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考研英语模拟题(八)

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Section Ⅰ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states, such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions, Roman theorists ignored, or rejected__3__ valueless, intellectual exercises like Plato's Republic, in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero's De Re Publica, and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete, even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome, Romulus, was__9__ to have received authority from the gods, specifically from Jupiter, the "guarantor" of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__, the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority, because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive, the senators moved__15__to divide the authority, holding that their consuls, or chief officials, would possess it on__16__months, and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__, as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.

1.[A] with [B] for [C] in [D] to

2. [A] tempted [B] attracted [C] appealed [D] transferred

3. [A] on [B] for [C] as [D] about

4. [A] which [B] that [C] what [D] it

5. [A] turned [B] worked [C] brought [D] made

6. [A] special [B] specific [C] peculiar [D] particular

7. [A] existence [B] store [C] reality [D] mind

8. [A] abandoned [B] caught [C] separated [D] involved

9. [A] told [B] held [C] suggested [D] advised

10. [A] tendency [B] procedure [C] development [D] relation

11. [A] authority [B] power [C] control [D] ruling

12. [A] officers [B] men [C] administrators [D] fathers

13. [A] possessed [B] claimed [C] assured [D] enforced

14. [A] confirm [B] confer [C] consult [D] consider

15. [A] over [B] along [C] on [D] about

16. [A] alternate [B] different [C] varied [D] several

17. [A] And [B] So [C] Or [D] But

18. [A] state [B] country [C] people [D] national

19. [A] as [B] when [C] if [D] so

20. [A] dimension [B] complexity [C] exercise [D] function

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Passage 1

Despite the general negative findings, it is important to remember that all children who live through a divorce do not behave in the same way. The specific behavior depends on the child's individual personality, characteristics, age at the time of divorce, and gender. In terms of personality, when compared to those rated as relaxed and easygoing, children described as temperamental and irritable have more difficulty coping with parental divorce, as indeed they have more difficulty adapting to life change in general. Stress, such as that found in disrupted families, seems to impair the ability of temperamental children to adapt to their surroundings, the greater the amount of stress, the less well they adapt. In contrast, a moderate amount of stress may actually help an easygoing, relaxed child learn to cope with adversity.

There is some relationship between age and children's characteristic reaction to divorce. As the child grows older, the greater is the likelihood of a free expression of a variety of complex feelings, an understanding of those feelings, and a realization that the decision to divorce cannot be attributed to any one simple cause. Self-blame virtually disappears after the age of 6, fear of abandonment diminishes after the age of 8, and the confusion and fear of the young child is replaced in the older child by shame, anger, and self-reflection.

Gender of the child is also a factor that predicts the nature of reaction to divorce. The impact of divorce is initially greater on boys than on girls. They are more aggressive, less compliant, have greater difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and exhibit problem behaviors both at home and at school. Furthermore, the adjustment problems of boys are still noticeable even two years after the divorce. Girls' adjustment problems are usually internalized rather than acted out, and are often resolved by the second year after the divorce. However, new problems may surface for girls as they enter adolescence and adulthood. How can the relatively greater impact of divorce on boys than on girls be explained? The greater male aggression and noncompliance may reflect the fact that such behaviors are tolerated and even encouraged in males in our culture more than they are in females. Furthermore, boys may have a particular need for a strong male model of self-control, as well as for a strong disciplinarian parent. Finally, boys are more likely to be exposed to their parents' fights than girls are, and after the breakup, boys are less likely than girls to receive sympathy and support from mothers, teachers, or peers.

1. Temperamental, irritable kids have difficulty adapting to parental divorce because.

[A] they care too much about the life change

[B] the great stress of their families diminishes their ability

[C] they tend to lose temper easily and are sensitive to the life change

[D] they are faced with more parents' fights than the relaxed, easygoing children

2. The following statements are true EXCEPT.

[A] divorce is usually caused by more than one reason

[B] a six-year-old boy may fear being deserted by his parents

[C] as the kids grow older, they have a better understanding of divorce

[D] a young girl may feel more shameful on parental divorce than an older boy

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the impact of divorce.

[A] on kids of different sexes will probably change as they grow older

[B] may cause most kids' difficulties in communicating with others

[C] on an irritable girl is greater than a noncompliant boy

[D] is always greater on boys than on girls

4. According to the author, the reason why parental divorce has greater effect on boys than on girls is that.

[A] all cultures encourage male aggression and noncompliance

[B] boys are always involved in their parents' fights

[C] males are usually viewed as the models in self-control and strong will

[D] boys are basically more self-disciplined than girls

5. What is the main idea of the passage?

[A] Parental divorce has a negative effect on children all through their life.

[B] The impact of parental divorce on children varies in personality, age and gender.

[C] Boys may become more aggressive than girls in disrupted families.

[D] Kids of different ages behave differently on parental divorce.


Passage 2

As a young bond trader, Buttonwood was given two pieces of advice, trading rules of thumb, if you will: that bad economic news is good news for bond markets and that every utterance dropping from the lips of Paul Volcker, the then chairman of the Federal Reserve, and the man who restored the central bank's credibility by stomping on runaway inflation, should be respected than Pope's orders. Today's traders are, of course, a more sophisticated bunch. But the advice still seems good, apart from two slight drawbacks. The first is that the well-chosen utterances from the present chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan, is of more than passing difficulty. The second is that, of late, good news for the economy has not seemed to upset bond investors all that much. For all the cheer that has crackled down the wires, the yield on ten-year bonds-which you would expect to rise on good economic news-is now, at 4.2%, only two-fifths of a percentage point higher than it was at the start of the year. Pretty much unmoved, in other words.

Yet the news from the economic front has been better by far than anyone could have expected. On Tuesday November 25th, revised numbers showed that America's economy grew by an annual 8.2% in the third quarter, a full percentage point more than originally thought, driven by the ever-spendthrift American consumer and, for once, corporate investment. Just about every other piece of information coming out from special sources shows the same strength. New houses are still being built at a fair clip. Exports are rising, for all the protectionist crying. Even employment, in what had been mocked as a jobless recovery, increased by 125,000 or thereabouts in September and October. Rising corporate profits, low credit spreads and the biggest-ever rally in the junk-bond market do not, on the face of it, suggest anything other than a deep and long-lasting recovery. Yet Treasury-bond yields have fallen.

