Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states, such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions, Roman theorists ignored, or rejected__3__ valueless, intellectual exercises like Plato's Republic, in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero's De Re Publica, and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete, even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome, Romulus, was__9__ to have received authority from the gods, specifically from Jupiter, the "guarantor" of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__, the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority, because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive, the senators moved__15__to divide the authority, holding that their consuls, or chief officials, would possess it on__16__months, and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__, as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.
16. ［A］ alternate ［B］ different ［C］ varied ［D］ several
17. ［A］ And ［B］ So ［C］ Or ［D］ But
18. ［A］ state ［B］ country ［C］ people ［D］ national
19. ［A］ as ［B］ when ［C］ if ［D］ so
20. ［A］ dimension ［B］ complexity ［C］ exercise ［D］ function
Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Despite the general negative findings, it is important to remember that all children who live through a divorce do not behave in the same way. The specific behavior depends on the child's individual personality, characteristics, age at the time of divorce, and gender. In terms of personality, when compared to those rated as relaxed and easygoing, children described as temperamental and irritable have more difficulty coping with parental divorce, as indeed they have more difficulty adapting to life change in general. Stress, such as that found in disrupted families, seems to impair the ability of temperamental children to adapt to their surroundings, the greater the amount of stress, the less well they adapt. In contrast, a moderate amount of stress may actually help an easygoing, relaxed child learn to cope with adversity.
There is some relationship between age and children's characteristic reaction to divorce. As the child grows older, the greater is the likelihood of a free expression of a variety of complex feelings, an understanding of those feelings, and a realization that the decision to divorce cannot be attributed to any one simple cause. Self-blame virtually disappears after the age of 6, fear of abandonment diminishes after the age of 8, and the confusion and fear of the young child is replaced in the older child by shame, anger, and self-reflection.
Gender of the child is also a factor that predicts the nature of reaction to divorce. The impact of divorce is initially greater on boys than on girls. They are more aggressive, less compliant, have greater difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and exhibit problem behaviors both at home and at school. Furthermore, the adjustment problems of boys are still noticeable even two years after the divorce. Girls' adjustment problems are usually internalized rather than acted out, and are often resolved by the second year after the divorce. However, new problems may surface for girls as they enter adolescence and adulthood. How can the relatively greater impact of divorce on boys than on girls be explained? The greater male aggression and noncompliance may reflect the fact that such behaviors are tolerated and even encouraged in males in our culture more than they are in females. Furthermore, boys may have a particular need for a strong male model of self-control, as well as for a strong disciplinarian parent. Finally, boys are more likely to be exposed to their parents' fights than girls are, and after the breakup, boys are less likely than girls to receive sympathy and support from mothers, teachers, or peers.
1. Temperamental, irritable kids have difficulty adapting to parental divorce because.
［A］ they care too much about the life change
［B］ the great stress of their families diminishes their ability
［C］ they tend to lose temper easily and are sensitive to the life change
［D］ they are faced with more parents' fights than the relaxed, easygoing children
2. The following statements are true EXCEPT.
［A］ divorce is usually caused by more than one reason
［B］ a six-year-old boy may fear being deserted by his parents
［C］ as the kids grow older, they have a better understanding of divorce
［D］ a young girl may feel more shameful on parental divorce than an older boy
3. It can be inferred from the passage that the impact of divorce.
［A］ on kids of different sexes will probably change as they grow older
［B］ may cause most kids' difficulties in communicating with others
［C］ on an irritable girl is greater than a noncompliant boy
［D］ is always greater on boys than on girls
4. According to the author, the reason why parental divorce has greater effect on boys than on girls is that.
［A］ all cultures encourage male aggression and noncompliance
［B］ boys are always involved in their parents' fights
［C］ males are usually viewed as the models in self-control and strong will
［D］ boys are basically more self-disciplined than girls
5. What is the main idea of the passage?
［A］ Parental divorce has a negative effect on children all through their life.
［B］ The impact of parental divorce on children varies in personality, age and gender.
［C］ Boys may become more aggressive than girls in disrupted families.
［D］ Kids of different ages behave differently on parental divorce.
