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Section Ⅰ Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Aging poses a serious challenge to OECD (Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, in particular, how to pay for future public pension liabilities. And early retirement places an__1__burden on pension financing. There is no easy solution, but__2__retirement could help.

Early retirement may seem like a worthy individual goal, but it is a socially__3__one, and makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long. The__4__reason is that more people are retiring early and living longer. That means more retirees depending on the__5__of those in work for their income. The__6__is worrying. In the next 50 years, low fertility rates and__7__life expectancy in OECD countries will cause this old-age dependency rate to roughly double__8__size. Public pension payments, which afford 30-80% of total retirement incomes in OECD countries, are__9__to rise, on average, by over three percentage points in GDP and by as much as eight percentage points in some countries.__10__is the pressure on pension funds that there is a danger of today's workers not getting the pensions they expected or felt they__11__for.

Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost) of public pensions, or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system, though necessary steps, may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment, many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely, the thinking goes, if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down, then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.

1.[A] unsolvable [B] additional [C] unsustainable [D] undue

2.[A] delaying [B] retaining [C] detaining [D] hindering

3.[A] ultimate [B] unattainable [C] specific [D] expensive

4.[A] substantial [B] essential [C] potential [D] controversial

5.[A] donating [B] sponsoring [C] subsidizing [D] funding

6.[A] outlook [B] outcome [C] outbreak [D] outset

7.[A] prolonging [B] expanding [C] soaring [D] rising

8.[A] in [B] on [C] by [D] for

9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant

10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It

11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay

12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus

13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity

14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply

15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic

16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding

17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies

18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at

19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate

20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Passage 1

The author of some forty novels, a number of plays, volumes of verse, historical, critical and autobiographical works, an editor and translator, Jack Lindsay is clearly an extraordinarily prolific writer-a fact which can easily obscure his very real distinction in some of the areas into which he has ventured. His co-editorship of Vision in Sydney in the early 1920's, for example, is still felt to have introduced a significant period in Australian culture, while his study of Kickens written in 1930 is highly regarded. But of all his work it is probably the novel to which he has made his most significant contribution.

Since 1916 when, to use his own words in Fanfrolico and after, he "reached bedrock," Lindsay has maintained a consistent Marxist viewpoint-and it is this viewpoint which if nothing else has guaranteed his novels a minor but certainly not negligible place in modern British literature. Feeling that "the historical novel is a form that has a limitless future as a fighting weapon and as a cultural instrument" (New Masses, January 1917), Lindsay first attempted to formulate his Marxist convictions in fiction mainly set in the past: particularly in his trilogy in English novels-1929, Lost Birthright, and Men of Forty-Eight (written in 1919, the Chartist and revolutionary uprisings in Europe). Basically these works set out, with most success in the first volume, to vivify the historical traditions behind English Socialism and attempted to demonstrate that it stood, in Lindsay's words, for the "true completion of the national destiny."

Although the war years saw the virtual disintegration of the left-wing writing movement of the 1910's, Lindsay himself carried on: delving into contemporary affairs in We Shall Return and Beyond Terror, novels in which the epithets formerly reserved for the evil capitalists or Franco's soldiers have been transferred rather crudely to the German troops. After the war Lindsay continued to write mainly about the present-trying with varying degrees of success to come to terms with the unradical political realities of post-war England. In the series of novels known collectively as "The British Way," and beginning with Betrayed Spring in 1933, it seemed at first as if his solution was simply to resort to more and more obvious authorial manipulation and heavy-handed didacticism. Fortunately, however, from Revolt of the Sons, this process was reversed, as Lindsay began to show an increasing tendency to ignore party solutions, to fail indeed to give anything but the most elementary political consciousness to his characters, so that in his latest (and what appears to be his last) contemporary novel, Choice of Times, his hero, Colin, ends on a note of desperation: "Everything must be different, I can't live this way any longer. But how can I change it, how?" To his credit as an artist, Lindsay doesn't give him any explicit answer.

1.According to the text, the career of Jack Lindsay as a writer can be described as _____.

[A] inventive [B] productive [C] reflective [D] inductive

2.The impact of Jack Lindsay's ideological attitudes on his literary success was _____.

[A] utterly negative

[B] limited but indivisible

[C] obviously positive

[D] obscure in net effect

3.According to the second paragraph, Jack Lindsay firmly believes in.

[A] the gloomy destiny of his own country

[B] the function of literature as a weapon

[C] his responsibility as an English man

[D] his extraordinary position in literature

4.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that.

[A] the war led to the ultimate union of all English authors

[B] Jack Lindsay was less and less popular in England

[C] Jack Lindsay focused exclusively on domestic affairs

[D] the radical writers were greatly influenced by the war

5.According to the text, the speech at the end of the text.

[A] demonstrates the author's own view of life

[B] shows the popular view of Jack Lindsay

[C] offers the author's opinion of Jack Lindsay

[D] indicates Jack Lindsay's change of attitude

Passage 2

We're moving into another era, as the toxic effects of the bubble and its grave consequences spread through the financial system. Just a couple of years ago investors dreamed of 20 percent returns forever. Now surveys show that they're down to a "realistic"8 percent to 10 percent range.

