考研英语模拟题(七)

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Section Ⅰ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The Treasury could pocket 20 million a year in extra fines once the country's speed camera network is expanded. Motoring organizations warned that the __1__could become a poll tax on wheels', __2__huge number of drivers. There could be many more incidents of vandalism __3__cameras.The warnings came__4__a Daily Mail survey found almost all the 23 police forces in England and Wales were either__5__to expansion plans or considering __6__.

Nationwide, the number of speeding tickets is expected to treble,__7__ 90 million a year.__8__the scheme, police keep some of the cash from fines to __9__the costs of fitting and maintaining extra cameras and__10__that existing ones always have film in them. The rest will go to the Treasury. Both Ministers and police insist the scheme is aimed__11__at making roads safer. They point to trials in eight areas which cut collisions by a quarter and deaths and serious injuries by __12__a half.

But motoring organizations fear cameras will be sited on relatively safe__13__fast stretches to catch as many drivers as possible. Some forces are also expected to__14__the "threshold" speeds at which cameras are__15__to the absolute legal minimum-15 mph in a 10 mph limit, and 26 mph in a 20 mph zone. This could encourage drivers to stare at their speedometers instead of concentrating on the road, and __16__to more accidents. Sue Nicholson, head of campaigns at the RAC, said, "We don't have a problem with speed cameras __17__. But we do have concerns about__18__they are sited. Police risk losing credibility __19__motorists if cameras are seen as revenue-raising __20__safety devices."

1. [A] promotions [B] punishments [C] penalties [D] payments

2. [A] isolating [B] separating [C] alienating [D] detaching

3. [A] towards [B] against [C] before [D] over

4. [A] so [B] once [C] as [D] where

5. [A] subjected [B] engaged [C] intended [D] committed

6. [A] taking part [B] keeping silence [C] making exception [D] paying respect

7. [A] financing [B] profiting [C] funding [D] netting

8. [A] From [B] Under [C] On [D] With

9. [A] hide [B] cover [C] conceal [D] veil

10. [A] pledging [B] assuring [C] confirming [D] ensuring

11. [A] essentially [B] strongly [C] wholeheartedly [D] purely

12. [A] in all [B] fewer than [C] at most [D] up to

13. [A] but [B] whereas [C] though [D] while

14. [A] fit [B] put [C] set [D] fix

15. [A] levered [B] geared [C] handled [D] triggered

16. [A] lead [B] add [C] contribute [D] resort

17. [A] any less [B] by itself [C] after all [D] as such

18. [A] who [B] when [C] where [D] which

19. [A] in [B] with [C] against [D] for

20. [A] in spite of [B] far from [C] rather than [D] by means of

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Passage 1

BBC 's Casualty programme on Saturday evening gave viewers a vote as to which of two patients should benefit from a donation. But it failed to tell us that we would not need to make so many life-and-death decisions if we got to grip with the chronic organ shortage. Being pussyfooting around in its approach to dead bodies, the Government is giving a kicking to some of the most vulnerable in our society. One depressing consequence of this is that a significant number of those on the waiting list take off to foreign countries to purchase an organ from a living third-world donor, something that is forbidden in the United Kingdom. The poor have no option but to wait in vain.

The Human Tissue Authority's position on the retention of body parts for medical research after a post-mortem examination is equally flawed. The new consent forms could have been drafted by some evil person seeking to stop the precious flow of human tissue into the pathological laboratory. The forms are so lengthy that doctors rarely have time to complete them and, even if they try, the wording is so graphic that relatives tend to leg it before signing. In consequence, the number of post mortems has fallen quickly.

The wider worry is that the moral shortsightedness evident in the Human Tissue Act seems to infect every facet of the contemporary debate on medical ethics. Take the timid approach to embryonic stem cell research. The United States, for example, refuses government funding to scientists who wish to carry out potentially ground-breaking research on the surplus embryos created by IVF treatment.

Senators profess to be worried that embryonic research fails to respect the dignity of "potential persons". Rarely can such a vacuous concept have found its way into a debate claming to provide enlightenment. When is this "potential" supposed to kick in? In case you were wondering, these supposedly precious embryos are at the same stage of development as those that are routinely terminated by the Pill without anyone crying. Thankfully, the British Government has refused the position of the United States and operates one of the most liberal regimes in Europe, in which licences have been awarded to researchers to create embryos for medical research. It is possible that, in years to come, scientists will be able to grow organs in the lab and find cures for a range of debilitating diseases.

The fundamental problem with our approach to ethics is our inability to separate emotion from policy. The only factor that should enter our moral and legal deliberations is that of welfare, a concept that is meaningless when applied to entities that lack self-consciousness. Never forget that the research that we are so reluctant to conduct upon embryos and dead bodies is routinely carried out on living, pain-sensitive animals.

1. What has caused the chronic organ shortage?

[A] a decrease in donation rates. [B] inefficient governmental policy.

[C] illegal trade in human organs. [D] news media's indifference.

2. The expression "pussyfooting around" (Line 3, Paragraph 1) might mean______.

[A] unfair [B] hesitant [C] secret [D] strict

3. The moral shortsightedness is revealed in the fact that _____.

[A] the government has stopped the experiment on human tissue

[B] the donation consent forms are difficult to understand

[C] the Human Tissues Act is an obstacle to important medical research

[D] embryonic research shows disregard for human life

4. To which of the following is the author most likely to agree?

[A] the rich and the poor are equal in the face of death.

[B] more scientists are needed for the medical advancement.

[C] there is a double standard in medical ethics.

[D] the dead deserve the same attention as the living.

5. The author is most critical of_____.

[A] the media [B] doctors

[C] U. S. legislators [D] the British government


Passage 2

In the late 1980s, Akio Morita, the co-founder of Sony Corp. , embarked on the most costly shopping expedition of his long career. A visionary who believed that Sony's future lay in the convergence of hardware and "content" such as music and film, Morita eventually set his sights on Columbia Pictures Entertainment, with its two studios and a vast library of movie titles and television series. In September, 1989, after months of on-again, off-again negotiations, Sony agreed to pay the inflated asking price of $3.2 billion and assume $1.6 billion in debt.

What was the rationale for such a decision? According to John Nathan's Sony: The Private Life, it was motivated only by senior executives' desire to please the company patriarch. Even Morita, then Sony's chairman and CEO, believed that Columbia's price tag, originally $35 per share, was exorbitant. In a closed-door meeting in August, 1989, details of which have never been fully revealed, he told his seven top aides, who made up the decision-making executive committee, that he was abandoning the idea of the acquisition.

That would have been the end of it had Morita not voiced regret over dinner that evening with the committee members. "It's too bad," he lamented, "I've always dreamed of owning a Hollywood studio." The next day, the group reconvened and promptly decided that Sony would purchase Columbia after all. In the weeks that followed, Sony upped its bid from an initial $15 to $27 a share and, by late September, made a deal that was ridiculed by industry experts. In 1994, mismanagement forced Sony to write off $2.7 billion and assume a loss of $510 million for its Hollywood experiment.