If the rosy economic backdrop makes this odd, making it doubly odd is an apparent absence of foreign demand. Foreign buyers of Treasuries, especially Asian certral banks, who had been swallowing American government debt like there was no tomorrow, seem to have had second thoughts lately. In September, according to the latest available figures, foreigners bought only $56 billion of Treasuries, compared with $25.1 billion the previous month and an average of $38.7 billion in the preceding four months. In an effort to keep a lid on the yen's rise, the Japanese central bank is still busy buying dollars and parking the money in government debt. Just about everyboby else seems to have been selling.

1.The advice for Buttonwood suggests that.

[A] Paul Volcker enjoyed making comments on controlling inflation

[B] the Federal Reserve has an all-capable power over inflation control

[C] economy has the greatest influence upon the daily life of ordinary people

[D] the economic sphere and bond markets are indicative of each other

2. The word "passing"(Line 7, Paragraph 1) most probably means.

[A] instant [B] trivial [C] simple [D] negligible

3. Which of the following is responsible for the rapid economic growth in the US?

[A] Domestic consumers. [B] Foreign investments.

[C] Real estate market. [D] Recovering bond market.

4. According to the last paragraph, most Asian central banks are becoming.

[A] rather regretful [B] less ambitious

[C] more cautious [D] speculative

5. The phrase "keep a lid on"(Line 6, Paragraph 3) most probably means.

[A] put an end to [B] set a limit on

[C] tighten the control over [D] reduce the speed of

Passage 3

Material culture refers to the touchable, material "things"-physical objects that can be seen, held, felt, used-that a culture produces. Examining a culture's tools and technology can tell us about the group's history and way of life. Similarly, research into the material culture of music can help us to understand the music-culture. The most vivid body of "things" in it, of course, are musical instruments. We cannot hear for ourselves the actual sound of any musical performance before the 1870s when the phonograph was invented, so we rely on instruments for important information about music-cultures in the remote past and their development. Here we have two kinds of evidence: instruments well preserved and instruments pictured in art. Through the study of instruments, as well as paintings, written documents, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of Near Eastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of the instruments on the symphony orchestra.

Sheet music or printed music, too, is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print, but research shows mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe, Britain and America. Printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song, yet they stimulate people to create new and different songs. Besides, the ability to read music notation has a far-reaching effect on musicians and, when it becomes widespread, on the music-culture as a whole.

Music is deep-rooted in the cultural background that fosters it. We now pay more and more attention to traditional or ethnic features in folk music and are willing to preserve the folk music as we do with many traditional cultural heritage. Musicians all over the world are busy with recording classic music in their country for the sake of their unique culture. As always, people's aspiration will always focus on their individuality rather than universal features that are shared by all cultures alike.

One more important part of music's material culture should be singled out: the influence of the electronic media-radio, record player, tape recorder, and television, with the future promising talking and singing computers and other developments. This is all part of the "information-revolution", a twentieth century phenomenon as important as the industrial revolution in the nineteenth. These electronic media are not just limited to modern nations; they have affected music-cultures all over the globe.

1. Which of the following does not belong to material culture?

[A] Instruments. [B] Music. [C] Paintings. [D] Sheet music.

2. The word "phonograph"(Line 5-6, Paragraph 1) most probably means.

[A] record player [B] radio [C] musical technique[D] music culture

3. The main idea of the first paragraph is.

[A] the importance of cultural tools and technology

[B] the cultural influence of the development of civilization

[C] the focus of the study of the material culture of music

[D] the significance of the research into the musical instruments

4. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of printed music?

[A] Reading of music notation has a great impact on musicians.

[B] People may draw imspiration from it.

[C] The music culture will be influenced by it in the end.

[D] Songs tend to be standardized by it.

5. From the third paragraph, we may infer that.

[A] traditional cultural heritage is worthy of preservation

[B] the universal features shared by all cultures aren't worthy of notice

[C] musicians pay more attention to the preservation of traditional music

[D] the more developed a culture, the more valuable the music it has fostered

Passage 4

"I've never met a human worth cloning," says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from the cramped confines of his lab at Texas A&M University. "It's a stupid endeavor." That's an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two calves and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy later this year-or perhaps not for another five years. It seems the reproductive system of man's best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science.

Westhusin's experience with cloning animals leaves him vexed by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missyplicity project, using hundreds upon hundreds of canine eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos carrying Missy's DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses may be acceptable when you're dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. "Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous," he says.

Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin's phone at A&M College of Veterinary Medicine has been ringing busily. Cost is no obstacle for customers like Missy's mysterious owner, who wishes to remain unknown to protect his privacy. He's plopped down $3.7 million so far to fund the research because he wants a twin to carry on Missy's fine qualities after she dies. But he knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy's owners and the A&M team say they are "both looking forward to studying the ways that her clone differs from Missy."

The fate of the dog samples will depend on Westhusin's work. He knows that even if he gets a dog viably pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems. "Why would you ever want to clone humans," Westhusin asks, "when we're not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?"

1. Which of the following best represents Mr. Westhusin's attitude toward cloning?

[A] Animal cloning is a stupid attempt.

[B] Human cloning is not yet close to getting it worked out.

[C] Cloning is too inefficient and should be stopped.

[D] Animals cloning yes, and human cloning at least not now.