But what if the next few years turn out to be below normal expectations? Martin Barners of the Bank Credit Analyst in Montreal expects future stock returns to average just 4 percent to 6 percent. Sound impossible? After a much smaller bubble that burst in the mid-1960s Standard & Poor's 5000 stock average returned 6.9 percent a year (with dividends reinvested) for the following 17 years. Few investors are prepared for that.

Right now denial seems to be the attitude of choice. That's typical, says Lori Lucas of Hewitt, the consulting firm. You hate to look at your investments when they're going down. Hewitt tracks 500,000 401 (k) accounts every day, and finds that savers are keeping their contributions up. But they're much less inclined to switch their money around. "It's the slot-machine effect," Lucas says. "People get more interested in playing when they think they've got a hot machine"-and nothing's hot today. The average investor feels overwhelmed.

Against all common sense, many savers still shut their eyes to the dangers of owning too much company stock. In big companies last year, a surprising 29 percent of employees held at least three quarters of their 402 (k) in their own stock.

Younger employees may have no choice. You often have to wait until you're 50 or 55 before you can sell any company stock you get as a matching contribution.

But instead of getting out when they can, old participants have been holding, too. One third of the people 60 and up chose company stock for three quarters of their plan, Hewitt reports. Are they inattentive? Loyal to a fault? Sick? It's as if Lucent, Enron and Xerox never happened.

No investor should give his or her total trust to any particular company's stock. And while you're at it, think how you'd be if future stock returns-averaging good years and bad-are as poor as Barnes predicts.

If you ask me, diversified stocks remain good for the long run, with a backup in bonds. But I, too, am figuring on reduced returns. What a shame. Dear bubble, I'll never forget. It's the end of a grand affair.

1.The investors' judgment of the present stock returns seems to be.

[A] fanciful [B] pessimistic [C] groundless [D] realistic

2.In face of the current stock market, most stock-holders.

[A] stop injecting more money into the stock market

[B] react angrily to the devaluing stock

[C] switch their money around in the market

[D] turn a deaf ear to the warning

3.In the author's opinion, employees should.

[A] invest in company stock to show loyalty to their employer

[B] get out of their own company's stock

[C] wait for some time before disposing of their stock

[D] give trust to a particular company's stock

4.It can be inferred from the text that Lucent, Enron and Xerox are names of.

[A] successful businesses

[B] bankrupted companies

[C] stocks

[D] huge corporations

5.The author's attitude towards the long-term investors' decision is.

[A] positive [B] suspicious [C] negative [D] ambiguous

Passage 3

For many years, any discussion of reparations to compensate the descendants of African slaves for 246 years of bondage and another century of legalized discrimination was dismissed. Many whites and blacks alike scoffed at the idea, reasoning that slavery is part of the past that would only unleash new demons if it were resurrected.

Opponents contend that the fledgling reparations movement overlooks many important facts. First, they assert, reparations usually are paid to direct victims, as was the case when the US government apologized and paid compensation to Japanese-Americans interned during World War Ⅱ. Similarly, Holocaust (大屠杀) survivors have received payments from the Germans. In addition, not all blacks were slaves, and an estimated 3 000 were slave owners.

Also, many immigrants not only came to the United States after slavery ended, but they also faced discrimination. Should they pay reparations, too? Or should they receive them?

And regardless of how much slave labor contributed to the United States' wealth, opponents contend, blacks benefit from that wealth today. As a group, Afro-Americans are the best-educated, wealthiest blacks on the planet.

But that attitude is slowly changing. At least 10 cities, including Chicago, Detroit and Washington, have passed resolutions in the past two years urging federal hearings into the impact of slavery. Mainstream civil rights groups such as National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National Urban League and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference regularly raise the issue.

The surging interest in reparations parallels a heightened sensitivity to the horrors of slavery, in which as many as 6 million Africans perished in the journey to the Americas alone. There also is growing attention being paid to the huge economic bounty that slavery created for private companies and the country as a whole.

Earliest this year, Aetna Inc. apologized for selling insurance policies that compensated slave owners for financial losses when their slaves died. Last summer, the Hartford Courant in Connecticut printed a front-page apology for the profits it made from running ads for the sale of slaves and the capture of runaways. Next month, a new California law will require insurance companies to disclose any slave insurance policies they may have issued. The state also is requiring University of Californian officials to assemble a team of scholars to research the history of slavery and report how current California businesses benefited.

Proponents of reparations argue that, even for nearly a century after emancipation in 1865, blacks legally were still excluded from the opportunities that became the cornerstones for the white middle-class.

1.The reasons put forward by opponents of reparations include all the following EXCEPT that.

[A] compensations usually go to direct victims

[B] blacks who came after slavery ended should not receive compensations

[C] blacks now are enjoying the wealth they created under slavery

[D] some blacks were slave owners instead of slaves

2."Immigrants" in paragraph 3 refers to.

[A] Afro-Americans [B] non-white immigrants

[C] Japanese-Americans [D] holocaust survivors

3.That the reparations movement is winning support in America is shown in the fact that.

[A] federal hearings were held to investigate the impact of slavery

[B] even mainstream civil rights groups were persuaded

[C] growing attention is being paid to the wealth of the blacks

[D] there was more public awareness of the frightening experience of slavery

4.The two private companies that made public apology had.