Sony: The Private Life is filled with such insiders' tales, making it the most vivid and detailed account in English of the personalities who built the $50 billion-plus consumer-electronics giant. Nathan, a professor of Japanese cultural studies at the University of California, got access to dozens of executives who had contributed to or witnessed Sony's development since its 1946 founding in war-devastated Tokyo. Nathan offers, however, only limited analysis of Sony, the corporation. And he tends to go over well-trodden ground: how Sony established itself in the U.S. and how it developed famous products or devices. Much of this has appeared before in articles and, to a lesser extent, in books.

This is not to say that Nathan's book has no point of view. The company's underlying problem, as illustrated in the Columbia case, is that the environment in which the Sony Corporation has historically conducted its affairs is less public than personal, less rational than sentimental. In conclusion, Nathan says that, under the current leadership of President Nobuyuki Idei, Sony is emerging as a rational company. Moreover, Idei and his practical-minded managers are intent on reinventing Sony as an Internet company. From now on, says Nathan, "personal relationships are not likely again to figure decisively." But how will this Sony fare? Nathan admits that a dazzling future is far from guaranteed.

1. Which of the following is true of Sony's acquisition of Columbia Pictures?

[A] It was motivated by Morita's desire to project an image of success.

[B] Sony's top executives were quite convinced of its benefits for the company.

[C] Entertainment industry insiders believed it was the failure of Hollywood.

[D] It was the expensive expansion from electronics into entertainment.

2. The word "patriarch" (line 2, paragraph 2) most probably means_____.

[A] founder [B] monarch [C] elder [D] forerunner

3. It can be inferred from the last two paragraphs that_____.

[A] Sony: The Private Life is the biography of Akio Morita

[B] Sony's Japanese leaders have been too practical-minded

[C] this management problem of Sony cannot be rectified overnight

[D] Nathan did not write about how Sony established itself as the electronics giant

4. Nathan's attitude towards Morita seems to be of_____.

[A] strong distaste [B] implicit criticism

[C] enthusiastic support [D] reserved consent

5. The best title for the passage may be_____.

[A] Sony's Shopping Expedition [B] Sony: the Private Life

[C] Who Drove Sony to Ground [D] Sony: Management by Impulse

Passage 3

Not long after the telephone was invented, I assume, a call was placed. The caller was a parent saying, "Your child is bullying my child, and I want it stopped!" the bully's parent replied, "You must have the wrong number. My child is a little angel."

A trillion phone calls later, the conversation is the same. When children are teased or tyrannized, the parental impulse is to grab the phone and rant. But these days, as studies in the U.S.show bullying on the rise and parental supervision on the decline, researchers who study bullying say that calling moms and dads is more futile than ever. Such calls often lead to playground recriminations and don't really teach our kids any lessons about how to navigate the world and resolve conflicts.

When you call parents, you want them to "extract the cruelty" from their bullying children, says Laura Kavesh, a child psychologist in Evanston, Illinois. "But many parents are blown away by the idea of their child being cruel. They won't believe it." In a recent police-department survey in Oak Harbor, Washington, 89% of local high school students said they had engaged in bullying behavior. Yet only 18% of parents thought their children would act as bullies.

In a new U.S.PTA survey, 5% of parents support contacting other parents to deal with bullying. But many educators warn that those conversations can be misinterpreted, causing tempers to flare. Instead, they say, parents should get objective outsiders, like principals, to mediate.

Meanwhile, if you get a call from a parent who is angry about your child's bullying, listen without getting defensive. That's what Laura McHugh of Castro Valley, California, did when a caller told her that her then 13-year-old son had spit in another boy's food. Her son had confessed, but the victim's mom "wanted to make sure my son hadn't given her son a nasty disease," says McHugh, who apologized and promised to get her son tested for AIDS and other diseases. She knew the chance of contracting any disease this way was remote, but her promise calmed the mother and showed McHugh's son that his bad behaviour was being taken seriously. McHugh, founder of Parents Coach Kids, a group that teaches parenting skills, sent the mom the test results. All were negative.

Remember: once you make a call, you might not like what you hear. If you have an itchy dialing finger, resist temptation. Put it in your pocket.

1.The word "bullying" probably means _____.

[A] frightening and hurting [B] teasing

[C] behaving like a tyrant [D] laughing at

2. Calling to a bully's parent _____.

[A] has long existed but changed its content

[B] is often done with careful thinking

[C] often leads to blaming and misunderstanding

[D] is used to warn the child not to do it again

3. According to the surveys in the U. S., _____.

[A] bullying among adults is also rising

[B] parents are not supervising their children well

[C] parents seldom believe bullies

[D] most parents resort to calling to deal with bullying

4. When bullying occurs, parents should _____.

[A] help the bulling child get rid of cruelty

[B] resort to the mediator

[C] avoid getting too protective

[D] resist the temptation of calling

5.Laura McHugh promised to get the bullied boy tested for diseases because _____.

[A] her son confessed to being wrong

[B] she was afraid to annoy the boy's parent

[C] he was likely to be affected by these diseases

[D] she wanted to teach her own son a lesson


Passage 4

One of the silliest things in our recent history was the use of "Victorian" as a term of contempt or abuse. It had been made fashionable by Lytton Strachey with his clever, superficial and ultimately empty book Eminent Victorians, in which he damned with faint praise such Victorian heroes as General Gordon and Florence Nightingale. Strachey's demolition job was clever because it ridiculed the Victorians for exactly those qualities on which they prided themselves-their high mindedness, their marked moral intensity, their desire to improve the human condition and their confidence that they had done so.

Yet one saw, even before the 100th anniversary of the death of Queen Victoria this year, that there were signs these sneering attitudes were beginning to change. Programmes on radio and television about Victoria and the age that was named after her managed to humble themselves only about half the time. People were beginning to realize that there was something heroic about that epoch and, perhaps, to fear that the Victorian age was the last age of greatness for this country.

Now a new book, What The Victorians Did For Us, aims further to redress the balance and remind us that, in most essentials, our own age is really an extension of what the Victorians created. You can start with the list of Victorian inventions. They were great lovers of gadgets from the smallest domestic ones to new ways of propelling ships throughout the far-flung Empire. In medicine, anaesthesia (developed both here and in America) allowed surgeons much greater time in which to operate-and hence to work on the inner organs of the body-not to mention reducing the level of pain and fear of patients.

To the Victorians we also owe lawn tennis, a nationwide football association under the modern rules, powered funfair rides, and theatres offering mass entertainment. And, of course, the modern seaside is almost entirely a Victorian invention. There is, of course, a darker side to the Victorian period. Everyone knows about it mostly because the Victorians catalogued it themselves. Henry Mayhew's wonderful set of volumes on the lives of the London poor, and official reports on prostitution, on the workhouses and on child labour-reports and their statistics that were used by Marx when he wrote Das Kapital-testify to the social conscience that was at the center of "Victorian values".

But now, surely, we can appreciate the Victorian achievement for what it was-the creation of the modern world. And when we compare the age of Tennyson and Darwin, of John Henry Newman and Carlyle, with our own, the only sensible reaction is one of humility: "We are our father's shadows cast at noon".

1.According to the author, Lytton Strachey's book Eminent Victorians _____.