2. The Missyplicity project does not seem very successful probably because.

[A] there isn't enough fund to support the research

[B] cloning dogs is more complicated than cloning cats and bulls

[C] Mr. Westhusin is too busy taking care of the business

[D] the owner is asking for an exact copy of his pet

3. When Mr. Westhusin says "... cloning is dangerous," he implies that.

[A] lab technicians may be affected by chemicals

[B] cats and dogs in the lab may die of diseases

[C] experiments may waste lots of lives

[D] cloned animals could outlive the natural ones

4. We can infer from the third paragraph that.

[A] rich people are more interested in cloning humans than animals

[B] cloning of animal pets is becoming a prosperous industry

[C] there is no distinction between a cloned and a natural dog

[D] Missy's master pays a lot in a hope to revive the dog

5. We may conclude from the text that.

[A] human cloning will not succeed unless the technique is more efficient

[B] scientists are optimistic about cloning technique

[C] many people are against the idea of human cloning

[D] cloned animals are more favored by owners even if they are weaker


Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Rain forest structure is distinct from most other forest types because of its many layers of vegetation, referred to as strata. The lowest stratum is the understory, composed of palms, herbaceous plants (such as wild ginger), and tree seedlings and saplings. (41) . Many have deep red coloring on the underside of their leaves to capture some of the scarce light that does manage to reach the forest understory. This red coloring enables understory plants to absorb light of different wavelengths than do the plants with rich, green-foliaged canopy, the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees. Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more midstory strata, made up of woody plants, such as large shrubs and midsized trees.

The overstory is the canopy, in which the tree crowns form a continuous layer that captures the major part of the rainwater and sunlight hitting the forest. The height of the canopy varies from region to region and forest to forest, ranging from 20 to 50 m (65 to 165 ft). (42) . Researchers use hot air balloons, cables, catwalks, towers, sophisticated tree-climbing gear, and even robots to study the millions of plants and animals that make their home high up in the forest canopy. Canopy researchers also use huge cranes that are dropped into the heart of the forest by helicopters. Suspended from the crane's long, movable arm is a large cabin that functions as a mobile treetop laboratory. Moving from tree to tree, forest researchers collect specimens, conduct experiments, and observe life in the canopy frontier.

The highest stratum of the rain forest is made up of the emergent trees, those individuals that stick up above the forest canopy. Emergents, which do not form a continuous layer, are usually the giants of the forest, reaching heights of 35 to 70 m (115 to 230 ft) or more, and trunk sizes of over 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter. (43) . However, these trees tend to be so large that they collectively account for the vast majority of the woody mass, or biomass, of the forest.

The nicely ordered strata of the rain forest, including the continuous layer of the canopy, are regularly disturbed by naturally occurring events, such as falling trees. Trees in a rain forest canopy are often interconnected by vines, and a falling tree may pull as well as push other trees down with it, producing a domino effect of falling trees. The resulting opening in the forest canopy enables light to pour onto the forest floor. (44) .

Other natural disturbances create even larger openings in the forest canopies. For example, along the hurricane belt in the Caribbean and the typhoon belt along the western Pacific, some forests are substantially altered when high winds and storms blow down hundreds of trees every few decades. (45) . Scientists have found that these natural disturbances and the subsequent forest regeneration are a vital process that leads to healthy and diverse forests.

[A] New plants and animals then move into the area and begin to grow.

[B] Just 2 percent of the sunlight goes through the many layers of leaves and branches above, so understory plant species have developed special traits to cope with low light levels.

[C] On a smaller scale, large mammals, such as elephants, regularly destroy rain forest vegetation in the Congo River Basin in Africa.

[D] An understory of shorter trees and a lacework of woody vines, or lianas, produce a forest of such complex internal architecture that many animals, including some sizable ones, rarely or never descend to the ground.

[E] Less than one percent of the trees in the forest reside in the canopy and emergent layers.

[F] Because more light penetrates the canopy, however, the vegetation of the understory and forest floor is better developed than in the tropics.

[G] The rich, green canopy is teeming with life, and forest researchers have developed ingenious methods for accessing this mysterious ecosystem.


答案

1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7.D 8.D 9. B 10. C

11. A 12. D 13.A 14.C 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. B

总体分析

本文介绍了罗马人有关国家建设的理论。第一句指出罗马人有关国家形成的理论很有特点。第二句至第五句指出,罗马人的理论与希腊人的大不相同,是非常具体的。第六句至文章结尾具体阐述了罗马人关于国家权力的所有和分配形式。

试题精解

1.[精解] 本题考查介词用法辨析。空格处的介词与名词短语the construction of ideal states 搭配,作blueprints 的后置定语,意为"……的蓝图"。for可表示对象、用途,意为"给,对,供"等,如a book for children(儿童读物),a new table for the dining room(用在饭厅的新桌子)。本句中,"建设理想国家"是"蓝图"的用途,因此选择介词for,[B]正确。其它介词:with和名词搭配常表示"具有……特征",如a woman with a hot temper(脾气暴躁的女人);with和动词搭配常表示"用,以,借",如Cut it with a knife.(用刀把它切开。)in表示"以,用(语言,材料等)",如He spoke in a loud voice.(他大声说话。)to表示"到,达(某种状态)",如He tore the letter to pieces.(他把信撕碎了。)

2.[精解] 本题考查动词用法辨析。空格所在部分such as__2 __to the Greeks是一个定语从句,其中as为关系代词,指代先行词blueprints。因此,该从句的主语是as指代的blueprints,谓语是空格处填入的动词。该动词是个不及物动词,与后面的介词to搭配。符合要求的只有[C]appeal,它常和介词to搭配,意为"(对某人)有吸引力,引起(某人的)兴趣",如Do these paintings appeal to you?(你对这些画感兴趣吗?)

其它项的动词都是及物动词:tempt sb. to do sth.意为"诱惑、吸引(某人做某事)",其中to为不定式符号,如Nothing would tempt me to live here.(什么也吸引不了我在这里居住。)attract sb. to sth. 意为"引起某人对某事的好感或喜爱",如What attracted me to the job was its challenges.(这份工作吸引我的是它的挑战性。)transfer sb./sth. to... 意为"使转移,搬迁",如transfer money to his account(将钱转到他的帐户上)。

补充:such... as意为"像……这样的",其中as可作关系代词,引起定语从句,如The article provided such information as was not provided by most of the newspapers in the United States.(这篇文章提供了美国大部分报纸没有提供的信息。)such有时不放在所修饰的词前,而和as放在一起,如上面例句也可写成:The article provided information such as was not provided by most of the newspapers in the United States.

