Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Aging poses a serious challenge to OECD (Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, in particular, how to pay for future public pension liabilities. And early retirement places an__1__burden on pension financing. There is no easy solution, but__2__retirement could help.
Early retirement may seem like a worthy individual goal, but it is a socially__3__one, and makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long. The__4__reason is that more people are retiring early and living longer. That means more retirees depending on the__5__of those in work for their income. The__6__is worrying. In the next 50 years, low fertility rates and__7__life expectancy in OECD countries will cause this old-age dependency rate to roughly double__8__size. Public pension payments, which afford 30-80% of total retirement incomes in OECD countries, are__9__to rise, on average, by over three percentage points in GDP and by as much as eight percentage points in some countries.__10__is the pressure on pension funds that there is a danger of today's workers not getting the pensions they expected or felt they__11__for.
Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost) of public pensions, or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system, though necessary steps, may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment, many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely, the thinking goes, if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down, then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
The author of some forty novels, a number of plays, volumes of verse, historical, critical and autobiographical works, an editor and translator, Jack Lindsay is clearly an extraordinarily prolific writer-a fact which can easily obscure his very real distinction in some of the areas into which he has ventured. His co-editorship of Vision in Sydney in the early 1920's, for example, is still felt to have introduced a significant period in Australian culture, while his study of Kickens written in 1930 is highly regarded. But of all his work it is probably the novel to which he has made his most significant contribution.
Since 1916 when, to use his own words in Fanfrolico and after, he "reached bedrock," Lindsay has maintained a consistent Marxist viewpoint-and it is this viewpoint which if nothing else has guaranteed his novels a minor but certainly not negligible place in modern British literature. Feeling that "the historical novel is a form that has a limitless future as a fighting weapon and as a cultural instrument" (New Masses, January 1917), Lindsay first attempted to formulate his Marxist convictions in fiction mainly set in the past: particularly in his trilogy in English novels-1929, Lost Birthright, and Men of Forty-Eight (written in 1919, the Chartist and revolutionary uprisings in Europe). Basically these works set out, with most success in the first volume, to vivify the historical traditions behind English Socialism and attempted to demonstrate that it stood, in Lindsay's words, for the "true completion of the national destiny."
Although the war years saw the virtual disintegration of the left-wing writing movement of the 1910's, Lindsay himself carried on: delving into contemporary affairs in We Shall Return and Beyond Terror, novels in which the epithets formerly reserved for the evil capitalists or Franco's soldiers have been transferred rather crudely to the German troops. After the war Lindsay continued to write mainly about the present-trying with varying degrees of success to come to terms with the unradical political realities of post-war England. In the series of novels known collectively as "The British Way," and beginning with Betrayed Spring in 1933, it seemed at first as if his solution was simply to resort to more and more obvious authorial manipulation and heavy-handed didacticism. Fortunately, however, from Revolt of the Sons, this process was reversed, as Lindsay began to show an increasing tendency to ignore party solutions, to fail indeed to give anything but the most elementary political consciousness to his characters, so that in his latest (and what appears to be his last) contemporary novel, Choice of Times, his hero, Colin, ends on a note of desperation: "Everything must be different, I can't live this way any longer. But how can I change it, how?" To his credit as an artist, Lindsay doesn't give him any explicit answer.
1.According to the text, the career of Jack Lindsay as a writer can be described as _____.
2.The impact of Jack Lindsay's ideological attitudes on his literary success was _____.
［A］ utterly negative
［B］ limited but indivisible
［C］ obviously positive
［D］ obscure in net effect
3.According to the second paragraph, Jack Lindsay firmly believes in.
［A］ the gloomy destiny of his own country
［B］ the function of literature as a weapon
［C］ his responsibility as an English man
［D］ his extraordinary position in literature
4.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that.
［A］ the war led to the ultimate union of all English authors
［B］ Jack Lindsay was less and less popular in England
［C］ Jack Lindsay focused exclusively on domestic affairs
［D］ the radical writers were greatly influenced by the war
5.According to the text, the speech at the end of the text.