[A] accurately described the qualities of the people of the age

[B] superficially praised the heroic deeds of the Victorians

[C] was highly critical of the contemporary people and institutions

[D] was guilty of spreading prejudices against the Victorians

2. The change in the attidues towards the Vcitorians is revealed in the fact that _____.

[A] the 100th anniversary of the death of Queen Victoria is celebrated

[B] the media publicizes events or people about the Victorian age

[C] people begin to highly praise Victorian heroes

[D] a new book regards Victorians as creators of the modern world

3. What is the meaning of the word "gadgets" (Paragraph 4)?

[A] devices [B] tools [C] appliances [D] engines

4. According to the text, the Victorians invented _____.

[A] surgery [B] seaside holiday [C] funfair [D] mass entertainment

5. The author talks about the darker side of the Victorian period to _____.

[A] disclose the social injustices and evils

[B] give proof to Karl Marx's Das Kapital

[C] manifest the Victorians' good sense of right and wrong

[D] show the age's strengths outweigh its weaknesses

Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Have you ever considered what makes a good boss good? The answer to that question is admittedly mercurial, as one person's view of a top-notch employer will differ from somebody else's. However, there are a number of traits, attitudes and abilities that are common to all good bosses. Moreover, the need for solid leadership skills is especially telling with smaller businesses.

"Being a good boss is important in any organization, but it's particularly important for small business," says Rob Sheehan, director of executive education at the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership at the University of Maryland. "With smaller businesses, you really have the opportunity to set the tone for the entire company."

Bearing in mind the importance of good leadership to business, consider the following lineup of skills, strategies and attributes:

41. Be inclusive.

With a smaller operation, it's essential that everyone feels like an equal and involved part of the team. A good employer is certain to treat each employee fairly, not only in terms of salary and other forms of compensation, but also in how that employee is involved in the daily function of the business. Encourage feedback, innovation and creativity so employees feel genuinely engaged.

42. Mission, not just money.

Very few businesses operate out of sheer altruism, but that's not to say that turning a profit is the primary philosophical and practical focus. Rather, an effective boss establishes a genuine business mission. How that takes shape depends both on the business and on the overriding focus the boss wants to set.

43. Nothing to fear but fear itself.

Many of us have had bosses who would be right at home with a knife next to their desk calendars. Make one mistake on the job and feel free to slip your head right in beneath the blade. Conversely, an effective boss encourages his or her employees not to be gun shy about occasional chaos along the road toward better job performance.

44. It's their careers, too.

Don't forget that the people who work for you are looking to you to help them navigate and advance their careers. As I said, it's not all about money. But it is all about making your employees see how to improve and create meaningful careers for themselves.

45. Made, not necessarily born.

One final aspect of being a good boss is recognizing that much of what goes into being an effective leader is, in fact, learned behavior. Of course, there always have been and will be bosses who seem to have a flawless touch in leading and motivating. But for every natural, there are just as many top-flight bosses who got that way by attending management classes and seminars, reading books on effective leadership and, just as important, understanding that a good employer naturally attracts first-rate employees.

[A] "It's important to use that different perspective to educate and encourage. But it's also important, like a good coach, to lead your team by example. For instance, while you should point out mistakes by your employees, be sure to admit when you yourself make a mistake," says Sheehan.

[B] "You need to create an environment of integrity, trust and respect to make absolutely certain that everyone is treated fairly, regardless of the differences they may have," says Sheehan.

[C] "People can definitely develop good leadership capabilities," says Sheehan. "To a certain degree, we all have innate traits that make us good bosses. All you really have to do is work to develop those traits to their utmost."

[D] If an employee has a goal of becoming a manager or running his or her own business someday, nurture that goal. Tell them the traits they need to work on to achieve their ultimate plans.

[E] For instance, a restaurant owner may push speedy lunchtime service as a way of serving the time-strapped business community. By contrast, a medical supply outfit may emphasize how its products improve customers' health. Not only can a clear mission(responsibility) serve to motivate employees, it can also infuse a sense of importance in their jobs.

[F] "This requires a mentality that encourages learning rather than being afraid of making a mistake. Try something new and different, but know we're not going to kill each other if things don't work out," says Sheehan. "I was a swimmer in college and I swam fast when I imagined a shark was after me. I swam just as fast when I imagined I was in the Olympics. It's a question of what you want to focus on."

Part C

Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

The meanings of "science"and "technology"have changed significantly from one generation to another. More similarities than differences, however, can be found between the terms, (46)Both science and technology imply a thinking process, both are concerned with causal relationships in the material world, and both employ an experimental methodology that results in empirical demonstrations that can be verified by repetition. (47)Science, at least in theory, is less concerned with the practicality of its results and more concerned with the development of general laws, but in practice science and technology are inextricably involved with each other. The varying interplay of the two can be observed in the historical development of such practitioners as chemists, engineers, physicists, astronomers, carpenters, potters, and many other specialists. Differing educational requirements, social status, vocabulary, methodology, and types of rewards, as well as institutional objectives and professional goals, contribute to such distinctions as can be made between the activities of scientists and technologists; but throughout history the practitioners of "pure"science have made many practical as well as theoretical contributions.

(48) Indeed, the concept that science provides the ideas for technological innovations and that pure research is therefore essential for any significant advancement in industrial civilization is essentially a myth. Most of the greatest changes in industrial civilization cannot be traced to the laboratory. Fundamental tools and processes in the fields of mechanics, chemistry, astronomy, metallurgy, and hydraulics were developed before the laws governing their functions were discovered. The steam engine, for example, was commonplace before the science of thermodynamics elucidated the physical principle underlying its operations.

In recent years a sharp value distinction has their bitter opponents, but today many people have come to fear technology much more than science. (49) For these people , science may be perceived as a serene, objective source for understanding the eternal laws of nature, whereas the practical manifestations of technology in the modern world now seem to them to be out of control.

(50) Many historians of science argue not only that technology is an essential condition of advanced, industrial civilization but also that the rate of technological change has developed its own momentum in recent centuries. Innovations now seem to appear at a rate that increase geometrically, without respect to geographical limits or political systems. These innovations tend to transform traditional cultural systems, frequently with unexpected social consequences. Thus technology can be conceived as both a creative and a destructive process.