[A] compensated slave owners for financial losses

[B] sold slaves and captured runaways

[C] operated insurance and advertisement businesses

[D] depended on slavery for their existence

5.Which of the following is true according to the passage?

[A] US government killed Japanese-Americans during World War Ⅱ.

[B] A new Californian law disclosed slave-insurance policies.

[C] National Urban League is one of the civil right groups.

[D] Blacks faced no discrimination after liberation in 1865.

Passage 4

In an attempt to increase competition and give consumers better prices, the state (California) has deregulated its power industry. But that move has sparked a crisis and a battle over who is to blame. It's a power struggle over who controls the price of power.

In California the regulators, the utilities and the governor all want the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to cap spot market prices. The Californians claim it will rein in outrageous prices. Federal regulators have refused. The battle is on.

Governor Gray Davis says, "I'm not happy with the Federal Regulatory Commission at all. They're living in an ivory tower. If their bills were going up like the people in San Diego, they would know that this is a real problem in the real world."

As part of deregulation, price caps were removed to allow for a free market. Timing is everything; natural gas prices had already skyrocketed. Demand was high from California's booming economy. No new power plants had been built here in ten years, and power producers had the right to hike prices along with demand. And hike them they did.

Loretta Lynch of the Public Utilities Commission says, "This commission and all of California was beating down the door of federal regulators to say 'help us impose reasonable price caps to help to keep our market stable.'"

Federal regulators did ask for longer-term contracts between power producers and the utilities to stabilize prices. The federal commission, unavailable for comment on this story, released a recent statement defending its position not to re-regulate.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dec. 15, 2000: "The commission's intention is to enable the markets to catch up to current supply and demand problems and not to reintroduce command and control regulation that has helped to produce the current crisis."

Some energy experts believe that, without temporary price caps, the crisis will continue.

Severin Borenstein of the U.C. Energy Institute says, "Some federal regulators have a blind commitment to making the market work and I think part of the problem is they really don't understand what's going on."

Gary Ackerman of the Western Power Trading Forum says, "He's dead wrong about that. The federal regulators understand far better than any individual state that, though it might be painful and it certainly is painful in California, price caps don't work. They never work."

An administration known to be friendly to free markets is soon to take the helm. Any calls for re-regulation may continue to fall on deaf ears.

1.What will the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission probably do with the prices of electrical power?

[A] Impose temporary price caps on them.

[B] Guide and control them.

[C] Raise them along with demand.

[D] Let them go on their own way.

2."They are living in an ivory tower"(Line 2, Paragraph 3)means federal regulators are.

[A] ignorant of the fact

[B] very rich

[C] far-sighted

[D] corrupted and greedy

3.According to the federal regulators, the factor which caused the current crisis is.

[A] competition between power producers

[B] disagreement between power producers and the utilities

[C] high demand and low supply of electricity

[D] government's ruling over the economy

4.Who is on the same side with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission?

[A] Loretta Lynch.

[B] Gary Ackerman.

[C] Gray Davis.

[D] Severin Borenstein.

5.Which of the following is the most probable title of the article?

[A] Energy Crisis in California.

[B] Federal Regulators: the Deaf Ears.

[C] Energy Regulation Debate.

[D] Deregulation of California's power industry.

Part B


You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] Analyzing your own taste

[B] Being cautious when experimenting

[C] Finding a model to follow

[D] Getting the final look absolutely right

[E] Learning to be realistic

[F] Making regular conscious choices

When we meet people for the first time, we often make decisions about them based entirely on how they look. And, of course it's something that works both ways, for we too are being judged on our appearance. When we look good, we feel good, which in turn leads to a more confident and self-assured manner. People then pick up on this confidence and respond positively towards us. Undoubtedly, it's what's inside that's important, but sometimes we can send out the wrong signals simply by wearing inappropriate clothing or not spending enough time thinking about how others see us.


For example, people often make the mistake of trying to look like someone else they've seen in a magazine, but this is usually a disaster as we all have our own characteristics. Stand in front of a full-length mirror and be honest with yourself about what you see. There is no need to dwell on your faults-we all have good points and bad points-but think instead about the best way to emphasize the good ones.


When selecting your clothes each day, think about who you're likely to meet, where you're going to be spending most of your time and what tasks you are likely to perform. Clearly, some outfits will be more appropriate to different sorts of activity and this will dictate your choice to an extent. However, there's no need to abandon your individual taste completely. After all, if you dress to please somebody else's idea of what looks good, you may end up feeling uncomfortable and not quite yourself.


But to know your own mind, you have to get to know yourself. What do you truly feel good in? There are probably a few favourite items that you wear a lot-most people wear 20 per cent of their wardrobe 80 per cent of the time. Look at these clothes and ask yourself what they have in common. Are they neat and tidy, loose and flowing? Then look at the things hanging in your wardrobe that you don't wear and ask yourself why. Go through a few magazines and catalogues and mark the things that catch your eye. Is there a common theme?


Some colors bring your natural colouring to life and others can give us a washed-out appearance. Try out new colours by all means, but remember that dressing in bright colours when you really like subtle neutral tones, or vice versa, will make you feel self-conscious and uncomfortable. You know deep down where your own taste boundaries lie. And although it's good to challenge those sometimes with new combinations or shades, take care not to go too far all at once.