［A］ demonstrates the author's own view of life
［B］ shows the popular view of Jack Lindsay
［C］ offers the author's opinion of Jack Lindsay
［D］ indicates Jack Lindsay's change of attitude
We're moving into another era, as the toxic effects of the bubble and its grave consequences spread through the financial system. Just a couple of years ago investors dreamed of 20 percent returns forever. Now surveys show that they're down to a "realistic"8 percent to 10 percent range.
But what if the next few years turn out to be below normal expectations? Martin Barners of the Bank Credit Analyst in Montreal expects future stock returns to average just 4 percent to 6 percent. Sound impossible? After a much smaller bubble that burst in the mid-1960s Standard & Poor's 5000 stock average returned 6.9 percent a year (with dividends reinvested) for the following 17 years. Few investors are prepared for that.
Right now denial seems to be the attitude of choice. That's typical, says Lori Lucas of Hewitt, the consulting firm. You hate to look at your investments when they're going down. Hewitt tracks 500,000 401 (k) accounts every day, and finds that savers are keeping their contributions up. But they're much less inclined to switch their money around. "It's the slot-machine effect," Lucas says. "People get more interested in playing when they think they've got a hot machine"-and nothing's hot today. The average investor feels overwhelmed.
Against all common sense, many savers still shut their eyes to the dangers of owning too much company stock. In big companies last year, a surprising 29 percent of employees held at least three quarters of their 402 (k) in their own stock.
Younger employees may have no choice. You often have to wait until you're 50 or 55 before you can sell any company stock you get as a matching contribution.
But instead of getting out when they can, old participants have been holding, too. One third of the people 60 and up chose company stock for three quarters of their plan, Hewitt reports. Are they inattentive? Loyal to a fault? Sick? It's as if Lucent, Enron and Xerox never happened.
No investor should give his or her total trust to any particular company's stock. And while you're at it, think how you'd be if future stock returns-averaging good years and bad-are as poor as Barnes predicts.
If you ask me, diversified stocks remain good for the long run, with a backup in bonds. But I, too, am figuring on reduced returns. What a shame. Dear bubble, I'll never forget. It's the end of a grand affair.
1.The investors' judgment of the present stock returns seems to be.
For many years, any discussion of reparations to compensate the descendants of African slaves for 246 years of bondage and another century of legalized discrimination was dismissed. Many whites and blacks alike scoffed at the idea, reasoning that slavery is part of the past that would only unleash new demons if it were resurrected.
Opponents contend that the fledgling reparations movement overlooks many important facts. First, they assert, reparations usually are paid to direct victims, as was the case when the US government apologized and paid compensation to Japanese-Americans interned during World War Ⅱ. Similarly, Holocaust (大屠杀) survivors have received payments from the Germans. In addition, not all blacks were slaves, and an estimated 3 000 were slave owners.
Also, many immigrants not only came to the United States after slavery ended, but they also faced discrimination. Should they pay reparations, too? Or should they receive them?
And regardless of how much slave labor contributed to the United States' wealth, opponents contend, blacks benefit from that wealth today. As a group, Afro-Americans are the best-educated, wealthiest blacks on the planet.
But that attitude is slowly changing. At least 10 cities, including Chicago, Detroit and Washington, have passed resolutions in the past two years urging federal hearings into the impact of slavery. Mainstream civil rights groups such as National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National Urban League and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference regularly raise the issue.
The surging interest in reparations parallels a heightened sensitivity to the horrors of slavery, in which as many as 6 million Africans perished in the journey to the Americas alone. There also is growing attention being paid to the huge economic bounty that slavery created for private companies and the country as a whole.
Earliest this year, Aetna Inc. apologized for selling insurance policies that compensated slave owners for financial losses when their slaves died. Last summer, the Hartford Courant in Connecticut printed a front-page apology for the profits it made from running ads for the sale of slaves and the capture of runaways. Next month, a new California law will require insurance companies to disclose any slave insurance policies they may have issued. The state also is requiring University of Californian officials to assemble a team of scholars to research the history of slavery and report how current California businesses benefited.