As a young bond trader, Buttonwood was given two pieces of advice, trading rules of thumb, if you will: that bad economic news is good news for bond markets and that every utterance dropping from the lips of Paul Volcker, the then chairman of the Federal Reserve, and the man who restored the central bank's credibility by stomping on runaway inflation, should be respected than Pope's orders. Today's traders are, of course, a more sophisticated bunch. But the advice still seems good, apart from two slight drawbacks. The first is that the well-chosen utterances from the present chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan, is of more than passing difficulty. The second is that, of late, good news for the economy has not seemed to upset bond investors all that much. For all the cheer that has crackled down the wires, the yield on ten-year bonds-which you would expect to rise on good economic news-is now, at 4.2%, only two-fifths of a percentage point higher than it was at the start of the year. Pretty much unmoved, in other words.
Yet the news from the economic front has been better by far than anyone could have expected. On Tuesday November 25th, revised numbers showed that America's economy grew by an annual 8.2% in the third quarter, a full percentage point more than originally thought, driven by the ever-spendthrift American consumer and, for once, corporate investment. Just about every other piece of information coming out from special sources shows the same strength. New houses are still being built at a fair clip. Exports are rising, for all the protectionist crying. Even employment, in what had been mocked as a jobless recovery, increased by 125,000 or thereabouts in September and October. Rising corporate profits, low credit spreads and the biggest-ever rally in the junk-bond market do not, on the face of it, suggest anything other than a deep and long-lasting recovery. Yet Treasury-bond yields have fallen.
If the rosy economic backdrop makes this odd, making it doubly odd is an apparent absence of foreign demand. Foreign buyers of Treasuries, especially Asian certral banks, who had been swallowing American government debt like there was no tomorrow, seem to have had second thoughts lately. In September, according to the latest available figures, foreigners bought only $56 billion of Treasuries, compared with $25.1 billion the previous month and an average of $38.7 billion in the preceding four months. In an effort to keep a lid on the yen's rise, the Japanese central bank is still busy buying dollars and parking the money in government debt. Just about everyboby else seems to have been selling.
1.The advice for Buttonwood suggests that.
［A］ Paul Volcker enjoyed making comments on controlling inflation
［B］ the Federal Reserve has an all-capable power over inflation control
［C］ economy has the greatest influence upon the daily life of ordinary people
［D］ the economic sphere and bond markets are indicative of each other
2. The word "passing"(Line 7, Paragraph 1) most probably means.
［A］ instant ［B］ trivial ［C］ simple ［D］ negligible
3. Which of the following is responsible for the rapid economic growth in the US?
［A］ Domestic consumers. ［B］ Foreign investments.
［C］ Real estate market. ［D］ Recovering bond market.
4. According to the last paragraph, most Asian central banks are becoming.
［A］ rather regretful ［B］ less ambitious
［C］ more cautious ［D］ speculative
5. The phrase "keep a lid on"(Line 6, Paragraph 3) most probably means.
［A］ put an end to ［B］ set a limit on
［C］ tighten the control over ［D］ reduce the speed of
Material culture refers to the touchable, material "things"-physical objects that can be seen, held, felt, used-that a culture produces. Examining a culture's tools and technology can tell us about the group's history and way of life. Similarly, research into the material culture of music can help us to understand the music-culture. The most vivid body of "things" in it, of course, are musical instruments. We cannot hear for ourselves the actual sound of any musical performance before the 1870s when the phonograph was invented, so we rely on instruments for important information about music-cultures in the remote past and their development. Here we have two kinds of evidence: instruments well preserved and instruments pictured in art. Through the study of instruments, as well as paintings, written documents, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of Near Eastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of the instruments on the symphony orchestra.
Sheet music or printed music, too, is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print, but research shows mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe, Britain and America. Printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song, yet they stimulate people to create new and different songs. Besides, the ability to read music notation has a far-reaching effect on musicians and, when it becomes widespread, on the music-culture as a whole.
Music is deep-rooted in the cultural background that fosters it. We now pay more and more attention to traditional or ethnic features in folk music and are willing to preserve the folk music as we do with many traditional cultural heritage. Musicians all over the world are busy with recording classic music in their country for the sake of their unique culture. As always, people's aspiration will always focus on their individuality rather than universal features that are shared by all cultures alike.
One more important part of music's material culture should be singled out: the influence of the electronic media-radio, record player, tape recorder, and television, with the future promising talking and singing computers and other developments. This is all part of the "information-revolution", a twentieth century phenomenon as important as the industrial revolution in the nineteenth. These electronic media are not just limited to modern nations; they have affected music-cultures all over the globe.