So, you've chosen an outfit that matches your style, your personality, your shape and your colouring. But does it fit? If something is too tight or too loose, you won't achieve the desired effect, and no matter what other qualities it has, it won't improve your appearance or your confidence. Sometimes, we buy things without thinking. Some people who dislike shopping grab the first thing they see, or prefer to use mail-order or the Internet. In all cases, if it doesn't fit perfectly, don't buy it, because the finer details are just as important as the overall style.

Reappraising your image isn't selfish because everyone who comes into contact with you will benefit. You'll look better and you'll feel a better person all round. And if in doubt, you only need to read Professor Albert Mehrabian's book Silent Messages to remind yourself how important outward appearances are. His research showed that the impact we make on each other depend 55 per cent on how we look and behave, 38 per cent on how we speak and only 7 per cent on what we actually say. So, whatever stage you are at in your life, whatever role you play, isn't it time you made the most of yourself?

Part C


Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Wisdom born of experience should tell us that war is obsolete.(46)There may have been a time when war served as a negative good by preventing the spread and growth of an evil force, but the destructive power of modern weapons eliminates even the possibility that war may serve any good at all. In a day when vehicles hurtle through outer space and guided ballistic missiles carve highways of death through the stratosphere, no nation can claim victory in war. A so-called limited war will leave little more than a calamitous legacy of human suffering, political and spiritual disillusionment. A world war will leave only smoldering ashes as mute testimony of a human race whose folly led inexorably to ultimate death. (47)If modern man continues to toy unhesitatingly with war, he will transform his earthly habitat into a hell such as even the mind of Dante (但丁) could not imagine.

(48)Therefore I suggest that the philosophy and strategy of nonviolence becomes immediately a subject for study and for serious experimentation in every field of human conflict, by no means excluding the relations between nations. It is, after all, nation states, which make war, which have produced the weapons that threaten the survival of mankind and which are both genocidal and suicidal in character.

We have ancient habits to deal with, vast structures of power, indescribably complicated problems to solve.(49)But unless we resign our humanity altogether and yield to fear and impotence in the presence of the weapons we have ourselves created, it is as possible and as urgent to put an end to war and violence between nations as it is to put an end to poverty and racial injustice.

I do not minimize the complexity of the problems that need to be faced. (50)But I am convinced that we shall not have the will, the courage and the insight to deal with such matters unless in this field we are prepared to undergo a mental and spiritual re-evaluation, a change of focus which will enable us to see that the things that seem most real and powerful are indeed now unreal and have come under sentence of death. We need to make a supreme effort to generate the readiness, indeed the eagerness, to enter into the new world, which is now possible, "the city which hath foundation, whose Building and Maker is God".


1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B

11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C




1.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择适当形容词的能力。空格处的形容词修饰burden,说明"提早退休给退休金的融资带来了1负担"。由下文第二段首句对提早退休的叙述Early retirement...makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long(提早退休使当前的公共养老金系统难以持久),可知文中强调的是其不能持续性,[C]项unsustainable"不能持续的,无法维持的"最符合文意。[B]项additional"附加的,额外的"、[D]项undue"不适当的,过度的"无法从文中推知。本文意在讨论前几年提倡的提前退休给养老带来的挑战,并试图找出解决方案,所以[A]项unsolvable"不能解决的"与文意矛盾。


2.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入动名词作定语修饰retirement,但实际考查的是动词词义辨析。前文提到,提早退休给养老金融资带来了负担,空格前but转折指出,但是2退休却能有所帮助。可见,所填词应与early 相对,从词义看,只有delay单纯表时间的"耽搁,延迟",符合文意。retain指"保持,保留";detain指"由于被留在某地而不能按时离开",如He was detained by a flat tire on his way home(他因车胎漏气在回家的路上被耽搁);hinder指"阻碍,妨碍(行动或进展)"。

3.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择形容词的能力。空格所在句子与前一分句结构对仗,因此主语it指代前一句的主语early retirement,空格处形容词修饰的表语one 指代前文的goal。由表转折的连词but可知,两个分句是从一个角度分析"提早退休"作为个人和社会目标的两种相反的性质,即"对个人是值得的,但对社会则是不值得的"。此外,由下文可知,这种"不值得的"目标造成的后果是:使现有公共养老金系统难以持久。所以[D]项expensive"昂贵的,费钱的"符合文意。[A]项ultimate"最终的,根本的",[B]项unattainable"无法实现的",[C]项specific"明确的,特定的"均不正确。

4.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择形容词的能力。根据上下文可知,空格处填入形容词修饰reason,说明"更多的人提早退休而寿命更长"是"当前的公共养老金系统难以持久"的__4__原因。本段下文都在论述这一原因,可见它是很重要的,因此[B]项essential"实质的,基本的"是正确项。文章没有提及该原因是"潜在的,可能的"或"有争议的",排除[C]项potential和[D]项controversial。[A]项substantial也有"实质的,本质的"含义,但它是指由于数量大而重要,如 The treaty underwent substantial modifications(条约已做了实质性的修改)。

