. It takes the most cool-headed and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to revenge when subjected to uncivilized behavior. On the other hand, a little politeness goes along way towards relieving the tensions of motoring. A friendly nod or a wave of acknowledgement in response to an act of politeness helps to create an atmosphere of goodwill and tolerance so necessary in modern traffic conditions. But such acknowledgements of politeness are all too rare today. Many drivers nowadays don't even seem able to recognize politeness when they see it.
However, misplaced politeness can also be dangerous. Typical examples are the driver who brakes violently to allow a car to emerge from a side street at some hazard to following traffic, when a few seconds later the road would be clear anyway; or the man who waves a child across a zebra crossing into the path of oncoming vehicles that may be unable to stop in time. The same goes for encouraging old ladies to cross the road wherever and whenever they care to. It always amazes me that the highways are not covered with the dead bodies of these grannies.
A veteran driver, whose manners are faultless, told me it would help if motorists learnt to filter correctly into traffic streams one at a time without causing the total blockages that give rise to bad temper. Unfortunately, modern motorists can't even learn to drive, let alone master the subtler aspects of boatmanship. Years ago the experts warned us that the car-ownership explosion would demand a lot more give and take from all road users. It is high time for all of us to take this message to heart.
21According to the first paragraph, which of the following reflects the situation on the roads?
ATraffic Jams are mainly caused by the cost of petrol and the quick pace of modern life.
BThe manners of the drivers are the only reason for the traffic jams.
C"Be kind to other drivers" is a campaign to change the rude drive.
DPeople can not tolerate good manners on the road.
22The author argues that road politeness .
Acan better the traffic unconditionally
Bcalls for a driver's cool-headed and good-tempered personality
Ccan be found after the modern traffic conditions stand up
Dare acknowledged by most drivers
23Which of the following does NOT illustrate misplaced politeness?
AEncouraging old ladies to cross the road at any time they want.
BBraking suddenly to allow a car to emerge from a side street.
CA motorist driving into traffic streams without considering others.
DWaving a child across a zebra crossing into the path of oncoming vehicles.
24According to the experts, facing the car-ownership explosion, we should .
Abe more considerate yield to each other
Bcommunicate with each other more often
Chave a cool head and good temper来源：www.examda.com
Davoid misplaced politeness
25The author's attitude towards road politeness seems to be .
In the warm enclosed waters of farm ponds, conditions are very likely to be lethal for fish when insecticides are applied in the vicinity. As many examples show, the poison is carried in by rains and runoff from surrounding lands. Sometimes the ponds receive not only contaminated runoff but also a direct dose as rop dusting pilots neglect to shut off the duster in passing over a pond. Even without such complications, normal agricultural use subjects fish to far heavier concentrations of chemicals than would be require to kill them. In other words a marked reduction in the enclosure nets used would hardly change the lethal situation, for applications of over 0.1 pound per acre to the pond itself are generally considered hazardous. And the poison, once introduced is hard to get rid of. One pond that has been treated with DDT (杀虫剂) to remove unwanted shiners remained poisonous through repeated drainings and flushings that it killed 94 percent of the sun fish with which it was later stocked. Apparently the chemical remained in the mud of the pond bottom.
Conditions are evidently no better now than when the modern insecticides first came into use. The Oklahoma Wildlife Conservation Department stated in 1961 that reports of fish losses in farm ponds and small lakes had been coming in at the rate of at least one a week, and that such reports were increasing. The conditions usually responsible for these losses in Oklahoma were those made familiar by repetition over the years: the application of insecticides to crops, heavy rain, and poison washed into the ponds.
In some parts of the world the cultivation of fish in ponds provides an in dispensable source of food. In such places the use of insecticides without regard for the effects of fish creates immediate problems. In Rhodesia, for example, the young of an important African food fish are killed by exposure to only 0.04 parts per million of DDT in shallow pools. Even smaller doses of many other insecticides would be lethal. The shallow waters in which these fish live are favorable mosquito-breeding places. The problem of controlling mosquitoes and at the same time conserving a fish important in the Central African diet has obviously not been solved satisfactorily.
26.The author's tone in this passage can be best described as .
27.According to the passage, the one factor that is not responsible for the presence of insecticides in ponds is .
Athe weather bringing in rains
Bhuman error in crop-dusting
Ccommon farming methods
Dindustrialization use of chemicals
28.The author uses the case of the Rhodesian fish in order to .