3.[精解] 本题考查句子结构及介词用法。空格所在句子中出现了倒装结构,由于其宾语intellectual exercises的后置定语较长,因此将宾补valueless提前。该句子的正常语序是Roman theorists ignored, or rejected intellectual exercises__3__valueless。能够引出宾补的介词只有[C]as,如I respect him as a doctor.(我尊敬他这个医生。)You can use that glass as a vase.(你可以把那个玻璃杯当作花瓶用。)

4.[精解] 本题考查从句的引导词。空格上下文分别是两个结构完整的分句,无法仅仅用逗号连接。由此可知,空格所在部分是in __4__引导的非限定性从句,修饰先行词Plato's Republic,in 4在该从句中作状语。能够指代名词,并和介词搭配的关系代词是[A]which。[B]that不用在非限定性从句中,[C]what只能引导名词性从句,[D]it不能引导从句。

5.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格所在部分was__5__out是定语从句中的谓语,由于它是被动式,因此其逻辑宾语就是该从句的主语the relationship。turn out意为"制造,生产;关掉,熄灭",如turn out 900 cars a week(一周生产900辆汽车),turn out the lights(关灯)。work out意为"计算,算出;处理,解决;计划,思考",如work out the answer/a problem/a new way(计算出答案/解决问题/制定出新方案)。bring out意为"使显现,使表现出;生产,出版";如A crisis brings out the best in her.(危机促使她表现得特别出色。)The band have just brought out the second album.(这个乐队刚刚推出了他们的第二张专辑。)。make out意为"辨认;理解,明白",如make out a figure in the darkness(在黑暗中看出一个人的轮廓),make out what she was saying(弄明白她在说些什么)。根据句意,应该选[B],work out the relationship表示"想出或制定出(个人与国家之间的)关系"。

6.[精解] 本题考查近义形容词辨析。选项中四个形容词为近义词。special意为"特别的,专门的",如special treatment(特殊照顾)。specific意为"特殊的;明确的",如There is a specific tool for each job.(每个工种都配备特定的工具。)specific instructions(明确的指示)。peculiar意为"奇怪的;独特的",如The food has a peculiar taste.(这食物有种怪味道。)The Mid-Autumn Festival is peculiar to China.(中秋节是中国所独有的。)particular意为"不寻常的,特别的",如particular attention(特别注意)。但是particular也可意为"专指的,特指的",这种用法的particular只用在名词前作定语,与泛指相对,如Is there a particular type of book he enjoys?(他特别喜爱哪一类书籍吗?)由句意可知,空格处填入的形容词修饰states or individuals,表示"特指的国家或个人",与上文提到的"泛指的国家或个人"相对。因此应选[D]。

7.[精解] 本题考查固定搭配。have sb./sth. in mind意为"心中有适当的人(或事情)等",如Watching TV all evening wasn't exactly what I had in mind!(我才不愿整个晚上都看电视!)空格所在部分表达的含义是"对罗马有了非常清楚的想法",因此应选[D]mind。

其它项都可以和介词in搭配:in store意为"即将发生(在某人身上),等待着(某人)",如They think it'll be easy but they have a surprise in store.(他们以为事情容易,到时候他们就会吃惊的。)in existence意为"现存",如This is the oldest Hebrew manuscript in existence.(这是现存最古老的希伯来语手稿。)in reality意为"实际上,事实上",如She seemed confident but in reality she felt nervous.(她看起来自信,而实际上很紧张。)显然,其它项都不符合文意。

8.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格所在部分是even when引导的让步状语从句,其中it指代上文的Roman thought(罗马人的想法),空格处填入的动词是谓语,其宾语是religious and moral concepts。选项中,abandon意为"放弃,抛弃",如abandon the hope/one's lands(放弃希望/丢下土地)。catch意为"染病;听见,理解",如catch a cold/what you said(得感冒/弄懂你说的话)。separate意为"分开,隔开",如It is impossible to separate belief from emotion.(信仰和感情是分不开的。)involve意为"包含;牵涉,牵连",如Any investment involves an element of risk.(任何投资都有一定的冒险成分。)a serious incident involving a group of youths(涉及一群年轻人的严重事件)。根据句意,应选[D],表示"即使涉及到宗教和道德概念"。

9.[精解] 本题考查动词用法辨析。空格所在部分was__9__为谓语动词的被动式,其主语是The first ruler,不定式结构to have... 作主补。be told to do意为"被命令、吩咐做某事",如He was told to sit down and wait.(有人吩咐他坐下等着。)be held to be/do意为"被认为是/做……",如These vases are held to be the finest examples of Greek art.(这些花瓶被视为最精美的希腊艺术代表作。)suggest不与不定式连用,因此不存在be suggested to do的结构。be advised to do意为"被建议做某事",如He was advised to take a complete rest.(他被建议彻底休息一下。)文中不定式的完成式to have received表明该动作发生在空格动词动作之前,根据句意,应选择[B]held,表示"统治者被认为已经获得了……"。

10.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处填入的名词被constitutional(立宪的,宪法的)修饰。tendency意为"趋势,倾向";procedure意为"程序,手续,步骤";development意为"发展";relation意为"关系"。根据句意,选择[C],表示"宪法的发展"。

11.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。authority意为"权力,职权";power意为"控制力,操纵力;权力";control意为"控制";ruling意为"判决,裁定,统治"。由于上文提到,"统治者从神那里获得了权利(authority)",因此空格所在句子的含义应是"宪法授予和管理该权力",此外,下文也提到"行使权力(exercise authority)",因此本题最佳答案是[A]。

12.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。officers指"官员";men指"男人们";administrators指"管理人员,行政官员";复数形式的fathers一般指"祖先,先父"。下文的插入语the family... senate是空格处名词的同位语,其中the family head是对father的解释,senate(参议院)与assembly(立法机构)在含义上相呼应。因此本题应选[D]。

13.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格处填入动词,其主语是the assembly of the fathers,宾语是the religious character。[A]possess意为"拥有;具有(特质)",如He doesn't possess a sense of humor.(他没有什么幽默感。)[A]在文中可表示"具有(宗教特质)",符合文意。其它项:claim意为"要求,请求,主张";assure意为"保证,担保",一般接sb.作宾语;enforce意为"强制执行,强行实施;强迫"。