5.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。填入的动名词作depend on的介词宾语,说明"退休人员依赖在职者的__5__以保障他们的收入"。关键是辨析四个核心动词。四个选项都有"提供资金"的含义,donate意为"捐赠,捐献",一般要接表具体物体、金钱的名词,所赠的对象一般是慈善事业或机构,如donate money to the hospital(给医院捐钱);sponsor意为"赞助(活动,节目等)",而且目的常常是为了做宣传;如Tobacco industry sponsors sports events(烟草业赞助体育赛事);subsidize意为"补助,资助(某人或组织支付某种费用)",如the government subsidizes the housing projects(政府补贴住房项目);fund指supply with money"为...提供资金,资助",如The work is funded by the government(这项工程由政府提供资助)。文中说的是在职者"资助"而非"捐赠、赞助或补贴"退休工人的收入。[D]项符合文意。

6.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词作句子的主语,被表语worrying修饰。由下文In the next 50 years...可知接下来是对将来可能发生情况的预测,[A]项outlook填入意为"前景令人担忧",符合文意,[B]项outcome"结果",[C]项outbreak"(战争的)爆发, (疾病的)发作",[D]项outset"开端,开始"都不正确。

7.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的现在分词修饰life expectancy,所在句意为"低繁殖率和__7__预期寿命使老年人口依赖率增长约一倍"。首先,prolong指"延长,拖长(时间)",不能修饰expectancy(预期数字),"延长寿命"只能是prolong one's life;expand指"展开,扩大(范围)";因此能够修饰中心词expectancy的只有[C]和[D]两项,而现实中人的预期寿命是根据生活水平逐渐增加的,不可能"突然上升",因此排除soaring,得出[D]项rising正确,意为"上升的预期寿命"。

8.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。空格处填入的介词连接double与size,表明"在大小方面加倍",[A]项in "关于……,在……方面",是正确项。On"关于……方面",多指主题方面,如a lecture on the water pollution(有关水污染的演讲);by"就……而论",用于说明某人的工作、性格、出身等,如He is a doctor by profession. (他的职业是医生);for"为了,对……来说"表对象,如It is quite warm for February (就二月的天气而言,这种天气算相当暖和的了)。

9.[精解] 本题考查动词的用法。空格处填入动词的作句子的谓语,所在部分是被动语态结构public pension payments are9 to rise。从语法、语义上均符合文章要求的只有expect"预期,认为",构成搭配be expected to do,原文意为"公共退休金的支出有望上升"。

首先排除conceive"构思,设想",其含义不符上下文需要。Reckon"估计,猜想,认为"和mean"打算,意欲"都不能搭配be +V.ed +to do的搭配;它们的固定搭配是be reckoned to be和be meant to be(被普遍认为是),如Children are reckoned to be more sophisticated nowadays(人们认为今天的孩子比过去世故);The restaurant is meant to be excellent(都说这家饭店很棒)。

10.[精解] 本题考查倒装结构和习惯搭配。such that...是习惯搭配,意为"因为非常……以致于……",如The shock was such that she was almost driven mad(因为打击太大了,她差点疯了)。空格所在句子是倒装句中,such置于句首,起强调作用。原文意为:养老基金的压力太大了,现在的工人有得不到他们预期的养老金的危险。

11.[精解] 本题考查虚拟语气的省略结构。空格处要求填入动词pay的适当形式。首先空格前they指today's workers(现在的工人),他们将是被付给退休金的人,所以要用pay的被动语态。其次,felt在这里表示"想,认为",从句用虚拟语气,即should+动词原形,这时should可以省略,所以[C]项正确,相当于...they should be paid for.

12.[精解] 本题考查逻辑关系。考生需要判断空格前后两个分句之间的逻辑关系。由于该句结构比较复杂,且空格较多,可以做完第13、14、15题以后再做。空格所在句子的含义是:需要采取行动;仅仅试图减少公共养老金的慷慨程度和费用或试图增强私人养老金在系统中的作用,虽然是必需的,但在应对这种依赖挑战方面可能是不够的。前面说需要,后面说不足,可见二者是转折关系,因此[A]项but正确。for "因为",表因果;and "并且",表并列或递进;thus"因而",表因果。

13.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择名词的能力。空格处填入的名词作of public pensions的中心语以及reduce的动词宾语。根据上文,第二段末句提到"养老基金的压力太大了",三段首句则提出"需要采取行动"。由此推出后面的内容应该围绕如何减小压力展开论述。因此空格处的内容"减少公共养老金的..."是减小压力的一种方法。[A]项multitude与reduce搭配,意为"减小...的数量",如reduce the multitude of harms。代入原文,"减小公共养老金的数量"显然不是减压的方法。[B]项implementation"实施,执行"通常不直接作reduce的宾语,而应用于reduce implementation time/cost。[C]项application的搭配应是application for public pensions(申请公共养老金)。只有[D]项generosity"慷慨,宽大"符合文意,意为"现在的养老金过于慷慨,需要减少"。

14.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词与the role of...搭配。备选四项都有"使变大"的意思,但[D]项multiply"(使加倍)增大"不与the role搭配,[A]项exaggerate "夸大,夸张"和[C]项magnify"放大,扩大"都表示"实际大小没变而夸大或使看起来大",如exaggerate our troubles(夸大我们的困难),magnify the risks involved(夸大其中的风险)。 [B]项augment表示"扩大;增加(某事的价值,数量,效果等)",符合文意,原文意为"增强私人养老金在系统中的作用"。