Ashow the harmful effects of killing fish
Bprove that problems are the same everywhere
Cshow that fish is an indispensable source in diet
Dconsider the problem of controlling mosquitoes
29. In this passage, what the author does not do is .
Astate a problemBgive examples
Cpropose a solutionDrelate causes
30.The last sentence of this passage means that .
Ayou can not control mosquitoes if you want to conserve an important fish
Byou can not conserve an important fish if you want to control mosquitoes
Cthe Central Africans will have no fish to eat if this fish can't be protected properly
Dit is not so easy and satisfactory to solve these two problems at the same time
The term "joint international business venture", joint venture for short, has come to mean many things to many people. It sometimes is taken to mean any joint relationship between one or more foreign firms and one or more local firms. Such a broad definition is excluded here. Joint venture will be taken to mean joint ownership of an operation in which at least one of the partners is foreign based.
Joint ventures can take many forms. A foreign firm may take a majority share, a minority share, or an equal share in ownership. While it is not necessary to have financial control or to have operating control, some firms refuse to use the joint venture form if it is not possible to have a majority position in ownership. There are firms that have few qualms about holding minority position, however, so long as they can have operating control. They achieve this through technical-aid, management, or supply contracts.
It should be recognized that maintaining operating control is sometimes difficult if one does not have financial control too. Objectives of the participants may diverge; when they do,financial control becomes important. Management may wish to reinvest earnings while the majority of the board may wish earnings distributed as dividends. Unless policy issues of this kind can be settled amicably, lack of financial control can prove to be very unsatisfactory, if not fatal.
Many joint ventures emerge as matters of necessity: that is, no single firm is willing to assume the risks entailed, while a consortium of firms is. Large, capital-intensive, long-lived investments are natural candidates for the joint venture. Exploitation of resource deposits often is done by a consortium of several petroleum or mining firms. Roles are parceled out even though each phase of the operation is owned jointly. One firm does the actual mining, another provides transportation, and still another does the refining and extraction. There is a wide variety of combinations.
Also the joint venture can pose problems, especially if it is an enforced marriage of partners. For many ventures in small countries, it is difficult to find a suitable local partner, that is, one with sufficient capital and know how to be able to contribute to the partnership. In some developing countries, a small handful of families control the entire locally-owned part of the industrial structure. Under these circumstances, a joint venture merely insulates them further from independent, foreign-owned plants that would compete against them. For this and other reasons, the only suitable partner may end up being the government itself. Most multinational firms, however, shy away from such arrangements where possible.
31The phrase "joint venture" mentioned in the first paragraph refers to .
A.any joint relationship between one foreign firm and one local firm
B.any joint relationship between foreign firms
C.joint ownership of an operation in which at least one of the partners is foreign based
D.all of the above
32 The word "qualms" in the second paragraph may have the equal meaning with .
33 According to the author, which of the following is most important?
A.Majority position.B.Operating control.
C.Financial control.D.Support of the government.
34 Which of the following is not the advantages of the joint venture?
A.It can assume more risks.
B.It may gather more capital.
C.Large and long-lived investment can be carried out.
D.The partners will make concerted efforts towards one target.
35 Which of the following is true according to the text?
A. A foreign firm often takes a majority share in a joint venture.
B.Lack of financial control may be fatal to a firm participating in joint venture.
C.Joint venture is very helpful to developing countries.
D.Government is the best partner in a joint venture.
In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide acts rather like a one-way mirror the glass in the roof of a greenhouse which allows the sun's rays to enter but prevents the heat from escaping.
According to a weather expert's prediction, the atmosphere will be 3°C warmer in the year 2050 than it is today, if man continues to burn fuels at the present rate. If this warming up took place, the ice caps in the poles would begin to melt, thus raising sea level several metres and severely flooding coastal cities. Also, the increase in atmospheric temperature would lead to great changes in the climate of the northern hemisphere, possibly resulting in an alteration of the earth's chief food-growing zones.
In the past, concern about a man-made warming of the earth has concentrated on the Arctic because the Antarctic is much colder and has a much thicker ice sheet. But the weather experts are now paying more attention to West Antarctic, which may be affected by only a few degrees of warming: in other words, by a warming on the scale that will possibly take place in the next fifty years from the burning of fuels.