1. Which of the following does not belong to material culture?
2. The word "phonograph"(Line 5-6, Paragraph 1) most probably means.
［A］ record player ［B］ radio ［C］ musical technique［D］ music culture
3. The main idea of the first paragraph is.
［A］ the importance of cultural tools and technology
［B］ the cultural influence of the development of civilization
［C］ the focus of the study of the material culture of music
［D］ the significance of the research into the musical instruments
4. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of printed music?
［A］ Reading of music notation has a great impact on musicians.
［B］ People may draw imspiration from it.
［C］ The music culture will be influenced by it in the end.
［D］ Songs tend to be standardized by it.
5. From the third paragraph, we may infer that.
［A］ traditional cultural heritage is worthy of preservation
［B］ the universal features shared by all cultures aren't worthy of notice
［C］ musicians pay more attention to the preservation of traditional music
［D］ the more developed a culture, the more valuable the music it has fostered
"I've never met a human worth cloning," says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from the cramped confines of his lab at Texas A&M University. "It's a stupid endeavor." That's an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two calves and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy later this year-or perhaps not for another five years. It seems the reproductive system of man's best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science.
Westhusin's experience with cloning animals leaves him vexed by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missyplicity project, using hundreds upon hundreds of canine eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos carrying Missy's DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses may be acceptable when you're dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. "Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous," he says.
Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin's phone at A&M College of Veterinary Medicine has been ringing busily. Cost is no obstacle for customers like Missy's mysterious owner, who wishes to remain unknown to protect his privacy. He's plopped down $3.7 million so far to fund the research because he wants a twin to carry on Missy's fine qualities after she dies. But he knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy's owners and the A&M team say they are "both looking forward to studying the ways that her clone differs from Missy."
The fate of the dog samples will depend on Westhusin's work. He knows that even if he gets a dog viably pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems. "Why would you ever want to clone humans," Westhusin asks, "when we're not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?"
1. Which of the following best represents Mr. Westhusin's attitude toward cloning?
［A］ Animal cloning is a stupid attempt.
［B］ Human cloning is not yet close to getting it worked out.
［C］ Cloning is too inefficient and should be stopped.
［D］ Animals cloning yes, and human cloning at least not now.
2. The Missyplicity project does not seem very successful probably because.
［A］ there isn't enough fund to support the research
［B］ cloning dogs is more complicated than cloning cats and bulls
［C］ Mr. Westhusin is too busy taking care of the business
［D］ the owner is asking for an exact copy of his pet
3. When Mr. Westhusin says "... cloning is dangerous," he implies that.
［A］ lab technicians may be affected by chemicals
［B］ cats and dogs in the lab may die of diseases
［C］ experiments may waste lots of lives
［D］ cloned animals could outlive the natural ones
4. We can infer from the third paragraph that.
［A］ rich people are more interested in cloning humans than animals
［B］ cloning of animal pets is becoming a prosperous industry
［C］ there is no distinction between a cloned and a natural dog
［D］ Missy's master pays a lot in a hope to revive the dog
5. We may conclude from the text that.
［A］ human cloning will not succeed unless the technique is more efficient
［B］ scientists are optimistic about cloning technique
［C］ many people are against the idea of human cloning
［D］ cloned animals are more favored by owners even if they are weaker
You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Rain forest structure is distinct from most other forest types because of its many layers of vegetation, referred to as strata. The lowest stratum is the understory, composed of palms, herbaceous plants (such as wild ginger), and tree seedlings and saplings. (41) . Many have deep red coloring on the underside of their leaves to capture some of the scarce light that does manage to reach the forest understory. This red coloring enables understory plants to absorb light of different wavelengths than do the plants with rich, green-foliaged canopy, the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees. Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more midstory strata, made up of woody plants, such as large shrubs and midsized trees.
The overstory is the canopy, in which the tree crowns form a continuous layer that captures the major part of the rainwater and sunlight hitting the forest. The height of the canopy varies from region to region and forest to forest, ranging from 20 to 50 m (65 to 165 ft). (42) . Researchers use hot air balloons, cables, catwalks, towers, sophisticated tree-climbing gear, and even robots to study the millions of plants and animals that make their home high up in the forest canopy. Canopy researchers also use huge cranes that are dropped into the heart of the forest by helicopters. Suspended from the crane's long, movable arm is a large cabin that functions as a mobile treetop laboratory. Moving from tree to tree, forest researchers collect specimens, conduct experiments, and observe life in the canopy frontier.