Proponents of reparations argue that, even for nearly a century after emancipation in 1865, blacks legally were still excluded from the opportunities that became the cornerstones for the white middle-class.
1.The reasons put forward by opponents of reparations include all the following EXCEPT that.
［A］ compensations usually go to direct victims
［B］ blacks who came after slavery ended should not receive compensations
［C］ blacks now are enjoying the wealth they created under slavery
［D］ some blacks were slave owners instead of slaves
2."Immigrants" in paragraph 3 refers to.
［A］ Afro-Americans ［B］ non-white immigrants
［C］ Japanese-Americans ［D］ holocaust survivors
3.That the reparations movement is winning support in America is shown in the fact that.
［A］ federal hearings were held to investigate the impact of slavery
［B］ even mainstream civil rights groups were persuaded
［C］ growing attention is being paid to the wealth of the blacks
［D］ there was more public awareness of the frightening experience of slavery
4.The two private companies that made public apology had.
［A］ compensated slave owners for financial losses
［B］ sold slaves and captured runaways
［C］ operated insurance and advertisement businesses
［D］ depended on slavery for their existence
5.Which of the following is true according to the passage?
［A］ US government killed Japanese-Americans during World War Ⅱ.
［B］ A new Californian law disclosed slave-insurance policies.
［C］ National Urban League is one of the civil right groups.
［D］ Blacks faced no discrimination after liberation in 1865.
In an attempt to increase competition and give consumers better prices, the state (California) has deregulated its power industry. But that move has sparked a crisis and a battle over who is to blame. It's a power struggle over who controls the price of power.
In California the regulators, the utilities and the governor all want the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to cap spot market prices. The Californians claim it will rein in outrageous prices. Federal regulators have refused. The battle is on.
Governor Gray Davis says, "I'm not happy with the Federal Regulatory Commission at all. They're living in an ivory tower. If their bills were going up like the people in San Diego, they would know that this is a real problem in the real world."
As part of deregulation, price caps were removed to allow for a free market. Timing is everything; natural gas prices had already skyrocketed. Demand was high from California's booming economy. No new power plants had been built here in ten years, and power producers had the right to hike prices along with demand. And hike them they did.
Loretta Lynch of the Public Utilities Commission says, "This commission and all of California was beating down the door of federal regulators to say 'help us impose reasonable price caps to help to keep our market stable.'"
Federal regulators did ask for longer-term contracts between power producers and the utilities to stabilize prices. The federal commission, unavailable for comment on this story, released a recent statement defending its position not to re-regulate.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dec. 15, 2000: "The commission's intention is to enable the markets to catch up to current supply and demand problems and not to reintroduce command and control regulation that has helped to produce the current crisis."
Some energy experts believe that, without temporary price caps, the crisis will continue.
Severin Borenstein of the U.C. Energy Institute says, "Some federal regulators have a blind commitment to making the market work and I think part of the problem is they really don't understand what's going on."
Gary Ackerman of the Western Power Trading Forum says, "He's dead wrong about that. The federal regulators understand far better than any individual state that, though it might be painful and it certainly is painful in California, price caps don't work. They never work."
An administration known to be friendly to free markets is soon to take the helm. Any calls for re-regulation may continue to fall on deaf ears.
1.What will the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission probably do with the prices of electrical power?
［A］ Impose temporary price caps on them.
［B］ Guide and control them.
［C］ Raise them along with demand.
［D］ Let them go on their own way.
2."They are living in an ivory tower"（Line 2, Paragraph 3）means federal regulators are.
［A］ ignorant of the fact
［B］ very rich
［D］ corrupted and greedy
3.According to the federal regulators, the factor which caused the current crisis is.
［A］ competition between power producers
［B］ disagreement between power producers and the utilities
［C］ high demand and low supply of electricity
［D］ government's ruling over the economy
4.Who is on the same side with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission?
［A］ Loretta Lynch.