答案

1. C 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. B 9.B 10. D

11. D 12.D 13. A 14. C 15. B 16. A 17. D 18. C 19.B 20.C

总体分析

本文讲述了英国车速监控摄像体系扩张计划的内容及影响,着重阐述了这一计划的支持者(警察和财政部门)和反对者(机动车管理机构)的观点。

试题精解

1.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。文章首句的大意是:一旦扩大车速监控摄像体系,财政部每年就能增加2000万收入,这笔收入就是超速驾车者交纳的罚金(fines)。第二句紧接着提到:机动车组织警告说这种__1__可能变成对汽车征收的人头税。很明显,空格处填入的名词和上下文的fines和poll tax呼应,应表示"罚金、罚款"的含义。promotion意为"促进,发扬,提升";应首先排除。punishment泛指各种处罚或惩罚,诸如法律、父母、老师以及神的惩罚等。penalty有一个主要义项表示"因违反法律、规则或合同而施加的惩罚(监禁、罚款等)"。payment作可数名词时意为"款项,款额"。因此penalty最符合文意。

2.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。由于四个选项都是现在分词形式,因此可知第二句的后半句是一个状语结构,进一步揭示"罚款成为对汽车征收的人头税"(that the penalties could become a "poll tax on wheels")给"众多驾车人员"(huge number of drivers)造成的影响。isolate sb./sth. (from sb./sth.)意为"使……与他人/他物完全隔离,孤立……",如Patients with the disease should be isolated(这种病的患者应予以隔离);separate sth. / sb. from…表示"把某物/某人从……当中分离出来";alienate意为"使……疏远……,使……变得冷淡(不再爱或信任)",如:The Prime Minister's policy alienated many of her followers(首相的政策使很多拥护她的人疏远了她);detach sth. (from sth.),"将某物拆下,分开某物"。只有alienate符合上下文,表示"(罚款的增多)使驾驶员不满从而疏远"。

3.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义搭配和介词词义的辨析。towards意为"关于,对于;以……为目标或目的,用于",如our attitude towards death(我们对死亡的态度);The money will go towards the school building(此款项将用于建设学校)。against意为"逆着,反对,与……对抗",如the fight against terrorism(反对恐怖主义的斗争)。before意为"在……以前"。over意为"在……上方;由于,关于",如an argument over money(为了钱的争吵)。由于原文中"故意破坏行为(vandalism)"是对摄像机的不满和抗议,因此against最贴切,表示的含义是:可能出现更多故意破坏摄像机的事件。

4.[精解] 本题考查逻辑关系和连词用法的辨析。第一段末句是个复合句,The warnings came是主句,后面__4__ a Daily Mail survey found…是从句,填入的连词要能保证主从句之间逻辑关系成立。我们可以用筛选法选出正确答案。如选so,那么主从句之间就成了因果关系。once"一旦……",引导条件状语从句,并且它引导的是充分条件,显然文中表达的含义不可能是"一旦《每日邮报》的调查发现……,这些警告就出现了"。把as填入空格,从句就成了一个时间状语从句:"当《每日邮报》的调查发现……时,就出现了这些意见"。表示两件事同时发生,这样的"主从"逻辑关系能够成立。where引导地点状语从句,而这里的从句不表示地点,很容易排除where。因此只能选择as。

5.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义和习惯搭配的辨析。空格部分填入的分词需要和be动词和介词to搭配,表示"英格兰和威尔士的23支警力……监控体系的扩张计划"。[B]和[C]项不和to搭配。be engaged in/on sth.表示"忙于,从事于",如They are engaged in talks with the government(他们正忙着与政府谈判)。be intended for/as sth.,表示"为……打算或设计的",如The book is intended for children(这本书是为儿童而写的);The notes are intended as an introduction to the course(这些笔记的目的是作为对这门课程的介绍)。[A]项的搭配be subjected to sth.表示"遭受",与文意不符。[D]项be committed to sth.表示"决心投身某项事业或做某件事情",如The government remained committed to peace(政府仍然致力于和平事业)。因此正确答案为[D]项,文中表示"致力于部署监控体系的扩张计划"。

6.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义搭配。空格所在句子的含义是:英格兰和威尔士的23支警力都有所行动,不是致力于实现部署监控体系的扩张计划就是在考虑……。英语的介词结构either…or…属于平行结构,也就是说前后两项的语义是相近的。因此我们要选择四个选项中和committed to expansion plans最接近、最相关的那一项。take part意为"参加,加入……行动";keep silence意为"保持沉默";make exception意为"破例";pay respect 意为"表达敬意"。只有take part最接近,填入原文就是considering taking part (in the expansion plans)(也考虑加入其中)。因此正确答案为[A]项。

7.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。finance意为"为(计划等)拨款",意思与fund很相近;fund意为"出资,为……拨款(后常接对象)",如:The government is funding another unemployment scheme(政府正为处理失业问题的另一计划拨款);profit意为"获益,得到好处;对…有用(或有益)"后面接by/from sth或sb.。net意为"净得、净赚(某利润等)",如:The sale of paintings netted £ 17000.(卖画净得17000英磅)。原文这句话大意是:预计(在实施监控系统后)全国范围内违章超速行驶的罚单数量会增加两倍,罚金数目一年79000万。net在文中表示"罚金为政府创收,带来更多利润",为正确答案。

8.[精解] 本题考查介词词义的辨析。空格所在句子和下一句在论述罚金的去向:警察保留一部分来安装新摄像机,维护现有设备,其余部分上缴财政部。此处需要填入一个介词。from具体义项很多,但基本义项为"从……"(表示来源);under意为"根据(协议、法律、制度的)规定",如:Six suspects are held under the Prevention of Terrorism Act(根据《防止恐怖活动法案》,拘留了六名疑犯);on表示"关于,在……上面";with意为"伴随或带着某物"。选择under与the scheme搭配,表示"依据计划",最符合题意。因此正确答案为[B]项。

9.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。hide意为"掩藏,隐瞒";cover除了表示"掩盖,覆盖",还指"(钱)足够支付,够付",如:The firm barely covers its costs(该公司几乎入不敷出。);conceal意为"隐藏,掩饰";veil意为"遮掩,掩饰(某事物)"。空格处需要填cover,表示"(从罚金中拿出)足够的钱支付维修和安装新摄像机的费用"。

10.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。粗略看一下选项,这四个动词都有保证的意思,但用法有细微差别。pledge sth. to sb./sth. 意为"保证给予(支持等),以(名誉、誓言等)担保",如:pledge loyalty to the king(发誓效忠国王);assure sb. of sth./that,表示"向某人保证……一定会发生、实现",如I assure you they'll be perfectly safe with us(我向你保证他们和我们在一起很安全);confirm意为"(尤指提供证据来)证实,证明,确认",如He guilty expression confirmed my suspicions(他内疚的表情证实了我的猜疑)。ensure sth. /that意为"保证……的实现,确定……会发生",如The book ensured his success(这本书保证他会成功)。pledge和assure都含有"向某人保证……的实现"的意思,但搭配中都需要有sb.做间接宾语;只有ensure不要求接间接宾语。本题空格处分词的逻辑主语是the costs,宾语是一个that引导的从句,因此只有ensure能和它们搭配,表示"费用用于安装和维修新摄像机,并且(费用)保证现有的摄像机中总是有胶卷"。

11.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义搭配。Strongly意为"强烈地",如They strongly recommended this textbook(他们强烈推荐这本教材);wholeheartedly意为"全心全意地";essentially意为"实质上地,根本地";purely意为"纯粹地,完全是"。句意为:财政部长们和警察都坚持认为车速监控摄像体系的目的__11__是提高公路的安全性。四个选项填入空格中只有purely符合句子的逻辑意义。

12.[精解] 本题考查逻辑关系和固定短语的辨析。上文说,部长们和警察都坚持认为监控系统扩张计划有利于增强公路的安全性。空格所在句子则指出,他们举出了八个试点地区交通事故明显减少的例子。cut…by…这个结构表示数量上削减了多少。cut collisions by a quarter指"撞车事故减少了四分之一";(cut)deaths and serious injuries by__12__ a half指"严重伤亡事故减少二分之一")。in all是副词短语,意为"总共",不能与by…a half 搭配。fewer than意为"不足",at most意为"至多,最多",这两个选项会削弱数据的说服力,也不符合此处的逻辑。up to表示"高达",由于句中a half比前面的a quarter数量增高,所以up to比其它项更能体现逻辑上的一致性和递进性。因此正确答案应为[D]项。