Satellite pictures show that large areas of Antarctic ice are already disappearing. The evidence available suggests that a warming has taken place. This fits the theory that carbon dioxide warms the earth.
However, most of the fuel is burnt in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures seem to be falling. Scientists conclude, therefore, that up to now natural influences on the weather have exceeded those caused by man. The question is: Which natural cause has most effect on the weather?
One possibility is the variable behavior of the sun. Astronomers at one research station have studied the hot spots and cold spots (that is, the relatively less hot spots) on the sun.As the sun rotates, every 27.5 days, it presents hotter or 'colder' faces to the earth, and different aspects to different parts of the earth. This seems to have a considerable effect on the distribution of the earth's atmospheric pressure, and consequently on wind circulation. The sun is also variable over a long term: its heat output goes up and down in cycles, the latest trend being downward.
Scientists are now finding mutual relations between models of solar-weather interactions and the actual climate over many thousands of years, including the last Ice Age. The problem is that the models are predicting that the world should be entering a new Ice Age and it is not. One way of solving this theoretical difficulty is to assume a delay of thousands of years while the solar effects overcome the inertia(惯性)of the earth's climate. If this is right, the warming effect of carbon dioxide might thus be serving as a useful counter-balance to the sun's diminishing heat.
36.It can be concluded that a concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would .
A.prevent the sun's rays from reaching the earth's surface
B.mean a warming up in the Antarctic
C.account for great changes in the climate in the northern hemisphere
D.raise the temperature of the earth's surface
37.The article was written to explain .
A.the greenhouse effect
B.the solar effects on the earth
C.the models of solar-weather interactions来源：www.examda.com
D.the causes affecting weather
38.Although the fuel consumption is greater in the northern hemisphere, temperatures there seem to be falling. This is .
A.mainly because the levels of carbon dioxide are rising
B.possibly because the ice caps in the poles are melting
C.exclusively due to the effect of the inertia of the earth's climate
D.partly due to variations in the output of solar energy
39.On the basis of their models, scientists are of the opinion that .
A.the climate of the world should be becoming cooler
B.it will take thousands of years for the inertia of the earth's climate to take effect
C.the man-made warming effect helps to increase the solar effects
D.the new Ice Age will be delayed by the greenhouse effect
40.If the assumption about the delay of a new Ice Age is correct, .
A.the best way to overcome the cooling effect would be to burn more fuels
B.ice would soon cover the northern hemisphere
C.the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could warm up the earth even more quickly
D.the greenhouse effect could work to the advantage of the earth
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.
I remember one night a few years ago when my daughter was frantic with worry. After my Harvard Extension School classes, I usually arrived at the bus station near my home by 11 p.m., but on that night I was nowhere to be found. My daughter was nervous. It wasn't safe for a single woman to walk alone on the streets at night, especially one as defenseless as I am: I can slay a mugger with my sharp wit, but I m just too short to do any real physical damage.
That night my daughter checked the bus station, drove around the streets, and contacted some friends. But she couldn't find me - until she called my astronomy professor who told her that I was on top of the Science Center using the telescope to gaze at the stars. Unaware of the time, I had gotten lost in the heavens and was only thinking about the new things I had learned that night in class.
This story illustrates a habit I have developed over the years: I lose track of the time when it comes to learning. 41)___________________________.I may have started late, but I will continue to learn as long as I am able because there is no greater feeling, in my opinion, than traveling to a faraway country as I have and being able to identify by sight the painting of a famous artist, the statue of an obscure sculptor, the cathedral of an ancient architect. 42)_________________________________________. So I will continue to take classes and tell my story.
Lately it seems that everyone is asking me, "Mary, what advice do you have for other students?" So while I have you all here, I m going to ease my burden of answering you each individually:
43)______________________________________________________________.So listen to me when I tell you this: Knowledge is power.
My studies were interrupted when I was in the 7th grade, back sometime around World War I. I loved school but I was forced to leave it to care for my family. I was consigned to work in a Rhode Island cotton mill, where I labored for many years. I eventually married and raised 5 children, 20 grandchildren, and 18 great-grandchildren. But all the while I felt inferior to those around me. I knew I was as smart as a college graduate. I knew I was capable of doing a job well -- I had proved it by running a successful family business for decades that still exists. But I wanted more. I wanted to feel confident when I spoke and I wanted people to respect my opinions.