［B］ Gary Ackerman.
［C］ Gray Davis.
［D］ Severin Borenstein.
5.Which of the following is the most probable title of the article?
［A］ Energy Crisis in California.
［B］ Federal Regulators: the Deaf Ears.
［C］ Energy Regulation Debate.
［D］ Deregulation of California's power industry.
You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
［A］ Analyzing your own taste
［B］ Being cautious when experimenting
［C］ Finding a model to follow
［D］ Getting the final look absolutely right
［E］ Learning to be realistic
［F］ Making regular conscious choices
When we meet people for the first time, we often make decisions about them based entirely on how they look. And, of course it's something that works both ways, for we too are being judged on our appearance. When we look good, we feel good, which in turn leads to a more confident and self-assured manner. People then pick up on this confidence and respond positively towards us. Undoubtedly, it's what's inside that's important, but sometimes we can send out the wrong signals simply by wearing inappropriate clothing or not spending enough time thinking about how others see us.
For example, people often make the mistake of trying to look like someone else they've seen in a magazine, but this is usually a disaster as we all have our own characteristics. Stand in front of a full-length mirror and be honest with yourself about what you see. There is no need to dwell on your faults-we all have good points and bad points-but think instead about the best way to emphasize the good ones.
When selecting your clothes each day, think about who you're likely to meet, where you're going to be spending most of your time and what tasks you are likely to perform. Clearly, some outfits will be more appropriate to different sorts of activity and this will dictate your choice to an extent. However, there's no need to abandon your individual taste completely. After all, if you dress to please somebody else's idea of what looks good, you may end up feeling uncomfortable and not quite yourself.
But to know your own mind, you have to get to know yourself. What do you truly feel good in? There are probably a few favourite items that you wear a lot-most people wear 20 per cent of their wardrobe 80 per cent of the time. Look at these clothes and ask yourself what they have in common. Are they neat and tidy, loose and flowing? Then look at the things hanging in your wardrobe that you don't wear and ask yourself why. Go through a few magazines and catalogues and mark the things that catch your eye. Is there a common theme?
Some colors bring your natural colouring to life and others can give us a washed-out appearance. Try out new colours by all means, but remember that dressing in bright colours when you really like subtle neutral tones, or vice versa, will make you feel self-conscious and uncomfortable. You know deep down where your own taste boundaries lie. And although it's good to challenge those sometimes with new combinations or shades, take care not to go too far all at once.
So, you've chosen an outfit that matches your style, your personality, your shape and your colouring. But does it fit? If something is too tight or too loose, you won't achieve the desired effect, and no matter what other qualities it has, it won't improve your appearance or your confidence. Sometimes, we buy things without thinking. Some people who dislike shopping grab the first thing they see, or prefer to use mail-order or the Internet. In all cases, if it doesn't fit perfectly, don't buy it, because the finer details are just as important as the overall style.
Reappraising your image isn't selfish because everyone who comes into contact with you will benefit. You'll look better and you'll feel a better person all round. And if in doubt, you only need to read Professor Albert Mehrabian's book Silent Messages to remind yourself how important outward appearances are. His research showed that the impact we make on each other depend 55 per cent on how we look and behave, 38 per cent on how we speak and only 7 per cent on what we actually say. So, whatever stage you are at in your life, whatever role you play, isn't it time you made the most of yourself?
Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Wisdom born of experience should tell us that war is obsolete.（46）There may have been a time when war served as a negative good by preventing the spread and growth of an evil force, but the destructive power of modern weapons eliminates even the possibility that war may serve any good at all. In a day when vehicles hurtle through outer space and guided ballistic missiles carve highways of death through the stratosphere, no nation can claim victory in war. A so-called limited war will leave little more than a calamitous legacy of human suffering, political and spiritual disillusionment. A world war will leave only smoldering ashes as mute testimony of a human race whose folly led inexorably to ultimate death. （47）If modern man continues to toy unhesitatingly with war, he will transform his earthly habitat into a hell such as even the mind of Dante (但丁) could not imagine.