13.[精解] 本题考查连词用法的辨析。空格所在句子的含义是:(针对官方的论据,反对者立即提出了新的质疑。)机动车组织担心警察为了多开罚单就把摄像机装在相对安全但行车速度较快的直行道上。该句中safe和fast含义上有一定的矛盾性,而直行道(stretch)却兼具这两种特性,既安全又高速。but作连词时,有一种特定用法表示"但又……,同时也……",如He was tired but happy after the long walk(他走了很长一段路之后,虽然很累却也很愉快)。由于whereas,though和while作连词只能引导从句,因此只有[A]项正确。

14.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格所在句子指出,警察还可能对车速监控摄像机……最低时速。所选动词后的宾语the "threshold" speed指"起点时速、最低时速"。fit意为"安装(设备)";put意为"放置,搁放";set意为"制定,设置";fix意为"固定,修理(物品)"。只能选择动词set才能与宾语搭配。

15.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义搭配和动词词义的辨析。空格所在的从句是一个定语从句,把连词which恢复成先行词利于我们看清这个从句的意思,从而选择空格处的动词:at the threshold speeds cameras are15 to the absolute minimum 15 mph in a 10 mph limit。该句子的含义是:警察在设置摄像机的最低合法车速标准时,把正常的10 mph限速提高到15 mph(这样就会有更多的车辆被摄像机捕捉,判为非法低速行驶)。这里只有gear符合题意,因为它有一个义项是"对某事物加以调节以适应某种需要或达到某种水平或标准",如:Our effort is geared to a higher level of production(我们调整力量,将生产推向更高的水平)。而其他三项动词均不合题意:lever意为"(用杠杆)撬动……";trigger意为"引发";handle意为"处理……情况"。

16.[精解] 本题考查动词短语的辨析。选项中的四个动词都可以和介词to搭配,因此关键是辨析四个短语的含义是否符合文意。lead to表示"导致,造成",如Eating too much sugar can lead to health problem(食用过多的糖会引起健康问题)。add to表示"使(数量)增加;使(规模)扩大",如The bad weather only added to our difficulties(恶劣的天气只是增加了我们的困难)。contribute to含义丰富,可表示"是……的原因;增加,增进;投稿",如Medical negligence contributed to her death(医务人员的玩忽职守是她死亡的原因)。resort to表示"求助于,依靠",如resort to violence(诉诸暴力)。根据上下文,(设置摄像机的最低合法车速)会促使司机盯着自己的里程计而不把精力集中到路面上,从而……更多的交通事故。显然,空格前后是因果关系,因此lead to符合文意,表示"引发更多的交通事故"。

17.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义搭配。空格所在部分的内容是反对者的声音:"对车速监控摄像机我们并无意见,但是我们担心它们被安放的地点。"any less用于否定句中,表示程度上丝毫不削弱多少,如Though she could not stand on her feet any more after the illness, her husband did not love her any less(虽然经过这场疾病以后她再也不能站起来了,她的丈夫仍然一如既往地爱她)。by itself意为"单独地",如The house stands by itself in an acre of land(房子孤零零地坐落在一大片田野间)。after all意为"毕竟"。as such表示"从字面意义看,严格说来",如The new job is not a promotion as such but it has good prospects(担任这一新职务算不上真正的提拔,不过却有美好的前途)。四个选项中as such从语义和结构上都满足要求,表示"严格上说我们对摄像机没有意见"。

18.[精解] 本题考查逻辑语义搭配。从上题我们可以知道反对者很关注这些摄像机安放的地点(是否公正),原句是But we do have concerns about__18__they are sited。about后面是一个宾语从句,其中they are sited是主谓部分,空格处需要的是一个状语,四个选项中,只有where可以用来表示地点状语,为正确答案。

19.[精解] 本题考查介词用法的辨析。空格前的名词credibility意为"信用,信誉,他人(对……)的信任",空格后是motorists。由上下文可以推知,这里表示的是"驾车者对警察的信任",或者说"(在驾车者看来)警察的信誉"。首先排除against"反对,与……对抗"。介词in接人作宾语时,表示动作的对象,如I believe in you(我相信你),而文中credibility的对象是police,而不是motorists。for的义项很多,如"对于,为了,因为",但都不能和credibility搭配,因此也被排除。With接人做宾语可表示"在……看来",如The housing shortage is very much with us today(我们目前住房十分紧张)。因此只有with符合文意,在文中表示:在驾驶者看来,警察可能丧失他们的威信。

20.[精解] 本题考查介词词组辨析。in spite of意为"尽管……,不管……",如They went out in spite of the rain(尽管下着雨,他们还是出去了)。far from意为"几乎相反,远非",如It is far from (being) clear(一点也不清楚)。rather than多用于比较两个事物的差异,它后面跟说话人不喜欢、不认同或者想要否定的事物,如The problem is psychological rather than physiological(这是个心理问题而不是生理问题)。by means of意为"通过……的方式",如lift the load by means of a crane(用起重机把重物吊起来)。因此只有rather than符合题意:监控摄像机被看成聚敛财政收入的手段而非安全设施。

全文翻译

一旦扩大车速监控摄像体系,这个国家财政部每年就能从罚款中额外增加2000万收入。机动车管理机构警告说这种罚款可能变成对汽车征收的人头税,从而疏远很多驾驶者。也可能出现更多破坏摄像机的事件。警告出现的同时,《每日邮报》的调查发现英格兰和威尔士的23支警力几乎都有所行动,不是致力于部署监控体系的扩张计划,就是在考虑加入其中。

预计(在实施监控系统后)全国范围内违章超速行驶的罚单数量会增加两倍,罚金数目一年达9000万。按照计划,警察保留一部分罚金用以支付安装和维修新摄像机的费用,并且保证现有的摄像机中总是装有胶卷。其余的罚金将上缴财政部。财政部长们和警察都坚持认为该计划的目的是提高公路的安全性。他们指出八个试点地区撞车事故减少了四分之一,严重伤亡事故减少至一半。

但是机动车管理机构担心警察为了多开罚单会把摄像机装在相对安全但行车速度较快的直行道上,还会为车速监控摄像机设置最低合法车速标准,如把正常的每小时10 英里限速提高到每小时15英里,每小时20 英里限速提高到每小时26英里。这样做会使司机盯着自己的里程计而不把精力集中到路面上,从而引发更多的交通事故。英国皇家汽车俱乐部(RAC)活动负责人休·尼科尔森说,"严格上说,我们对车速监控摄像机并无意见,我们担忧的是它们被安放的地点。如果把监控摄像机视为(政府)聚敛财政收入的手段而不是安全设施,那么警察就可能丧失他们在驾驶者心目中的威信"。

答案

1.B 2.B 3.C 4.C 5.C

总体分析

本文介绍了器官捐赠和胚胎研究方面的医学伦理之争。

第一段:由于政府对于尸体的方式过分小心,致使许多人非法去别国购买活体器官,而穷人则只能徒然地等待。

第二段:验尸后捐赠器官用于研究的观点也有缺陷,因为低效的捐赠同意书可能导致验尸的数量骤然下降。

第三至四段:美国医学伦理的争论受道德短视的影响,出现了尊重"潜在的人"的空洞概念。但英国政府持不同立场,已经授权研究者为医学研究制造胚胎。

第五段:总结指出,我们对待伦理的方法上存在的基本问题是没有能力把情感与政策分开。

试题精解

1. 什么导致了长期的器官短缺?