Does it surprise you to discover how much you have in common with an 89-year-old woman? 44)_____________________________________________________.
45)____________________________________________________.That belief is what has motivated me for the last 75 years to get this degree. It is also the mission of the Harvard Extension School. Without the support I received from this school, I might not have graduated until I was 100 -- a phrase that many of you have probably used in jest.
[A]If the saying is true that wisdom comes with age, you may safely assume that I am one of the wisest people in this hall and possibly at this university today.
[B]I know that many of you graduates today, whether you were born in 1907 or 1967, have faced similar barriers to completing your studies and have sometimes felt inferior around those you work or socialize with just because you didn't have a degree.
[C]If you have treated education as your main goal, and not as a means to an end, then you, too, have probably been claimed as a missing person once in your academic career, whether you were lost in the stars or the stacks of Widener Library.
[D]But I am here today -- like you are -- to prove that it can be done; that the power gained by understanding and appreciating the world around us can be obtained by anyone regardless of social status, personal challenges, or age.
[E]How else do you explain a woman who began high school at age 71 and who is graduating with a bachelor s degree at 89?
[F]And you, too, know that the journey was worth it, and that the power of knowledge makes me the most formidable 89-year-old woman at the bus stop.
[G]I have found that the world is a final exam that you can never be prepared enough for.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on the Answer Sheet 2.(10 points)
The chief US negotiator, Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky, described the deal as "profoundly important", "absolutely comprehensive" and an excellent one for American business.
46)At a meeting with Ms. Barshefsky yesterday afternoon, president Jiang Zemin called the deal as "good, historic and realistic", and a win-win for both sides, which showed that both countries saw the issue from a strategic viewpoint.
47)China's entry into the WTO will have profound ramifications (分支、分派) for the country. Binding her to international trading rules and encouraging foreign firms to invest by providing a system less based on rule by the idiosyncrasies (特性) of an official and more on transparent laws and regulations.
48)It will accelerate a process of closing money-losing and over-manned state companies and moving labor and capital into market-driven businesses. In the short term, it will drive up unemployment as inefficient, capital-intensive state industries shed labor and shut down.
It also marks a vital political victory for Prime Minister Zhu Rongji, the main proponent, along with Mr. Jiang, of China's membership, who offered a similar deal in Washington in April.
The NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, froze negotiations from May until September.
49)For Mr. Zhu, WTO membership will serve as a motor for reform of state companies, banking, insurance, securities and other industries.
At a news conference just before she left China, Ms. Barshefsky said the support of the two presidents had been crucial. Presidents Bill Clinton and Jiang Zemin met in Auckland and agreed to put the talks back on track, with a deadline of the next round of WTO talks that will begin in Seattle on November 30.
Ms. Barshefsky, full of energy despite the six-day marathon, presented the agreement's main details. Overall tariffs will fall to an average of about 17 per cent and on farm goods to 14.5 per cent or 15 per cent, while China will make significant liberalization on importing such goods, especially wheat, corn, cotton and other bulk commodities.
50)China will eliminate non-tariff quotas within five years, some in two to three years. It will cut tariffs on imported cars from the current 80-100 per cent to 25 per cent by 2006 and allow foreign financial institutions to finance the purchase of cars.
Section Ⅲ Writing
You are supposed to be a secretary who is going to notify the staff of a short tour at the weekend organized by the company. The memo should include:
1)a brief introduction to the tour site or activities to take
2)time and place to get together
3)items to bring and something to note
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name in the memo. Use "Jane Green" instead. (10 points)
Please write an essay on the topic "Internet, Society and Our Lives".
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
21C文章第一段末句。选项A片面，文章第一段第一句表明快节奏的现代生活只是原因之一。选项B片面，选项D没有正确理解第一段第四句"You might tolerate…to the rule"该句表明彬彬有礼的司机目前并不常见。
22B文章第二段第二句"It takes the most cool-headed and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to revenge when subjected to uncivilized behavior."在遇到不文明的行为时，司机需要头脑冷静，心境平和，才不致于以粗暴还粗暴。而A项的"道路礼貌不论何时都能有助缓和交通状况"则是片面的，文中第三段就讲到了滥用礼貌的危险。C项颠倒了方法与结果，只有具备了礼貌才能建立起文明的现代交通状况，而不是相反。D项错误，并非大多数司机都能遵循道路礼貌原则。
24A文章第四段第三句"Years ago the experts warned us that the car-ownership explosion would demand a lot more give-and-take from all road users."该句表明，专家警告我们面对汽车的爆炸式增长，司机更应当互相体谅。选项B、C、D专家并没有提到。
33C从第二段的"There are firms that have few qualms about holding minority position, however, so long as they can have operating control"可见"operating control"比"minority position"重要，而下一段又进一步指出"maintaining operating control is sometimes difficult if one does not have financial control too"可见"financial control"最重要。
34D选项A、B、C从原文中都可找到，而D合伙者会齐心协力朝同一目标前进，是不对的，因为文中第三段指出"objectives of the participants may diverge."