The highest stratum of the rain forest is made up of the emergent trees, those individuals that stick up above the forest canopy. Emergents, which do not form a continuous layer, are usually the giants of the forest, reaching heights of 35 to 70 m (115 to 230 ft) or more, and trunk sizes of over 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter. (43) . However, these trees tend to be so large that they collectively account for the vast majority of the woody mass, or biomass, of the forest.
The nicely ordered strata of the rain forest, including the continuous layer of the canopy, are regularly disturbed by naturally occurring events, such as falling trees. Trees in a rain forest canopy are often interconnected by vines, and a falling tree may pull as well as push other trees down with it, producing a domino effect of falling trees. The resulting opening in the forest canopy enables light to pour onto the forest floor. (44) .
Other natural disturbances create even larger openings in the forest canopies. For example, along the hurricane belt in the Caribbean and the typhoon belt along the western Pacific, some forests are substantially altered when high winds and storms blow down hundreds of trees every few decades. (45) . Scientists have found that these natural disturbances and the subsequent forest regeneration are a vital process that leads to healthy and diverse forests.
［A］ New plants and animals then move into the area and begin to grow.
［B］ Just 2 percent of the sunlight goes through the many layers of leaves and branches above, so understory plant species have developed special traits to cope with low light levels.
［C］ On a smaller scale, large mammals, such as elephants, regularly destroy rain forest vegetation in the Congo River Basin in Africa.
［D］ An understory of shorter trees and a lacework of woody vines, or lianas, produce a forest of such complex internal architecture that many animals, including some sizable ones, rarely or never descend to the ground.
［E］ Less than one percent of the trees in the forest reside in the canopy and emergent layers.
［F］ Because more light penetrates the canopy, however, the vegetation of the understory and forest floor is better developed than in the tropics.
［G］ The rich, green canopy is teeming with life, and forest researchers have developed ingenious methods for accessing this mysterious ecosystem.
1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7.D 8.D 9. B 10. C
11. A 12. D 13.A 14.C 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. B
1.［精解］ 本题考查介词用法辨析。空格处的介词与名词短语the construction of ideal states 搭配，作blueprints 的后置定语，意为"……的蓝图"。for可表示对象、用途，意为"给，对，供"等，如a book for children（儿童读物），a new table for the dining room（用在饭厅的新桌子）。本句中，"建设理想国家"是"蓝图"的用途，因此选择介词for，［B］正确。其它介词：with和名词搭配常表示"具有……特征"，如a woman with a hot temper（脾气暴躁的女人）；with和动词搭配常表示"用，以，借"，如Cut it with a knife.（用刀把它切开。）in表示"以，用（语言，材料等）"，如He spoke in a loud voice.（他大声说话。）to表示"到，达（某种状态）"，如He tore the letter to pieces.（他把信撕碎了。）
2．［精解］ 本题考查动词用法辨析。空格所在部分such as__2 __to the Greeks是一个定语从句，其中as为关系代词，指代先行词blueprints。因此，该从句的主语是as指代的blueprints，谓语是空格处填入的动词。该动词是个不及物动词，与后面的介词to搭配。符合要求的只有［C］appeal，它常和介词to搭配，意为"（对某人）有吸引力，引起（某人的）兴趣"，如Do these paintings appeal to you?（你对这些画感兴趣吗?）
其它项的动词都是及物动词：tempt sb. to do sth.意为"诱惑、吸引（某人做某事）"，其中to为不定式符号，如Nothing would tempt me to live here.（什么也吸引不了我在这里居住。）attract sb. to sth. 意为"引起某人对某事的好感或喜爱"，如What attracted me to the job was its challenges.（这份工作吸引我的是它的挑战性。）transfer sb./sth. to... 意为"使转移，搬迁"，如transfer money to his account（将钱转到他的帐户上）。
补充：such... as意为"像……这样的"，其中as可作关系代词，引起定语从句，如The article provided such information as was not provided by most of the newspapers in the United States.（这篇文章提供了美国大部分报纸没有提供的信息。）such有时不放在所修饰的词前，而和as放在一起，如上面例句也可写成：The article provided information such as was not provided by most of the newspapers in the United States.