[A] 捐赠比率下降。 [B] 政府无效的政策。

[C] 人体器官的非法交易。 [D] 新闻媒体的漠不关心。

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段一开始提到英国广播公司的节目让观众投票决定哪个病人接受器官捐赠。接着第二句作者对此发表看法:这种节目没有告诉观众处理长期的器官缺乏问题的重要性。第三句提到政府在对待尸体的方式是顾虑重重,而这造成的结果是有钱人购买活体器官,穷人则无可奈何。由此可推出[B]项是造成这种现象的原因。[A]项文中未提,[C]项是结果,仅从该段首句无从推知[D]项正确。

2. 第一段第三行的表达"pussyfooting around"的含义可能是。

[A] 不公平 [B]犹豫的,踌躇的

[C] 秘密的 [D] 严格的

[精解] 本题考查根据上下文猜测词义。由上文第一段第一、二句可知,如果认真处理长期的器官缺乏问题,就不需要作出像英国广播公司节目中的那种生死抉择。pussyfooting around在第三句提到,是形容"政府对待死尸的方法"。下文则指出政府的这种方法带来的结果,即不同等待器官捐赠的人的做法。因此可推知,这种方法主要造成了器官短缺。[B]项正确。

3. 体现了道德短视的事实是。

[A] 政府停止了人体组织的实验

[B] 捐赠同意书很难读懂

[C] 《人体组织法令》是重要的医学研究的障碍

[D] 胚胎研究无视人类生命

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。可用排除法解题。[A]项错在has stopped,文中只提到政府对人体组织没有给予足够的支持;[B]项在第二段提到,但它只能说明器官捐赠程序的复杂,不涉及道德领域。题干中的"moral shortsightedness" 出现在第三段首句,该句指出,《人体组织法令》明显的道德短视影响了当前的医学伦理争论。胚胎干细胞研究方法小心翼翼,美国政府拒绝为科学家提供资助,进行具有潜在的突破性的研究。由此可知[C]项正确。[D]项是第四段首句中参议员反对胚胎研究提出的论点,不是道德短视的体现。

4. 作者最可能同意下面哪个说法?

[A] 富人和穷人在死亡面前是平等的。 [B] 医学进步需要更多的科学家。

[C] 医学伦理中有双重标准。 [D] 死人和活人一样值得关注。

[精解] 本题考查作者观点。第一段后半部分提到,由于捐赠的器官缺乏,穷人是更容易受打击的群体,他们除了等待别无选择。由此可排除[A]项。第三段和第四段末句提到科学家进行胚胎研究的重要性,现在的主要问题是道德短视使政府拒绝为科学家提供资助。因此[B]项并不是文中观点,该项中的scientists应换成funds。从第三段开始全文都在讨论医学伦理道德问题。第四段第三句和第四句中,作者对议员的"潜在的人"的概念进行了批驳,指出这些想象上宝贵的胚胎与那些被避孕丸扼杀却没有任何人哭泣的的生命处于同样的发展阶段。第五段末句作者指出,"不要忘记我们如此不愿进行的胚胎和尸体的研究正在一些活生生的、有疼痛知觉的动物上照常实行"。由此可知[C]项正确。[D]项与作者观点相反。

5. 作者对谁持有最严厉的批评态度?

[A] 媒体 [B] 医生 [C] 美国立法者 [D] 英国政府

[精解] 本题考查作者态度。[A]项只在第一段开始出现,是为了引出器官捐赠这个话题;[B]项出现在第二段,说明捐赠同意书的冗长让医生读来很费力;因此,作者对这两类人都没有给出明确的批评态度。第二段提到同意书的起草者,指出他可能"怀有恶意并试图阻止人体组织运往病理化验所"。第三段作者直接批评《人体组织法令》的道德短视,该法令的制定者必然也是作者所批判的;第四段首句提到"参议员",作者对他的"潜在的人"的观点予以驳斥。由此可推出[C]项是作者最严厉批评的一类人。第四段倒数第二句提到"英国政府",指出英国政府持有与美国不同的立场,允许科学家进行胚胎研究。因此作者对它是持肯定态度的。

核心词汇和超纲词汇

(1)get to grips with认真处理

(2)chronic(a.)慢性的,长期的,延续很长的

(3)pussyfoot(v.)(about/around)谨慎的,顾虑重重的

(4)approach (n.) 方式、方法、态度,如The school has decided to adopt a different ~ to discipline(学校决定采取另外一种方式解决纪律问题)

(5)vulnerable(a.)易受攻击的,脆弱的,敏感的

(6)retention(n.)保留,保持;retain(v.)

(7)leg it逃跑

(8)purport(v.)自称,标榜;(n.)主要意思,大意,主旨

(9)kick in开始生效(或见效)

(10)regime(n.)统治方式,统治制度,政权,政体;组织方法,管理体制

(11)deliberation(n.)熟思,考虑,商议

全文翻译

英国广播公司的"急诊服务处"节目于周六晚上让电视观众投票,决定两个病人之中哪一个应该受益于器官捐赠。但是该节目没有告诉我们如果认真处理长期的器官缺乏问题,就没有必要做那么多生死抉择。政府对待尸体问题顾虑重重,给我们社会中最弱势的群体一个打击。它造成的一个令人沮丧的后果是等待名单上很大一部分人飞到国外从第三世界捐赠者那里购买活体器官,而这在英国是被禁止的。穷人除了徒然地等待之外别无选择。

人体组织局在验尸后保留身体部位用于医学研究的观点也同样有缺陷。新的捐赠同意书可能由某个怀有恶意、试图阻止人体组织运往病理化验所的人物起草。同意书如此冗长,以至于医生很少有时间读完它们,即便他们努力了,由于上面的措辞以图表表示,因此当事人的亲戚往往在签名之前逃跑了。结果验尸的数量骤然下降。

更广泛的忧虑是《人体组织法令》明显的道德短视似乎全面影响了当前的医学伦理争论。以小心翼翼的胚胎干细胞研究为例,美国政府拒绝为科学家提供基金,在由试管受精创造的剩余胚胎上进行具有潜在的突破性的研究。

一些参议员表示担心胚胎研究未能尊重"潜在的人"的尊严。这样一个空洞的概念很难设法进入声称要提供启示的争论之中。什么时候这种"潜在"才能生效呢?免得你感到奇怪,这些想象上宝贵的胚胎与那些例行公事地被避孕丸扼杀却没有任何人哭泣的的生命处于同样的发展阶段。令人感激的是,英国政府已经拒绝接受美国的立场并成立了一个欧洲最自由的体制,在这里,研究者被授权为医学研究制造胚胎。在未来的几年科学家很由可能能够在实验室中培育器官并找出一系列使人衰弱的疾病的治愈办法。