14.[精解] 本题考查形近动词辨析。空格所在部分是because引导的状语从句,解释上文"先父们的立法机构拥有行使权利所必须的宗教特质"的原因。confirm意为"确定,批准,证实";confer意为"授予";consult意为"咨询,请教";consider意为"考虑"。根据句意,应选[C],表示"向神寻求建议或启示"。

15.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。move over意为"挪开,让位置",如He felt he should move over in favor of a younger man.(他觉得他应该让位给一个更年轻的人。)move along意为"向前移动(以腾出空间)",如The people in the bus moved along, to make room for others.(公车里的人往前挪以便给别人腾地方。)move on意为"往前走;开始做(新的事情)",如Can we move on to the next item on the agenda?(我们可以接着讨论下一项议程吗?)move about意为"不停地走动",如You will be warm enough if you move about.(如果你到处走动一下你就会感到很暖和的。)上文提到,"最初的参议院拥有行使权利所必须的宗教特质",本句则提到,"参议员们将权利再进行分割",显然,两个分句之间是"继续,接着"的含义,应选[C]。

16.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格处填入的形容词修饰months。alternate可意为"间隔的,每隔(……天的)",如He has to work on alternate Sundays.(他每隔一周就有一个周日得上班。)different意为"不同的",如shirts of different colors(颜色不同的衬衫)。varied意为"各种各样的",如varied cultures(各种不同的文化)。several意为"几个,若干",如several hours a day(每天几个小时)。根据句意,司法官或总管官员拥有权力的时间应是"每隔一个月",而不是"不同的月"、"各种各样的月"或"几个月"。因此,[A]为正确项。

17.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词。空格处填入的连词表示所在分句与上文之间的逻辑关系。上文提到,参议院拥有权利,并将它下放到各级官员手中。空格所在部分是一个长句,其主干结构是the achievement was to create the idea of continuing... authority(成就是创造持续的……权力的概念)。authority后是两个并列的分词结构,即,embodied... in和conferred... 作后置定语。由句意可知,本句仍然在讨论权力下放的问题,但它强调这种权力不完全属于上层阶级,也需要大众的认可。因此在含义上本句出现了转折。选项中,And表并列,So表因果,Or表选择,But表转折。[D]为正确项。

18.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处的名词作定语,修饰authority。本文一开始就提到罗马人关于国家理论的形成(Roman theorizing about the state)。文中多次出现了关键词state。因此可推知,空格部分涉及的是应是"国家权力"。state authority是表达"国家权力"的习惯搭配,一般不用country或people,national authority常表示"民族权力机构"。

19.[精解] 本题考查连词用法辨析。空格处填入一连词,引导后面的从句,和空格前的过去分词一起在句子中作状语。该分词结构可以扩充为一个完整的句子,即,authority was conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. 由于as和so都不与only连用,应排除。能与only连用的连词是when和if。only when引导时间状语从句,意为"只有在……时候才……",如Only when he read the newspaper did he know the story.(只有在他看了报纸后他才知道那则报导。)only if引导条件从句,多与现在时连用,意为"只有在……条件下才……",如Only if the red light comes on is there any danger to employees.(只有红灯闪亮时才有危及职工的险情。)正确项为[B]。

20.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。空格所在部分with enormous__ 20__作状语,修饰grew。dimension意为"大小,规模,程度,范围";complexity意为"复杂性";exercise意为"活动,练习;行使,运用";function意为"功能"。下文as引导时间状语从句,说明了主语动作发生的背景和原因。"新的部门和立法机构被创造出来并且几乎没有任何一个被摈弃"导致的结果应该是"系统越来越复杂",[B]为正确项。

全文翻译

奥古斯都(罗马帝国第一代皇帝)的成功很大程度上归功于罗马人将国家理论化的特点。罗马人没有制定出让希腊人感兴趣的建设理想国家的宏伟蓝图。在柏拉图的《理想国》中不涉及具体个人或国家的一种个人与国家之间的关系被详细地设计出来,但罗马理论家们几乎无一例外地忽视或拒绝接受像《理想国》这样的智力训练,认为它们毫无价值。罗马人最接近希腊模式的是西塞罗的《论国家》,甚至在这本书中西塞罗的心中已经对罗马有了非常清楚的想法。即使涉及到宗教和道德概念,罗马人关于国家的想法也是具体的。罗马的第一位统治者罗穆卢斯被认为从神,尤其是从罗马的守护神宙斯那里获得了权力。所有宪法的发展都是一种赋予和监督这种权力的方法。很显然,人们相信只有先父们的立法机构,即一家之主们组成的最初的参议院,才拥有行使这种权力所必需的宗教特质,因为它最初的功能是寻求神的启示。既实际又排外的参议员们将权力再进一步分割,认为他们的司法官或总管官员,将每隔一个月拥有这项权力,并在之后将其拥有权扩大到更低等级的官员。但是重要的成就是创造了持续的国家权力的概念,这种权力只是临时体现在某些上层阶级的个人身上,并且只有当普通大众一致同意的时候才被赋予。当新的部门和立法机构被创造出来并且几乎没有任何一个被摈弃的时候,这个系统变得越来越复杂。

答案

1.A 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.B

总体分析

本文介绍了父母离异对不同的孩子影响不同。

第一段:先提出造成孩子对父母离异有不同反应的几个因素,接着分析个性在孩子适应父母离异状况时的影响。

第二段:分析父母离异对不同年龄的孩子的影响。

第三段:分析父母离异对不同性别的孩子的影响。

试题精解

1. 喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子很难适应父母的离异,因为。

[A] 他们对生活的变化太过在意

[B] 来自家庭的巨大压力削弱了他们的能力

[C] 他们往往很容易发脾气,而且对生活的变化很敏感

[D] 与个性温和、容易相处的孩子们比,他们面临父母更多的争吵

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段第三句提到,"喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子与个性温和、容易相处的孩子相比,更难以应对父母的离异,因为他们一般更难以适应生活上的变化"。该句中as引导原因状语从句。因此[A]为正确答案,其中"care too much about"是原文"have more difficulty adapting to"的改写。[B]有较大干扰性,该段第四句进一步分析指出,压力使孩子难以适应生活上的变化,但这种压力可能来自家庭也可能来自其它方面。[C]中前一部分"容易发脾气"不是原因,只能算是不适应环境的表现。[D]本身从文中无法推知,更不是原因。全文末句提到的是"男孩比女孩面临父母更多的争吵"。