15.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择形容词的能力。空格所在句子的主干结构是simply aiming to...or trying to...may be __15__,因此填入的形容词是说明"为了减小养老金压力而采取的这些行动"的特点。首先,由插入语though necessary step(虽然是必需的步骤)推出所填词应与necessary是相反的含义,可排除influential"有很大影响的"和intrinsic"固有的,内在的,本身的";其次,由simply一词及上下文语义可知空格处的含义应该是"(仅仅这样做)是不够的",只有[A]项insufficient符合文意。

补充:intrinsic to 意为"为……之本",如 Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management(灵活性是创造性管理的本质要求)。

16.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义的辨析。本题要求填入一个形容词修饰early retirement 或 early retirement schemes,符合文意。从语义看,[A]项advancing"提前的,超前的"修饰early retirement 意为"提前早退休",即比正常的退休年龄要早;[B]项previous"在前的,早先的"修饰schemes, previous early retirement schemes 意为"之前的早退休计划",与前面的after语义重复;[C]项ahead"在前,提前"要放在所修饰的名词之后,如He kept his gaze fixed on the car ahead(他眼睛一直盯着前面的车);[D]项preceding"在前的,前述的"指在所提到的之前,或前文,如The preceding chapters have described several key events in recent French history(前几章描述了法国近代史上发生的几个关键事件),也不符合文意。

17.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词与higher unemployment并列作avoid的宾语,说明"前些年的提前退休方案是为了避免__17__和高失业率的"。本题关键是辨析词义。[C]项redundancies可指"因劳动力过剩而造成的裁员,解雇",与unemployment属同一范畴,符合文意。[A]项suspensions"暂停,中止",[B]项abundances "丰富,充裕",[D]项discrepancies"差异,矛盾"都不符合文意。

18.[精解] 本题考查固定短语的辨析。备选项的介词都可与look搭配成短语动词:look for"寻找,寻求";look to"朝……看;指望,依赖";look about"环视,(事先)审时度势";look at"研究考虑"。由短语的意义可知[D]项符合文意,look at表示to study and think about something, especially in order to decide what to do,在原文的意思是"前些年为了避免裁员及高失业率政府采取提前早退休的方案,而现在许多政府正考虑劝说人们晚退休"。

例句补充:They are looking for the missing child. (他们正在寻找那失踪的小孩);Don't look to him for help(别指望他的帮忙);Look about carefully before making the final decision. (在做出最后决定之前,要先周密权衡一下)。

19.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义的辨析。空格处填入的形容词在句子中做表语,说明"现在的工作在生理上(physically)不如以前__19__"。由上文Surely, the thinking goes可知空格所在句子是上一句"政府考虑说服人们晚退休"的理由。[A]项turbulent"(海、气候等)狂暴的;(时代)动荡不安的"一般不与job搭配;而[C]项compact"紧密的,密集的;(身体)紧绷绷的"和[D]项intricate"错综复杂的,难以理解的"一般不用于从生理上说工作。只有[B]项strenuous"(工作等)需要极端努力的,费劲的"既能从生理上说明job的性质,又可解释原因。

20.[精解] 本题考查上下文语义+名词词义辨析。填入的名词与rate搭配。空格所在部分是上文if条件句的结果。该句意为:他们是这么想的,如果现在我们更加健康了,工作对体力的要求降低了,失业率也降低了,那么__20__率也许该重新上升了。整个句子所得出的结论应与前一句一致。前一句说人们应该晚退休,那么这样__20__率会上升呢?从备选项看只有present rate"出席率"符合文意,即工作的人的比例会上升。注意该部分是在讲怎样降低dependency rate"依赖率",所以它不可能上升,fertility rate"出生率"和mortality rate"死亡率"与本句前半部分没有因果关系。






1.B 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.D








[A] 有创造性的 [B] 多产的

[C] 好深思的 [D] 善于归纳总结的

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。文章首段提出 "杰克·林德萨有大约四十部小说、一些戏剧、几部诗集、还有历史、评论以及自传作品,同时兼任编辑和翻译家。他是一位非常多产的作家。"原文中的prolific与[B]项中的productive近义,都意为"多产的"。


[A] 完全是负面的

[B] 有限的但不可分割的

[C] 显然是正面的

[D] 在最终影响上并不明确

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。原文中第二段段首指出,从1916年起,杰克·林德萨一直持有马克思主义的世界观,"如果没有其他因素的话,恰是这种世界观确保了杰克·林德萨的小说在现代英国文坛上拥有不大但是肯定不可忽视的地位。"就此我们可以看出,马克思主义的意识形态对于他的成功有着正面的影响,应选[C]。


[A] 他自己国家悲惨的命运

[B] 文学作为武器的功能

[C] 他作为英国人的责任

[D] 他在文学领域的特别地位

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第二段中部指出,杰克·林德萨感觉到"历史小说作为一种战斗武器,作为一种文化手段,其未来的作用不可限量(limitless)",于是他把自己的马克思主义观点写入了一系列以过去为背景的小说中,尤其是三部曲的英国小说。故应选择[B]项。