我们对待伦理的方法上存在的基本的问题是没有能力把情感与政策分开,这表现在尸体和胚胎的神话上。唯一应该进入我们道德和法律的慎重考虑之中的因素是幸福。幸福是一个概念,当它被运用到缺乏自我意识的实体上的时候是没有意义的。永远不要忘记我们如此不愿进行的胚胎和尸体的研究正在一些活生生的、有疼痛知觉的动物上照常实行。

答案

1.D 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.D

总体分析

本文介绍了索尼公司管理上存在的问题。

第一段至三段:介绍了80年代索尼公司在其主席和首席执行官盛田昭夫的推动下,收购哥伦比亚电影公司的始末。

第四至五段:约翰内森所著的《索尼公司的私人生活》生动详细地描述了建立索尼的名人们,并提出索尼公司的潜在问题是其不理性的管理环境。

试题精解

1.关于索尼公司对哥伦比亚电影公司的收购下面哪个说法正确?

[A] 它是出于盛田昭夫想摆出成功的形象的愿望。

[B] 索尼公司的高级行政人员非常确信它对公司的益处。

[C] 娱乐业的内部人士认为它是好莱坞的失败。

[D] 它是从电子到娱乐昂贵的扩张行动。

[精解] 文章首句提到,盛田昭夫开始了他事业生涯中最昂贵的购物旅行。接着文章论述了这一经历即索尼公司对哥伦比亚电影公司的收购过程。第一段第二句提到盛田昭夫作出该决定的理由,他认为索尼公司的未来在于硬件和软件(即音乐和电影等)的结合。因此是出于索尼公司未来发展的考虑,排除[A]项。从第二段和第三段的论述可知,即使盛田昭夫本人开始也认为收购举措过于昂贵。高级领导们最终决定收购是因为受盛田昭夫的影响。因此[B]不正确。第三段最后两句提到,这是一件为业界专家嘲笑的交易。管理不善最终迫使索尼公司为它的好莱坞实验注销掉27亿美元资产和5.1亿美元的损失。[C]项将"索尼公司"偷换成"好莱坞"。[D]项概括了这一收购行动的内容和特点,是正确答案。

2.第二段第二行的单词"patriarch"最可能的含义是。

[A] 创始人,奠基人 [B] 君主 [C] 年长者 [D] 先驱

[精解] 第二段首句指出收购哥伦比亚电影公司的决定是出于高级执行管要取悦公司……的愿望。下文对该观点进一步进行阐释。盛田昭夫开始觉得收购价格太昂贵,但后来改变注意,促使其团队重新决定购买。由此可推出文中patriarch一词指的是盛田昭夫。由文章首句可知它是索尼公司的创始人,因此[A]项正确。

3.从最后两段中可推出。

[A] 《索尼公司的私人生活》是关于盛田昭夫的传记

[B] 索尼公司的日本领导者一直太实际

[C] 索尼的管理问题不能立刻得到纠正

[D] 内森没有写有关索尼公司如何成为电子产品巨头的内容

[精解] 第四段提到,《索尼公司的私人生活》成为建立索尼公司的名人们(personalities who built)最生动详细的描述。内森接触了目睹公司发展的很多执行者。但是,内森只提供了对索尼公司的有限的分析,他总是重复讨论多次的话题,即索尼公司如何建立,如何发展产品和设备。由此可推出,这本书描写了多个人物,且提到了索尼公司的成长过程,排除[A]和[D]项。第五段第二句提到,从哥伦比亚事例体现出来的索尼公司的潜在问题是公司环境较个人化而非公开化,较感性而非理性。结合盛田昭夫的行为,显然可排除[B]项。第五段最后提到,索尼公司正成为一个理性的公司,个人关系(在索尼公司中)不可能再起决定作用。但是这个索尼公司将经营得如何?美好的未来远不能得到保证。由此可推出[C]项正确。

4. 内森对盛田昭夫的态度似乎是。

[A] 强烈厌恶 [B] 含蓄批评

[C] 热烈支持 [D] 有保留的赞同

[精解] 文章前三段论述盛田昭夫如何促成了索尼公司购买哥伦比亚电影公司的决定。第二段第二句提到,内森将收购决定归结为公司高级行政人员取悦盛田昭夫的愿望。第三段末句提到,管理不善迫使索尼公司损失惨重。第五段第二句又提到,哥伦比亚事件说明索尼公司的潜在问题是其历史事件发生的环境太个人化而非公开化,太感性而非理性。因此,作者虽然是直接评价索尼公司,却包含了对盛田昭夫的批评态度。[B]项最符合文意。

5. 本文最合适的标题是。

[A] 索尼的购物旅行 [B] 索尼公司的私人生活

[C] 谁让索尼公司筋疲力尽[D] 索尼冲动的管理方式

[精解] 全文主要分为两个部分,前一部分介绍盛田昭夫促使索尼公司收购哥伦比亚电影公司。后一部分通过约翰内森的书探讨索尼公司的潜在问题。前一部分是为了说明索尼公司曾经为不恰当的管理方式而付出代价。[D]项能概括文章主旨,是正确答案。[A]、[B]项只是文中的部分细节,[C]项不是全文讨论的重点。

核心词汇和超纲词汇

(1)embark (v.) 上船,装船;~ on/upon sth.从事,着手,开始(新的或艰难的事情)

(2)expedition(n.)远征,探险;探险队;发出,派遣

(3)visionary(n.)空想家,梦想者,好幻想的人vision(n.)幻想,幻影

(4)convergence(n.)集中,收敛converge(v.)聚合,集中于一点

(5)library(n.)系列丛书(或磁带等),文库,如a ~ of children's classics儿童文学名著系列丛书

(6)on-again, off-again一上一下,遭遇到种种波折

(7)asking price卖主的开叫价,卖出价

(8)rationale(n)(解释某个特别决定、行动、信仰的)基本原理,根本原因,理论依据

(9)exorbitant(a.)过度的,过高的,昂贵的

(10)lament(v.)悔恨,悲叹,哀悼

(11)reconvene(v.)重新集合,重新召集convene(v.)召集, 集合

(12)tread(v.)trod trodden踩,践踏;行走

(13)ground(n.)(兴趣、知识和思想的)范围、领域,如We have to go over the same~(我们得讨论同样的话题)。

(14)fare(n.)费用,旅客,食物(v.)过日子,遭遇,受招待How did you~in London?(你在伦敦过得怎样?)