（48）Therefore I suggest that the philosophy and strategy of nonviolence becomes immediately a subject for study and for serious experimentation in every field of human conflict, by no means excluding the relations between nations. It is, after all, nation states, which make war, which have produced the weapons that threaten the survival of mankind and which are both genocidal and suicidal in character.
We have ancient habits to deal with, vast structures of power, indescribably complicated problems to solve.（49）But unless we resign our humanity altogether and yield to fear and impotence in the presence of the weapons we have ourselves created, it is as possible and as urgent to put an end to war and violence between nations as it is to put an end to poverty and racial injustice.
I do not minimize the complexity of the problems that need to be faced. （50）But I am convinced that we shall not have the will, the courage and the insight to deal with such matters unless in this field we are prepared to undergo a mental and spiritual re-evaluation, a change of focus which will enable us to see that the things that seem most real and powerful are indeed now unreal and have come under sentence of death. We need to make a supreme effort to generate the readiness, indeed the eagerness, to enter into the new world, which is now possible, "the city which hath foundation, whose Building and Maker is God".
1.［精解］ 本题考查考生通过上下文选择适当形容词的能力。空格处的形容词修饰burden，说明"提早退休给退休金的融资带来了1负担"。由下文第二段首句对提早退休的叙述Early retirement...makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long（提早退休使当前的公共养老金系统难以持久），可知文中强调的是其不能持续性，［C］项unsustainable"不能持续的，无法维持的"最符合文意。［B］项additional"附加的，额外的"、［D］项undue"不适当的，过度的"无法从文中推知。本文意在讨论前几年提倡的提前退休给养老带来的挑战，并试图找出解决方案，所以［A］项unsolvable"不能解决的"与文意矛盾。
2.［精解］ 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入动名词作定语修饰retirement，但实际考查的是动词词义辨析。前文提到，提早退休给养老金融资带来了负担，空格前but转折指出，但是2退休却能有所帮助。可见，所填词应与early 相对，从词义看，只有delay单纯表时间的"耽搁，延迟"，符合文意。retain指"保持，保留"；detain指"由于被留在某地而不能按时离开"，如He was detained by a flat tire on his way home(他因车胎漏气在回家的路上被耽搁)；hinder指"阻碍，妨碍（行动或进展）"。
4.［精解］ 本题考查考生通过上下文选择形容词的能力。根据上下文可知，空格处填入形容词修饰reason，说明"更多的人提早退休而寿命更长"是"当前的公共养老金系统难以持久"的__4__原因。本段下文都在论述这一原因，可见它是很重要的，因此［Ｂ］项essential"实质的，基本的"是正确项。文章没有提及该原因是"潜在的，可能的"或"有争议的"，排除［Ｃ］项potential和［Ｄ］项controversial。［A］项substantial也有"实质的，本质的"含义，但它是指由于数量大而重要，如 The treaty underwent substantial modifications(条约已做了实质性的修改)。