2. 下面这些说法都是正确的,除了。

[A] 离异经常是由不止一个原因造成的

[B] 一个六岁的男孩也许会害怕被父母抛弃

[C] 当孩子长大后,他们对离异会有更好的理解

[D] 一个年幼些的女孩也许比一个年长些的男孩对父母离异更感到羞愧

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段第三句提到,年长孩子对父母离异的羞愧、愤怒及自我反省心理取代了年幼孩子的困惑和恐惧心理。由此可见,年长的孩子更容易感到羞愧。[D]与事实相反。该段第二句提到,长大的孩子更能意识到父母离异的决定不能简单归结于任何单一的原因。因此[C]正确,[A]是该句中提到的事实。第三句提到,8岁以后孩子对被抛弃的恐惧才会减少,因此可推出[B]符合事实。

3. 从文章中可以推知,离异。

[A] (当不同性别的孩子长大时)其影响可能会产生变化

[B] 也许会造成大部分孩子交流时的困难

[C] 对一个性格急躁的女孩的影响比对一个性格温顺的男孩的影响要大

[D] 对男孩的影响总是比女孩大

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。全文提到了多个决定父母离异对孩子影响的因素,包括性格、年龄、性别。第一段指出,喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子更容易受影响。第二段提到,随着年龄的增长,一些影响会消失或新的影响出现。第三段则提到,父母离异最初对男孩的影响较大,而女孩受到的影响较隐蔽,进入青春期或成年期后,新的问题又浮出水面。因此[A]是最全面的论述。文中没有提到"孩子交流"的问题,排除[B]。[C]涉及性别和个性两个因素,因此无法判断谁受到的影响更大;[D]太片面,只考虑了性别因素。

4. 根据作者的观点,父母离异对男孩的影响比女孩大的原因是。

[A] 所有文化都鼓励男人具有攻击性和不顺从

[B] 男孩总是被卷入父母的争吵中

[C] 男人总是被看作自律和意志坚强的模范

[D] 男孩基本上比女孩更自律

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段中间作者提出了一个问题,怎样解释离婚对男孩影响比女孩大的原因呢?接下来文章从三个方面进行了解释:一,我们的文化更能容忍男孩具有攻击性和不驯服;二,男孩更希望树立起自律的强悍的男人形象,也希望父母严格自律;三,男孩较少受到他人的同情与支持。[C]符合第二点原因,是正确项。[A]错在"所有文化",文章中是"我们的文化"。[B]错在"卷入(involved in)",全文最后一句提到的是"男孩更容易看到(be exposed to)父母吵架"。[D]这种说法无从推知。

5. 文章的主旨大意是什么?

[A] 父母离异对孩子一生都有负面影响。

[B] 父母离异对孩子的影响随个性、年龄与性别而不同。

[C] 在破裂的家庭中男孩比女孩可能更具攻击性。

[D] 不同年龄的孩子对待父母离异的行为不同。

[精解] 本题考查文章主旨。文章第一、二句提出了全文的主题,即,经历父母离异的孩子会有不同的行为反应,它们取决于孩子的个性特点、性别及其在父母离婚时的年龄。文章接下来的内容分别围绕这三个因素展开分析和论述。因此[B]是文章主旨。

核心词汇或超纲词汇

(1)rate(v.)评估,评价,认为,如They ~d him highly as a colleague.(作为同事,他们对他评价甚高。)

(2)surface(v.)浮出水面;(隐藏或被掩盖一段时间后)露面,重新出现,显露,如She ~d again years later in London.(多年后她又出现在伦敦。)

(3)disciplinarian(n.)严格纪律信奉者;严格执行纪律者,如She's a very strict ~.(她执行纪律非常严格。)

全文翻译

尽管父母离异对孩子有普遍的负面影响,但经历父母离异的孩子会有不同的行为反应,记住这一点很重要。这些孩子具体的行为取决于他们的个性、特点、性别及其在父母离异时的年龄。在个性方面,那些被认为喜怒无常和性格急躁的孩子与个性温和又容易相处的孩子相比,更难以应对父母的离异,因为他们一般更难以适应生活上的变化。压力,比如在破裂家庭中产生的压力,似乎削弱了这些喜怒无常的孩子们适应环境的能力,压力越大,他们适应环境的能力越弱。相反,适度的压力实际上可以帮助那些个性温和的孩子学习如何应对逆境。

孩子的年龄与他们对父母离异所产生的独特反应有着某种联系。随着孩子年龄的增长,他们更可能自由表达各种各样复杂的感情,更可能理解这些情感,也更能意识到父母离异的决定不能简单归结于任何单一的原因。孩子在6岁后自我责备的心理几乎完全消失,8岁以后对被抛弃的恐惧减少,与此同时,年长孩子对父母离异的羞愧、愤怒及自我反省心理取代了年幼孩子的困惑和恐惧心理。

孩子的性别也是一个可以预测他们对父母离异反应特点的因素。父母离异最初对男孩的影响比女孩要大,因为男孩好斗,不像女孩那样温顺,在人际关系上存在更多的困难,而且在家中或在学校里会表现出不好的行为。不仅如此,男孩在父母离异两年后仍然表现出适应性问题。女孩的适应性问题更为隐蔽,不会外在表现出来,而且经常在父母离异两年内被解决。然而,当女孩进入青春期或成年期后,新的问题又会浮出水面。怎样解释离婚对男孩影响比女孩大的原因呢?男孩更具攻击性和不驯服可能反应这样一个事实,在我们的文化中这种行为发生在男孩身上更容易得到宽容与鼓励。而且,男孩可能特别希望树立起一个自律的强悍的男人形象,也特别希望父母自身就是纪律的严格执行者。最后,与女孩相比,男孩更容易看到父母吵架,而且,在父母离异后,他们也不大可能像女孩那样受到母亲、老师或者同龄人的同情和支持。