35B选项A可由"A foreign firm may take a majority share, or an equal share in ownership"否定。B是正确的，由第三段最后一句可以看出。由最后一段的举例可知，在有些发展中国家里，办合资公司并不合适，因此C不正确。最后一段中"For this and other reasons, the only suitable partner may end up being the government itself"，并不是说政府是最佳合作伙伴，而是说根本没有其他的合作者，只有自己来管理经营，这从最后一句也可看出，因此D也是错误的。
36D根据文章第一段的最后一句话"carbon dioxide…prevents the heat from escaping"，及第四段最后两句话，"The evidence available suggests that a warming has taken place.This fits the theory that carbon dioxide warms the earth"。A选项内容与文章内容相反（见文章的第一段第一句）；B的内容不准确；C的内容与原文所说正相反，carbon dioxide会使大气温度上升，但事实上气温却在降低，所以是无法用carbon dioxide来解释北半球气温变化的。因此，本题的正确答案是D.
38D北半球的carbon dioxide的浓度较高，按理说这半球的温度更高才对，但是情况正相反，说明有carbon dioxide以外的其他因素也影响大气温度的变化。作者在第六段末尾指出：its heat output goes up and down in cycles, the latest trend being downward.在第七段作者又说，根据太阳天气交互作用模型现在应该是一个新的冰期时代的开始，但实际上又不是，说明大气中不断上升的carbon dioxide浓度又使得气温中不断消失的太阳热量得以平衡。因此，本题正确答案是D.A所导致的结果与原文所要探讨的正好相反；B与原文内容无关；C说的太绝对，如果果真如此的话，现在应该已进入新的Ice Age了！
39A根据文章的第七段的第二句话，"…that the models are predicting that the world should be entering a new Ice Age"，说明科学家认为气候应该变得更冷。因此本题目的正确答案是A.B所表达的内容与原文不符，C所表达的内容与原文正相反（counter-balance to the Sun's diminishing heat），D的内容与文章中论述models表明的情况无关。
The company is organizing a weekend tour to Yeshanpo. Yeshanpo is in Hebei Province. It's 3 hours from Beijing by bus. The company has already planned several activities, including riding a horse, visiting the limestone cave, and lighting campfire in the evening. We would stay in the native's and enjoy local dishes at their house the next day.
Everyone is welcome and encouraged to go. For those who would like to go, please meet at 8 o'clock in the morning, Saturday, at the gate of this building. We are planned to back to Beijing at 7 p.m. the next day.
The tour is at the company's expense. Bring thick clothes please. It's chilly in the evening.
Internet, society and our lives
There is increasing concern that those unable to use and access new technologies will be marginalized from all aspects of economic and social activity. Internet has become an essential and powerful influence on our everyday lives. However, if used improperly, Internet can put us at risks too.
The Internet is a wonderful source from which we can retrieve valuable information. Moreover, it facilitates our communication with people far away from us at a cost substantially less than that of traditional means of communication. Also, it can be an important building block to children's learning because vast amount of information is only clicks away. There is evidence suggesting that computer use is linked to slightly better academic performance.
However, we have sufficient evidence indicating that the Internet can be a harmful influence on people. For examples addictive power has increased children and youngsters' time spent in front of the computer screens at the expense of other healthier physical activities, thus increasing their chance of getting overweight and short-sighted. In addition, children have limited ability of telling right from wrong and therefore are subject to the potential contaminating influence of the harmful materials on the Internet.
In short, the negative influence of the internet should be minimized by diverting people's, especially young people's,interest to other areas of life. Like every other thing, Internet is like a coin that has two sides. We must realize its harmful potentials while making use of it to achieve a better and more meaningful life.