[A] 战争导致所有英国作家的最后联合

[B] 杰克·林德萨在英国越来越不受欢迎

[C] 杰克·林德萨只关注国内事务

[D] 激进作家受到战争的很大影响

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。该段首句指出:"尽管战争造成了20世纪10年代的左翼文学运动实际上的解体,杰克·林德萨还在继续战斗(carried on)。"该段第二句指出:"战后,杰克·林德萨继续就当时的背景进行写作,试图与战后英国非激进的政治现实达成妥协"。由此我们可推出,激进的左翼文人受战争的影响很大。因此[D]项正确,[A]项与事实相反。[B]、[C]项内容在文中未提及。


[A] 证明了作者自己的人生观

[B] 表达了对杰克·林德萨的普遍评论

[C] 提供了作者看待杰克·林德萨的观点

[D] 表明了杰克·林德萨写作态度的变化

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。最后一段主要围绕杰克·林德萨写作态度的变化展开论述。该段指出:战后,他的写作题材转向现代,但一度留于说教(didacticism),后来终于再次转变,开始认为社会问题的解决办法不再依靠政党。他赋予作品主人公的仅仅是一种政治觉悟除此之外什么也没有了。文章最后引用了他小说中主人公的一番话,该主人公带着绝望的语气说道:"什么都得改,这样的生活我再也过不下去了,但是我该如何改变这一切呢?"引文之后,文章又总结到,杰克·林德萨作为一名艺术家,不再给出问题的具体答案。故[D]项是写作目的。[B]、[C]项太笼统,全文都是关于杰克·林德萨的评论,都是作者看待他的观点。[A]项文中未涉及。


(1)verse(n.)诗,诗节,诗句,诗篇(v.)作诗;使熟练或者精通He ~ed himself in philosophy他对于哲学很精通



(4)venture(n.)冒险,风险,投机(v.)冒险,敢于,冒昧地说;为赢利而进行冒险的企业joint ~合资企业

(5)bedrock(n.)岩床;根底,基础;基本原则[事实];最低点[额] come/get down to ~穷根究底;山穷水尽











(16)to one's credit使值得赞扬,使受尊重,如To his credit, Jack never told anyone what had happened.杰克对所发生的事守口如瓶,值得赞扬。




尽管战争造成了20世纪10年代的左翼文学运动实际上的解体,杰克·林德萨还在继续战斗,并在《我们要回家》和《恐怖之外》两部作品中探索了当时的事件。在这两部小说中,以前专属于邪恶的资本家和法国士兵的称号未加修饰地转用到了德国部队上。战后,林德萨继续主要就当时的背景进行写作,试图以不同程度的成功与战后英国非激进的政治现实达成妥协。在他1993年以《背叛的春天》开始的《英国的路》这一系列作品集中,看起来好像他的解决方法就是更多的依靠作家式的处理和笨拙的说教。幸运的是,从《儿子的反抗》开始转变,林德萨表现出日益渐涨的不再依靠政党解决办法的趋势,他赋予作品主人公的也仅仅是最基本的政治觉悟除此之外什么也没有。因此在他最新的当代小说(看起来也是最后的一部)《时间的抉择》中,主人公柯林带着绝望的语气说道:"什么都得改,这样的生活我再也过不下去了,但是我该如何改变这一切呢?" 值得赞扬的是,杰克·林德萨作为一名艺术家,没有给出问题的具体答案。


1.A 2.D 3.B 4.B 5.A








[A] 幻想的 [B] 悲观的 [C] 没有根据 [D] 现实的

[精解] 第一段提到,投资者几年前的梦想是永远拿到20%的(股票投资)回报。现在调查显示它降到了"现实的"8%至10%的范围。第二段作者先提出疑问:但是如果未来几年里这个值低于正常的期望呢?接着以银行信用分析家Martin Barnes和标准普尔5000指数为例指出,未来股票投资回报率必然是下降的。二段末句作者指出,很少有投资者为此作好了准备。由此可推出,面对股票投资回报下降的趋势,投资者的判断是不够现实的,是幻想的,因此[A]项正确。


[A] 不再投入更多资金到股票市场

[B] 对贬值的股票反应很愤怒

[C] 将他们的资金转向市场其他领域

[D] 对警告置若罔闻

[精解] 本题考虑事实细节题。第四段第一句提到,许多投资者(savers)对拥有太多公司股票的危险视而不见。[D]项是该句的改写,其中turn a deaf ear对应原文中的shut their eyes to,the warning对应the dangers。

第三段作者通过休伊特(Hewitt)咨询公司的职员的介绍说明,投资者仍在不断地投钱(keeping their contributions up),但是他们不太愿意把资金转投其他地方了(less inclined to switch their money around)。由此排除[A]和[C]项。第三段末句"投资者普遍感到吃惊(overwhelmed)"指的就是持股者对股市不景气的反应。因此[B]项与事实不符。


[A] 投资公司股票以显示对雇主的忠诚

[B] 退出自己公司的股票

[C] 等一段时间再处理自己的股票

[D] 信任一家特殊公司的股票

[精解] 本题考查作者观点。第五段中作者提到,年青的雇员没有选择,只能等到50或55岁才能卖掉公司的股票以作为配送缴款(matching contribution)。第六段则提到,而老雇员在能够退出(getting out)的时候却没有。60岁和以上的人中1/3的人选择公司股票作为他们3/4的投资计划。该段末句作者连续用几个问号对这种做法进行了质疑:难道他们疏忽了?过度忠诚?疾病?由此我们可推出作者的观点是反对投资自己公司的做法。因此[B]项正确,排除[A]项。