5.［精解］ 本题考查动词词义的辨析。填入的动名词作depend on的介词宾语，说明"退休人员依赖在职者的__5__以保障他们的收入"。关键是辨析四个核心动词。四个选项都有"提供资金"的含义，donate意为"捐赠，捐献"，一般要接表具体物体、金钱的名词，所赠的对象一般是慈善事业或机构，如donate money to the hospital（给医院捐钱）；sponsor意为"赞助（活动，节目等）"，而且目的常常是为了做宣传；如Tobacco industry sponsors sports events（烟草业赞助体育赛事）；subsidize意为"补助，资助（某人或组织支付某种费用）"，如the government subsidizes the housing projects（政府补贴住房项目）；fund指supply with money"为．．．提供资金，资助"，如The work is funded by the government（这项工程由政府提供资助）。文中说的是在职者"资助"而非"捐赠、赞助或补贴"退休工人的收入。［D］项符合文意。
6.［精解］ 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词作句子的主语，被表语worrying修饰。由下文In the next 50 years...可知接下来是对将来可能发生情况的预测，［A］项outlook填入意为"前景令人担忧"，符合文意，［B］项outcome"结果"，［C］项outbreak"(战争的)爆发, (疾病的)发作"，［D］项outset"开端，开始"都不正确。
8.［精解］ 本题考查介词的用法。空格处填入的介词连接double与size，表明"在大小方面加倍"，［A］项in "关于……，在……方面"，是正确项。On"关于……方面"，多指主题方面，如a lecture on the water pollution（有关水污染的演讲）；by"就……而论"，用于说明某人的工作、性格、出身等，如He is a doctor by profession. (他的职业是医生)；for"为了，对……来说"表对象，如It is quite warm for February (就二月的天气而言，这种天气算相当暖和的了)。
9.［精解］ 本题考查动词的用法。空格处填入动词的作句子的谓语，所在部分是被动语态结构public pension payments are9 to rise。从语法、语义上均符合文章要求的只有expect"预期，认为"，构成搭配be expected to do，原文意为"公共退休金的支出有望上升"。
首先排除conceive"构思，设想"，其含义不符上下文需要。Reckon"估计，猜想，认为"和mean"打算，意欲"都不能搭配be +V.ed ＋to do的搭配；它们的固定搭配是be reckoned to be和be meant to be（被普遍认为是），如Children are reckoned to be more sophisticated nowadays（人们认为今天的孩子比过去世故）；The restaurant is meant to be excellent（都说这家饭店很棒）。
10.［精解］ 本题考查倒装结构和习惯搭配。such that...是习惯搭配，意为"因为非常……以致于……"，如The shock was such that she was almost driven mad(因为打击太大了，她差点疯了)。空格所在句子是倒装句中，such置于句首，起强调作用。原文意为：养老基金的压力太大了，现在的工人有得不到他们预期的养老金的危险。
11.［精解］ 本题考查虚拟语气的省略结构。空格处要求填入动词pay的适当形式。首先空格前they指today's workers（现在的工人），他们将是被付给退休金的人，所以要用pay的被动语态。其次，felt在这里表示"想，认为"，从句用虚拟语气，即should+动词原形，这时should可以省略，所以［C］项正确，相当于...they should be paid for.
13.［精解］ 本题考查考生通过上下文选择名词的能力。空格处填入的名词作of public pensions的中心语以及reduce的动词宾语。根据上文，第二段末句提到"养老基金的压力太大了"，三段首句则提出"需要采取行动"。由此推出后面的内容应该围绕如何减小压力展开论述。因此空格处的内容"减少公共养老金的．．．"是减小压力的一种方法。［A］项multitude与reduce搭配，意为"减小．．．的数量"，如reduce the multitude of harms。代入原文，"减小公共养老金的数量"显然不是减压的方法。［B］项implementation"实施，执行"通常不直接作reduce的宾语，而应用于reduce implementation time/cost。［C］项application的搭配应是application for public pensions（申请公共养老金）。只有［D］项generosity"慷慨，宽大"符合文意，意为"现在的养老金过于慷慨，需要减少"。
14．［精解］ 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词与the role of...搭配。备选四项都有"使变大"的意思，但［D］项multiply"（使加倍）增大"不与the role搭配，［A］项exaggerate "夸大，夸张"和［C］项magnify"放大，扩大"都表示"实际大小没变而夸大或使看起来大"，如exaggerate our troubles（夸大我们的困难），magnify the risks involved（夸大其中的风险）。 ［B］项augment表示"扩大；增加(某事的价值，数量，效果等)"，符合文意，原文意为"增强私人养老金在系统中的作用"。