3．［精解］ 本题考查句子结构及介词用法。空格所在句子中出现了倒装结构，由于其宾语intellectual exercises的后置定语较长，因此将宾补valueless提前。该句子的正常语序是Roman theorists ignored, or rejected intellectual exercises__3__valueless。能够引出宾补的介词只有［C］as，如I respect him as a doctor.（我尊敬他这个医生。）You can use that glass as a vase.（你可以把那个玻璃杯当作花瓶用。）
5．［精解］ 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格所在部分was__5__out是定语从句中的谓语，由于它是被动式，因此其逻辑宾语就是该从句的主语the relationship。turn out意为"制造，生产；关掉，熄灭"，如turn out 900 cars a week（一周生产900辆汽车），turn out the lights（关灯）。work out意为"计算，算出；处理，解决；计划，思考"，如work out the answer/a problem/a new way（计算出答案/解决问题/制定出新方案）。bring out意为"使显现，使表现出；生产，出版"；如A crisis brings out the best in her.（危机促使她表现得特别出色。）The band have just brought out the second album.（这个乐队刚刚推出了他们的第二张专辑。）。make out意为"辨认；理解，明白"，如make out a figure in the darkness（在黑暗中看出一个人的轮廓），make out what she was saying（弄明白她在说些什么）。根据句意，应该选［B］，work out the relationship表示"想出或制定出（个人与国家之间的）关系"。
6．［精解］ 本题考查近义形容词辨析。选项中四个形容词为近义词。special意为"特别的，专门的"，如special treatment（特殊照顾）。specific意为"特殊的；明确的"，如There is a specific tool for each job.（每个工种都配备特定的工具。）specific instructions（明确的指示）。peculiar意为"奇怪的；独特的"，如The food has a peculiar taste.（这食物有种怪味道。）The Mid-Autumn Festival is peculiar to China.（中秋节是中国所独有的。）particular意为"不寻常的，特别的"，如particular attention（特别注意）。但是particular也可意为"专指的，特指的"，这种用法的particular只用在名词前作定语，与泛指相对，如Is there a particular type of book he enjoys?（他特别喜爱哪一类书籍吗？）由句意可知，空格处填入的形容词修饰states or individuals，表示"特指的国家或个人"，与上文提到的"泛指的国家或个人"相对。因此应选［D］。
7．［精解］ 本题考查固定搭配。have sb./sth. in mind意为"心中有适当的人（或事情）等"，如Watching TV all evening wasn't exactly what I had in mind!（我才不愿整个晚上都看电视！）空格所在部分表达的含义是"对罗马有了非常清楚的想法"，因此应选［D］mind。
其它项都可以和介词in搭配：in store意为"即将发生（在某人身上），等待着（某人）"，如They think it'll be easy but they have a surprise in store.（他们以为事情容易，到时候他们就会吃惊的。）in existence意为"现存"，如This is the oldest Hebrew manuscript in existence.（这是现存最古老的希伯来语手稿。）in reality意为"实际上，事实上"，如She seemed confident but in reality she felt nervous.（她看起来自信，而实际上很紧张。）显然，其它项都不符合文意。
8．［精解］ 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格所在部分是even when引导的让步状语从句，其中it指代上文的Roman thought（罗马人的想法），空格处填入的动词是谓语，其宾语是religious and moral concepts。选项中，abandon意为"放弃，抛弃"，如abandon the hope/one's lands（放弃希望/丢下土地）。catch意为"染病；听见，理解"，如catch a cold/what you said（得感冒/弄懂你说的话）。separate意为"分开，隔开"，如It is impossible to separate belief from emotion.（信仰和感情是分不开的。）involve意为"包含；牵涉，牵连"，如Any investment involves an element of risk.（任何投资都有一定的冒险成分。）a serious incident involving a group of youths（涉及一群年轻人的严重事件）。根据句意，应选［D］，表示"即使涉及到宗教和道德概念"。