第七段首句作者则提到,投资者不应该完全信任任何一家公司的股票。因此[D]项是作者反对的。[C]项文中未提。词汇补充:to a fault"过度地",如generous to a fault(过度慷慨)。


[A] 成功的企业 [B] 破产的公司 [C] 股票 [D] 庞大的企业



[A] 肯定 [B] 怀疑 [C] 否定 [D] 含糊其词

[精解] 最后一段作者给出了自己对股票投资的看法:多样股可以长远地保持稳定,再加上债券的支持。可见,作者鼓励投资者做长远地考虑。上文中作者对投资公司股票行为的警告也是在劝告投资人不要抱有一劳永逸的想法,要有长远的计划,预期可能出现的风险。




(3)turn out to be结果是,(最后)证明是,如It turned out to be a great disappointment.结果使人们大为失望。








(11)figure on指望,依赖~ your support;考虑,预期~ an hour's delay;计划~ leaving at noon




现在看来,投资者似乎选择了否认的态度。休伊特咨询公司的职员洛丽·卢卡斯指出,这很具代表性。你不会愿意看到自己的投资效益减少。休伊特公司每日跟进500,000 401 (k)帐户,发现投资者仍在不断地投钱,但是他们不太愿意把资金转投其他地方了。卢卡斯说,"这是老虎机效应,当人们认为他们找到了一台赌运极佳的机器时会对玩更有兴趣,但如今没有什么是幸运的。投资者普遍感到吃惊。"







1.B 2.B 3.D 4.C 5.C








[A] 赔偿总是归直接受害者

[B] 在奴隶制结束后来的黑人不应该接受赔偿

[C] 黑人现在正在享受他们在奴隶制度下创造的财富

[D] 有些黑人是奴隶主而不是奴隶

[精解] 本题考查了事实细节。文章第二段(opponents contend)和第四段(opponents contend)都提到了反对赔偿者的观点,其中[A]项在第二段第二句提到,[D]项在第二段末句提到。[C]项在第四段首句提到。只有[B]项不是他们的观点。


[A] 非裔美国人 [B] 非白人移民

[C] 日裔美国人 [D] 大屠杀的幸存者

[精解] 本题考查考生对词意的理解。[A]、[C]和[D]项在文章第二段先后被提到。第三段段首逻辑词also表递进,意为"还有"。由此可判断该段提到的immigrants是排除了其他三项中的另外一类人群,因此[B]项正确。


[A] 举办联邦意见听取会调查奴隶制影响

[B] 甚至主要公民权利群体也被说服

[C] 黑人的财富越来越受到关注

[D] 公众对奴隶制度的可怕经历的意识加强了

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。从第五段段首but开始文章出现了转折,主要论述赔偿运动在美国得到支持的状况。第五段提到,至少有10个城市通过了决议,力劝联邦政府举行关于奴隶制影响的意见听取会(urge federal hearings into the impact of slavery)。公民权利的主要组织都定期地提出这一议题(regularly raise the issue)。由此可见,[A]和[B]项错在把还在努力当中和讨论的事情变成了确定的事实。第六段最后一句提到,人们也越来越关注奴隶制为私有公司以及整个国家所创造的巨大的经济财富(huge economic bounty)。[C]项将"奴隶制创造的财富"变成了"黑人自己的财富",因此错误。第六段首句提到,在人们对赔偿问题的兴趣不断增强的同时,对奴隶制的恐怖经历的意识也在提升。[D]项是这句子后半部分的改写。选项中的more public awareness对应原文中的heightened sensitivity,horrors对应原文中的frightening experience。


[A] 赔偿了奴隶主的经济损失

[B] 贩卖了奴隶和缉拿了逃跑的奴隶

[C] 开展了保险和广告业务

[D] 依赖奴隶制度而存在

[精解] 本题考查了事实细节。第七段前两句提到,一家保险公司为其向奴隶主提供保险以补偿奴隶的死亡给他们带来的经济损失这一保险销售政策表示歉意。另外一家新闻报在首页刊登致歉书,为其曾经从贩卖奴隶和缉拿逃跑奴隶的广告中牟利表示歉意。因此已成事实的是两家分别开展了有关奴隶方面的保险和广告业务。[C]项正确。[B]项将"经营广告"变成了"贩卖奴隶",显然与事实不符。其他两项无法从文中推知。


[A] 二战中美国政府杀害了日裔美国人

[B] 一项新的加州法律揭露了奴隶保险政策

[C] 全国城市联盟是公民权利的组织之一

[D] 自1865年解放后黑人不再面临歧视

[精解] 本题考查全文的事实细节。第二段第二句提到,美国政府向二战中被拘留的日裔美国人道歉和赔偿,由此排除[A]项。第七段第三句提到,下个月,加利福尼亚将会有一项新的法律,要求保险公司公开他们所涉及的任何奴隶保险政策。[B]项将法律对保险公司的督促行为变成了自己的揭露行为,与事实不符。[C]项在第五段末句提到,是正确项。文章最后一段提到,自1865年黑人奴隶解放之后,近一个世纪的时间里,黑人仍然被剥夺了成为白人中产阶级的基石的机会。可见[D]项不正确。




















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