答案

1.D 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.B

总体分析

本文是一篇介绍美国债券市场的文章。

第一段:通过叙述年轻的债券交易员获得的建议说明目前债券市场的状况有些出人意料。

第二段:指出在经济发展形势一片大好的背景下,国债收益率却在下降。

第三段:指出对美国国债的国外需求也出现疲软。

试题精解

1.巴腾渥德得到的建议表明。

[A] 保罗·沃尔克喜欢就控制通货膨胀发表评论

[B] 联邦储备局在控制通货膨胀上有着超凡的力量

[C] 经济对普通人的日常生活影响最大

[D] 经济领域和证券市场互为表征

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段首句提到巴腾渥德得到的两条建议。第一条建议是:"经济方面的坏消息对于债券市场来说却是好消息"。由此可知,从经济领域和证券市场中一方的状况可以反推出另一方的状况。因此[D]正确,be indicative of sth.意为"表明,暗示,标示"。第二条建议是:"美国联邦储备局前主席说的话都是金玉良言"。由此只能推知这位美国联邦储备局前主席说的话很有分量,不能推出他"喜欢评论(enjoyed making comments)"。从该句可知,沃尔克曾通过重踏来势迅猛的通货膨胀重建了央行的信誉。restore一词表明联邦储备局,即,美国的中央银行在控制通货膨胀上也曾经失利,排除[B]。[C]无从推知。

2. 第一段第八行的单词"passing"最可能的含义是。

[A] 立即的 [B] 琐碎的 [C] 简单的 [D] 微不足道的

[精解] 本题考查词义理解。passing一词出现在第一段第四句。其上文提到,"债券交易员得到的两条建议有两处细微的缺陷。第一点是要从现任联邦储备局主席的嘴里听到精确而有分量的话不只是……的困难(more than passing difficulty)"。显然这一内容是针对上文第二条建议(即,美国联邦储备局前主席说的话都是金玉良言)而讲的。由"缺陷"(drawbacks)一词可知,从现任联邦储备局主席那听到金玉良言是非常困难的,这种困难不是"微不足道的",因此[D]正确。

3. 下面哪一个是美国经济快速增长的原因?

[A] 国内消费者 [B] 外国投资

[C] 房地产市场 [D] 正在恢复的债券市场

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。由第二段第二句可知,美国经济第三季度呈现快速增长,这种增长是由一直以来挥霍无度的美国消费者以及仅此一次的公司投资带来的(driven by...)。由此可知[A]是促进经济增长的原因之一。另外一个原因是"公司投资(corporate investment)",而非"外国投资",排除[B]。下文虽然提到"新房子建造速度快",但它是经济增长的表现,而非原因。[D]在文中没有作为经济增长的原因被提及。

4. 根据文章最后一段,大部分亚洲中央银行正变得。

[A] 相当悔恨 [B] 不那么有野心 [C] 更谨慎 [D] 猜疑

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。文章最后一段第二句提到,一直以来作为美国国债最大的外国买家的亚洲中央银行最近改变了过去的做法。接着该段以具体数据说明外国买家购买美国国债的数量下降。从文中"swallowing American government debt like there was no tomorrow"可看出作者认为大举购买国债的做法是"不谨慎"的,而下文"have had second thoughts"他表明它变得更加慎重,因此[C]为正确答案。

5. 第三段第六行的短语"keep a lid on"最可能的含义是。

[A] 结束 [B] 设置限制 [C] 加紧控制 [D] 降低速度

[精解] 本题考查词义理解。"keep a lid on"出现在最后一段倒数第二句,表示对"日元升值"做的动作。下文提到具体做法是:日本中央银行忙于购进美元并且把这些钱转为政府债务。四个选项都是同一方向的表达,根据经济常识,应选[B],表示"限制日元的升值"。

核心词汇或超纲词汇

(1)rules of thumb经验法则,也称ROT,通常是基于以前的经验(比如在一段时间内观察到的平均值)或者更复杂公式的简化。

(2)stomp(v.)迈着重重的步子走(或跳舞、移动),重踩,重踏

(3)runaway(a.)逃跑的,出走的;失控的;轻易的,迅速的

(4)passing(a.)暂时的,瞬间的;经过的,过往的

(5)(just) for once仅此一次(与通常情况对比而言),如~ he arrived on time.(只有这一次他按时到了。)

(6)spendthrift(a./n.)花钱无度的(人),挥霍的(人)

(7)at a fast/good/fair/steady, etc. clip迅速,很快地,如Land prices will rise at a healthy clip.(土地价格将快速稳定上涨。)

(8)thereabouts(ad.)(通常用于or之后)(时间、数量等)大约,左右,上下

(9)on the face of it表面上看

(10)rally(n.)公众集会;(体育运动或证券交易)止跌回升

(11)Treasury(n.)(英、美等国的)财政部

(12)rosy(a.)红润的;美好的,乐观的,如The future is looking very ~ for our company.(我们公司的前景一片光明。)

(13)backdrop(n.)(舞台)背景幕;(事态或活动的)背景

(14)speculative(a.)推测的,猜测的,推断的;投机性的,风险性的

全文翻译

作为一名年轻的债券交易员,巴腾渥德得到了两条建议,如果采纳的话,它们是贸易的经验法则:一,经济方面的坏消息对于债券市场来说就是好消息;二,从美国联邦储备局前主席保罗·沃尔克口中说出的每一句话,都要比大教皇的命令还值得重视。沃尔克通过控制来势迅猛的通货膨胀重建了央行的信誉。当然,如今的交易员是一群更精明的人。但是这些建议除了有两处细微的缺陷外,看上去仍是不错的。首先,要从现任联邦储备局主席阿伦·格林斯潘嘴里听到精确而有分量的话不只是微不足道的困难。第二,最近经济的好消息似乎并没有让债券投资者很不安。尽管欢呼声已经四处响起,但是本来期待由于经济好消息而上涨的10年期债券的收益率现在是4.2%,这仅仅只比年初高了0.4个百分点,换句话说,是几乎没有改变。