9．［精解］ 本题考查动词用法辨析。空格所在部分was__9__为谓语动词的被动式，其主语是The first ruler，不定式结构to have... 作主补。be told to do意为"被命令、吩咐做某事"，如He was told to sit down and wait.（有人吩咐他坐下等着。）be held to be/do意为"被认为是/做……"，如These vases are held to be the finest examples of Greek art.（这些花瓶被视为最精美的希腊艺术代表作。）suggest不与不定式连用，因此不存在be suggested to do的结构。be advised to do意为"被建议做某事"，如He was advised to take a complete rest.（他被建议彻底休息一下。）文中不定式的完成式to have received表明该动作发生在空格动词动作之前，根据句意，应选择［B］held，表示"统治者被认为已经获得了……"。
12．［精解］ 本题考查名词词义辨析。officers指"官员"；men指"男人们"；administrators指"管理人员，行政官员"；复数形式的fathers一般指"祖先，先父"。下文的插入语the family... senate是空格处名词的同位语，其中the family head是对father的解释，senate（参议院）与assembly（立法机构）在含义上相呼应。因此本题应选［D］。
13．［精解］ 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格处填入动词，其主语是the assembly of the fathers，宾语是the religious character。［A］possess意为"拥有；具有（特质）"，如He doesn't possess a sense of humor.（他没有什么幽默感。）［A］在文中可表示"具有(宗教特质)"，符合文意。其它项：claim意为"要求，请求，主张"；assure意为"保证，担保"，一般接sb.作宾语；enforce意为"强制执行，强行实施；强迫"。
15．［精解］ 本题考查短语动词辨析。move over意为"挪开，让位置"，如He felt he should move over in favor of a younger man.（他觉得他应该让位给一个更年轻的人。）move along意为"向前移动（以腾出空间）"，如The people in the bus moved along, to make room for others.（公车里的人往前挪以便给别人腾地方。）move on意为"往前走；开始做（新的事情）"，如Can we move on to the next item on the agenda?（我们可以接着讨论下一项议程吗？）move about意为"不停地走动"，如You will be warm enough if you move about.（如果你到处走动一下你就会感到很暖和的。）上文提到，"最初的参议院拥有行使权利所必须的宗教特质"，本句则提到，"参议员们将权利再进行分割"，显然，两个分句之间是"继续，接着"的含义，应选［C］。
16．［精解］ 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格处填入的形容词修饰months。alternate可意为"间隔的，每隔（……天的）"，如He has to work on alternate Sundays.（他每隔一周就有一个周日得上班。）different意为"不同的"，如shirts of different colors（颜色不同的衬衫）。varied意为"各种各样的"，如varied cultures（各种不同的文化）。several意为"几个，若干"，如several hours a day（每天几个小时）。根据句意，司法官或总管官员拥有权力的时间应是"每隔一个月"，而不是"不同的月"、"各种各样的月"或"几个月"。因此，［A］为正确项。
17．［精解］ 本题考查逻辑词。空格处填入的连词表示所在分句与上文之间的逻辑关系。上文提到，参议院拥有权利，并将它下放到各级官员手中。空格所在部分是一个长句，其主干结构是the achievement was to create the idea of continuing... authority（成就是创造持续的……权力的概念）。authority后是两个并列的分词结构，即，embodied... in和conferred... 作后置定语。由句意可知，本句仍然在讨论权力下放的问题，但它强调这种权力不完全属于上层阶级，也需要大众的认可。因此在含义上本句出现了转折。选项中，And表并列，So表因果，Or表选择，But表转折。［D］为正确项。
18．［精解］ 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处的名词作定语，修饰authority。本文一开始就提到罗马人关于国家理论的形成（Roman theorizing about the state）。文中多次出现了关键词state。因此可推知，空格部分涉及的是应是"国家权力"。state authority是表达"国家权力"的习惯搭配，一般不用country或people，national authority常表示"民族权力机构"。