全文翻译

在20世纪80年代后期,索尼公司的联合创始人盛田昭夫开始了他长期事业生涯中最昂贵的购物旅行。梦想家盛田昭夫相信索尼公司的未来在于硬件和音乐、电影这样的"内容"相结合,于是最终将目光投向哥伦比亚电影公司及其两个工作室和大量电影字母和电视剧集的文库。1989年9月,经过几个月几经波折的谈判,索尼公司同意支付飞涨的卖出价32亿美元从而承担16亿美元的债务。

这个决定的理论依据是什么?根据约翰内森所著《索尼公司的私人生活》,这个决定是出于高级行政人员要取悦公司创始人的愿望。甚至那时担任索尼公司主席和首席执行管的盛田昭夫也认为哥伦比亚的标价(开始是35美元一股)太昂贵。在1989年8月召开的一次从未完全公开的闭门会议中,他告诉组成具有决策权的执行委员会的七位高级助手,他将放弃收购的想法。

那天晚上用餐时如果盛田昭夫没有向委员会成员表示遗憾的话这件事情本应就这么结束了。他哀叹,"太糟了,我一直想拥有一个好莱坞工作室"。第二天,这个团队重新召开会议并仓促决定索尼公司将最终购买哥伦比亚。在接下来的几周内,索尼公司将其标价从开始的15美元一股上升到27美元。到了九月末,成交了一笔为业界专家嘲笑的交易。1994年,管理不善迫使索尼公司为它的好莱坞实验注销掉27亿美元资产和5.1亿美元的损失。

《索尼公司的私人生活》充满了这样的内幕故事,因此成为对建立价值500亿美元的消费者电子产品巨头的名人们最生动详细的描述。内森是加利福尼亚大学日本文化研究的教授,接触到很多作过贡献或目睹索尼公司自1946年在受战争破坏的东京建立以来的发展的行政人员。然而,内森只提供了对索尼公司的有限的分析,他总是重复老掉牙的话题:索尼公司如何在美国建立起来的,如何发展著名的产品和设备。这些内容很多以前在文章中出现,但较少出现在书中。

这并不是说内森的书没有观点。正如哥伦比亚事件所说明的,公司的潜在问题是"索尼公司历史事件发生的环境较个人化而非公开化,较感性而非理性"。 总之,内森说,在现任主席出井伸之的领导下,索尼公司正成为一个理性的公司。而且,出井伸之和他追求实际的经理们专心把索尼公司重新改造为一家因特网公司。内森说,"从现在开始,个人关系不可能再起决定作用"。但是这个索尼公司将经营得如何?内森承认,美好的未来远不能得到保证。

答案

1.D 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.D

总体分析

本文介绍了索尼公司管理上存在的问题。

第一段至三段:介绍了80年代索尼公司在其主席和首席执行官盛田昭夫的推动下,收购哥伦比亚电影公司的始末。

第四至五段:约翰内森所著的《索尼公司的私人生活》生动详细地描述了建立索尼的名人们,并提出索尼公司的潜在问题是其不理性的管理环境。

试题精解

1.关于索尼公司对哥伦比亚电影公司的收购下面哪个说法正确?

[A] 它是出于盛田昭夫想摆出成功的形象的愿望。

[B] 索尼公司的高级行政人员非常确信它对公司的益处。

[C] 娱乐业的内部人士认为它是好莱坞的失败。

[D] 它是从电子到娱乐昂贵的扩张行动。

[精解] 文章首句提到,盛田昭夫开始了他事业生涯中最昂贵的购物旅行。接着文章论述了这一经历即索尼公司对哥伦比亚电影公司的收购过程。第一段第二句提到盛田昭夫作出该决定的理由,他认为索尼公司的未来在于硬件和软件(即音乐和电影等)的结合。因此是出于索尼公司未来发展的考虑,排除[A]项。从第二段和第三段的论述可知,即使盛田昭夫本人开始也认为收购举措过于昂贵。高级领导们最终决定收购是因为受盛田昭夫的影响。因此[B]不正确。第三段最后两句提到,这是一件为业界专家嘲笑的交易。管理不善最终迫使索尼公司为它的好莱坞实验注销掉27亿美元资产和5.1亿美元的损失。[C]项将"索尼公司"偷换成"好莱坞"。[D]项概括了这一收购行动的内容和特点,是正确答案。

2.第二段第二行的单词"patriarch"最可能的含义是。

[A] 创始人,奠基人 [B] 君主 [C] 年长者 [D] 先驱

[精解] 第二段首句指出收购哥伦比亚电影公司的决定是出于高级执行管要取悦公司……的愿望。下文对该观点进一步进行阐释。盛田昭夫开始觉得收购价格太昂贵,但后来改变注意,促使其团队重新决定购买。由此可推出文中patriarch一词指的是盛田昭夫。由文章首句可知它是索尼公司的创始人,因此[A]项正确。

3.从最后两段中可推出。

[A] 《索尼公司的私人生活》是关于盛田昭夫的传记

[B] 索尼公司的日本领导者一直太实际

[C] 索尼的管理问题不能立刻得到纠正

[D] 内森没有写有关索尼公司如何成为电子产品巨头的内容

[精解] 第四段提到,《索尼公司的私人生活》成为建立索尼公司的名人们(personalities who built)最生动详细的描述。内森接触了目睹公司发展的很多执行者。但是,内森只提供了对索尼公司的有限的分析,他总是重复讨论多次的话题,即索尼公司如何建立,如何发展产品和设备。由此可推出,这本书描写了多个人物,且提到了索尼公司的成长过程,排除[A]和[D]项。第五段第二句提到,从哥伦比亚事例体现出来的索尼公司的潜在问题是公司环境较个人化而非公开化,较感性而非理性。结合盛田昭夫的行为,显然可排除[B]项。第五段最后提到,索尼公司正成为一个理性的公司,个人关系(在索尼公司中)不可能再起决定作用。但是这个索尼公司将经营得如何?美好的未来远不能得到保证。由此可推出[C]项正确。

4. 内森对盛田昭夫的态度似乎是。

[A] 强烈厌恶 [B] 含蓄批评

[C] 热烈支持 [D] 有保留的赞同

[精解] 文章前三段论述盛田昭夫如何促成了索尼公司购买哥伦比亚电影公司的决定。第二段第二句提到,内森将收购决定归结为公司高级行政人员取悦盛田昭夫的愿望。第三段末句提到,管理不善迫使索尼公司损失惨重。第五段第二句又提到,哥伦比亚事件说明索尼公司的潜在问题是其历史事件发生的环境太个人化而非公开化,太感性而非理性。因此,作者虽然是直接评价索尼公司,却包含了对盛田昭夫的批评态度。[B]项最符合文意。

5. 本文最合适的标题是。

[A] 索尼的购物旅行 [B] 索尼公司的私人生活

[C] 谁让索尼公司筋疲力尽[D] 索尼冲动的管理方式

[精解] 全文主要分为两个部分,前一部分介绍盛田昭夫促使索尼公司收购哥伦比亚电影公司。后一部分通过约翰内森的书探讨索尼公司的潜在问题。前一部分是为了说明索尼公司曾经为不恰当的管理方式而付出代价。[D]项能概括文章主旨,是正确答案。[A]、[B]项只是文中的部分细节,[C]项不是全文讨论的重点。

核心词汇和超纲词汇

(1)embark (v.) 上船,装船;~ on/upon sth.从事,着手,开始(新的或艰难的事情)

(2)expedition(n.)远征,探险;探险队;发出,派遣

(3)visionary(n.)空想家,梦想者,好幻想的人vision(n.)幻想,幻影

(4)co

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