15.［精解］ 本题考查考生通过上下文选择形容词的能力。空格所在句子的主干结构是simply aiming to...or trying to...may be __15__，因此填入的形容词是说明"为了减小养老金压力而采取的这些行动"的特点。首先，由插入语though necessary step（虽然是必需的步骤）推出所填词应与necessary是相反的含义，可排除influential"有很大影响的"和intrinsic"固有的，内在的，本身的"；其次，由simply一词及上下文语义可知空格处的含义应该是"（仅仅这样做）是不够的"，只有［A］项insufficient符合文意。
补充：intrinsic to 意为"为……之本"，如 Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management(灵活性是创造性管理的本质要求)。
16.［精解］ 本题考查形容词词义的辨析。本题要求填入一个形容词修饰early retirement 或 early retirement schemes，符合文意。从语义看，［A］项advancing"提前的，超前的"修饰early retirement 意为"提前早退休"，即比正常的退休年龄要早；［B］项previous"在前的，早先的"修饰schemes, previous early retirement schemes 意为"之前的早退休计划"，与前面的after语义重复；［C］项ahead"在前，提前"要放在所修饰的名词之后，如He kept his gaze fixed on the car ahead（他眼睛一直盯着前面的车）；［D］项preceding"在前的，前述的"指在所提到的之前，或前文，如The preceding chapters have described several key events in recent French history(前几章描述了法国近代史上发生的几个关键事件)，也不符合文意。
18.［精解］ 本题考查固定短语的辨析。备选项的介词都可与look搭配成短语动词：look for"寻找，寻求"；look to"朝……看；指望，依赖"；look about"环视，（事先）审时度势"；look at"研究考虑"。由短语的意义可知［D］项符合文意，look at表示to study and think about something, especially in order to decide what to do，在原文的意思是"前些年为了避免裁员及高失业率政府采取提前早退休的方案，而现在许多政府正考虑劝说人们晚退休"。
例句补充：They are looking for the missing child. (他们正在寻找那失踪的小孩)；Don't look to him for help(别指望他的帮忙)；Look about carefully before making the final decision. (在做出最后决定之前，要先周密权衡一下)。
19.［精解］ 本题考查形容词词义的辨析。空格处填入的形容词在句子中做表语，说明"现在的工作在生理上（physically）不如以前__19__"。由上文Surely, the thinking goes可知空格所在句子是上一句"政府考虑说服人们晚退休"的理由。［A］项turbulent"（海、气候等）狂暴的；（时代）动荡不安的"一般不与job搭配；而［C］项compact"紧密的，密集的；（身体）紧绷绷的"和［D］项intricate"错综复杂的，难以理解的"一般不用于从生理上说工作。只有［B］项strenuous"（工作等）需要极端努力的，费劲的"既能从生理上说明job的性质，又可解释原因。
［精解］ 本题考虑事实细节题。第四段第一句提到，许多投资者（savers）对拥有太多公司股票的危险视而不见。［D］项是该句的改写，其中turn a deaf ear对应原文中的shut their eyes to，the warning对应the dangers。
第三段作者通过休伊特（Hewitt）咨询公司的职员的介绍说明，投资者仍在不断地投钱（keeping their contributions up），但是他们不太愿意把资金转投其他地方了（less inclined to switch their money around）。由此排除［A］和［C］项。第三段末句"投资者普遍感到吃惊（overwhelmed）"指的就是持股者对股市不景气的反应。因此［B］项与事实不符。
［精解］ 本题考查事实细节。从第五段段首but开始文章出现了转折，主要论述赔偿运动在美国得到支持的状况。第五段提到，至少有10个城市通过了决议，力劝联邦政府举行关于奴隶制影响的意见听取会（urge federal hearings into the impact of slavery）。公民权利的主要组织都定期地提出这一议题（regularly raise the issue）。由此可见，［A］和［B］项错在把还在努力当中和讨论的事情变成了确定的事实。第六段最后一句提到，人们也越来越关注奴隶制为私有公司以及整个国家所创造的巨大的经济财富（huge economic bounty）。［C］项将"奴隶制创造的财富"变成了"黑人自己的财富"，因此错误。第六段首句提到，在人们对赔偿问题的兴趣不断增强的同时，对奴隶制的恐怖经历的意识也在提升。［D］项是这句子后半部分的改写。选项中的more public awareness对应原文中的heightened sensitivity，horrors对应原文中的frightening experience。