19．［精解］ 本题考查连词用法辨析。空格处填入一连词，引导后面的从句，和空格前的过去分词一起在句子中作状语。该分词结构可以扩充为一个完整的句子，即，authority was conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. 由于as和so都不与only连用，应排除。能与only连用的连词是when和if。only when引导时间状语从句，意为"只有在……时候才……"，如Only when he read the newspaper did he know the story.（只有在他看了报纸后他才知道那则报导。）only if引导条件从句，多与现在时连用,意为"只有在……条件下才……"，如Only if the red light comes on is there any danger to employees.（只有红灯闪亮时才有危及职工的险情。）正确项为［B］。
［精解］ 本题考查事实细节。第一段第三句提到，"喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子与个性温和、容易相处的孩子相比，更难以应对父母的离异，因为他们一般更难以适应生活上的变化"。该句中as引导原因状语从句。因此［A］为正确答案，其中"care too much about"是原文"have more difficulty adapting to"的改写。［B］有较大干扰性，该段第四句进一步分析指出，压力使孩子难以适应生活上的变化，但这种压力可能来自家庭也可能来自其它方面。［C］中前一部分"容易发脾气"不是原因，只能算是不适应环境的表现。［D］本身从文中无法推知，更不是原因。全文末句提到的是"男孩比女孩面临父母更多的争吵"。
［精解］ 本题考查推理引申。第一段首句提到巴腾渥德得到的两条建议。第一条建议是："经济方面的坏消息对于债券市场来说却是好消息"。由此可知，从经济领域和证券市场中一方的状况可以反推出另一方的状况。因此［D］正确，be indicative of sth.意为"表明，暗示，标示"。第二条建议是："美国联邦储备局前主席说的话都是金玉良言"。由此只能推知这位美国联邦储备局前主席说的话很有分量，不能推出他"喜欢评论（enjoyed making comments）"。从该句可知，沃尔克曾通过重踏来势迅猛的通货膨胀重建了央行的信誉。restore一词表明联邦储备局，即，美国的中央银行在控制通货膨胀上也曾经失利，排除［B］。［C］无从推知。
［A］ 立即的 ［B］ 琐碎的 ［C］ 简单的 ［D］ 微不足道的
［精解］ 本题考查词义理解。passing一词出现在第一段第四句。其上文提到，"债券交易员得到的两条建议有两处细微的缺陷。第一点是要从现任联邦储备局主席的嘴里听到精确而有分量的话不只是……的困难（more than passing difficulty）"。显然这一内容是针对上文第二条建议（即，美国联邦储备局前主席说的话都是金玉良言）而讲的。由"缺陷"（drawbacks）一词可知，从现任联邦储备局主席那听到金玉良言是非常困难的，这种困难不是"微不足道的"，因此［D］正确。
［精解］ 本题考查推理引申。文章最后一段第二句提到，一直以来作为美国国债最大的外国买家的亚洲中央银行最近改变了过去的做法。接着该段以具体数据说明外国买家购买美国国债的数量下降。从文中"swallowing American government debt like there was no tomorrow"可看出作者认为大举购买国债的做法是"不谨慎"的，而下文"have had second thoughts"他表明它变得更加慎重，因此［C］为正确答案。
5. 第三段第六行的短语"keep a lid on"最可能的含义是。
［A］ 结束 ［B］ 设置限制 ［C］ 加紧控制 ［D］ 降低速度
［精解］ 本题考查词义理解。"keep a lid on"出现在最后一段倒数第二句，表示对"日元升值"做的动作。下文提到具体做法是：日本中央银行忙于购进美元并且把这些钱转为政府债务。四个选项都是同一方向的表达，根据经济常识，应选［B］，表示"限制日元的升值"。
(1)rules of thumb经验法则，也称ROT，通常是基于以前的经验（比如在一段时间内观察到的平均值）或者更复杂公式的简化。
(5)(just) for once仅此一次（与通常情况对比而言），如~ he arrived on time.（只有这一次他按时到了。）
(7)at a fast/good/fair/steady, etc. clip迅速，很快地，如Land prices will rise at a healthy clip.（土地价格将快速稳定上涨。）
(9)on the face of it表面上看
(12)rosy（a.）红润的；美好的，乐观的，如The future is looking very ~ for our company.（我们公司的前景一片光明。）
［精解］ 本题考查考生文中人物观点。文中多次引用了威斯苏森先生有关克隆的话，从中我们可以判断出他的态度。［A］中a stupid attempt出现在文章开始部分，是他对于克隆人而非克隆动物的看法。［B］中not yet close to getting it worked out出现在文章末句，是他对待动物实验的看法，不包括克隆人。事实上，克隆人还没有开始，谈不上是否接近成功。第二段末句，威斯苏森先生提到克隆是极其低效的，但没有提出因此就应该被禁止。因此，［C］部分错误。第二段倒数第二句，威斯苏森先生提出，动物实验中对动物卵的浪费以及动物的自然性流产还可以接受，但研究人就不行。可见，他默许克隆动物，反对克隆人，因此［D］正确。