但是到目前为止,前沿经济信息比任何人预期的都要好。在11月25日周二,修改后的数据显示,美国经济第三季度年增长率为8.2%,比人们最初设想的多了整整一个百分点。这种增长是由一直以来挥霍无度的美国消费者以及仅此一次的公司投资带来的。从特殊渠道传出的消息每隔一条就呈现这种强劲的增长势头。新房子仍在迅速地建造。尽管地方保护主义者不停地叫嚣,出口量却仍在增长。甚至曾被嘲讽为"失业型复苏"的劳动力市场,在九、十月份也增加了125000个左右的就业岗位。表面上看,公司利润的上升,信贷息差的降低,和迄今为止垃圾债券市场中最大的止跌回升,都在暗示一个全面的、持久的经济复苏。然而,国债收益率却下降了。

如果说大好的的经济背景使这一切变得奇怪,那么显而易见的国外需求的疲软就令其更加奇怪了。国债的外国买家,尤其是一直以来不顾后果、大举购买美国政府债务的亚洲中央银行,最近似乎变得谨慎起来。根据最新数据显示,九月份外国买家仅仅购买了56亿美国国债,与八月份的251亿美元和前四个月平均达到的387亿美元相比,实在相形见绌。为了努力限制日元的升值,日本中央银行仍在忙于购进美元并且把这些钱转为政府债务。但是其他国家几乎都在抛售。

答案

1.B 2.A 3.D 4.D 5.A

总体分析

本文介绍了对于音乐文化研究极具重要性的几种物质文化。

第一段:从介绍"物质文化"开始,谈到音乐的第一种物质文化--"乐器",说明它在音乐文化研究中的作用。

第二段:介绍音乐的第二种物质文化--乐谱,及其对音乐文化的影响。

第三段:人们现在开始关注保存具有民族特色的音乐。

第四段:介绍音乐的第三种物质文化--电子媒体对音乐文化的影响。

试题精解

1.下面哪一项不属于物质文化?

[A] 乐器 [B] 音乐 [C] 绘画 [D] 乐谱

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段首句对"物质文化"下定义为:文化中产生的能看到、摸到、感觉到和使用的自然物体。接着该段第三、四句提到,音乐文化中最生动的物质载体是乐器。从第一段末句可知,图片、文字记载以及乐器都是研究音乐文化的物质手段。第二段首句接着指出,乐谱也是物质文化。因此[A]、[C]和[D]都是物质文化,只有[B]不是。

2. 第一段第五至六行的单词"phonograph"最可能的含义是。

[A] 录音机 [B] 收音机 [C] 音乐技术 [D] 音乐文化

[精解] 本题考查词意理解。"phonograph"一词出现在第一段第五句,该句指出,"'phonograph'被发明以前,我们听不到任何音乐表演的声音,只能通过乐器研究过去的音乐文化"。由此可知,该词指的是一种能够记录声音并被用于音乐文化研究的物质。[A]为正确答案。[B]虽然也有声音,但无法用于音乐研究。此外,也可以通过词根词缀法猜测词意。phono-相当于sound,表示"声音";-graph表示"书写、描绘或记录的器具,机械"。"记录声音的机器"就是"录音机"。

3. 第一段的主要含义是。

[A] 文化工具和技术的重要性

[B] 文明的发展对文化的影响

[C] 音乐物质文化研究的重点

[D] 研究乐器的意义

[精解] 本题考查段落主旨。第一段共七句。第一句给"物质文化"下定义;第二、三句指出研究音乐文化就要研究音乐物质文化。第四、五句指出乐器是音乐文化研究中的重要物质文化。第六句指出乐器作为物质文化的两种形式。第七句举例说明乐器的研究在音乐文化研究中所起的作用。由此可见,第一段涉及的主题应是作为音乐物质文化的"乐器",因此[D]正确。[A]和[B]泛泛谈文化,应排除。[C]虽然提到了音乐物质文化的研究,但未具体到乐器。

4. 下面哪一个不是印刷式乐谱的优点?

[A] 读乐谱对音乐家有很大的影响。

[B] 人们从中可获得灵感。

[C] 音乐文化将最后受到它的影响。

[D] 歌曲往往由于它而被标准化。

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。根据题干中的"印刷式乐谱"定位到第二段。该段第三句提到,印刷式乐谱形式单调(limit variety),因为它们往往将所有歌曲都标准化。因此[D]不是它的优点,而是局限性。

[A]在该段末句提到,该句指出读乐谱(包括印刷乐谱)的能力对音乐家有着深远的影响。该段第三句yet转折后指出,印刷式乐谱促使人们创作新的、不同的歌曲。由此可推知创作者从中获得了灵感。[B]是其优点。从该段末句可知,当读乐谱的能力得到普及时,会对整个音乐文化产生影响。因此[C]也是其优点。

5. 从第三段我们可以推知。

[A] 传统文化遗产值得保存

[B] 所有文化共有的普遍特点不值得关注

[C] 音乐家更关注传统音乐的保存

[D] 文化越发达,它孕育的音乐就越有价值

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段第二句提到,我们(we)越来越关注民乐中的传统和民族特色,并且在对待许多传统文化遗产时愿意将民乐保存下来。第三句以音乐家记录自己国家的古典音乐为例说明上文。该句中we包括了作者本人,因此可推知[A]是作者所赞同的观点。[C]错在more,因为文中并没有将音乐家对待传统音乐和现代音乐的态度作对比。该段末句提到,人们(people)总是渴望保留个性特色,而不是找到所有文化共有的普遍特点。可见,文中只是客观叙述人们对文化的偏好,没有贬低"文化共有的普遍特点"的价值。排除[B]。该段首句提到,音乐根植于孕育了它的文化之中。这说明文化决定音乐的特色,与"发达"或"价值"没有关联,排除[D]。

核心词汇或超纲词汇

(1)notation(n.)(数字、科学和音乐等中的)符号、记号、谱号

(2)foster(v.)养育,抚育,培养,促进,助长

(3)aspiration(n.)热望,渴望,抱负,志向

全文翻译

物质文化指的是那些可以触摸的、物质的"东西",即,文化中产生的能看到、摸到、感觉到和使用的自然物体。考察一种文化中的工具和技术就可以知道这个文化群体的历史和生活方式。同样,研究音乐的物质文化能够帮助我们理解音乐文化。在音乐文化中最生动的物质载体当然是乐器。在19世纪70年代留声机发明以前,我们自己听不到任何音乐表演的声音,于是我们依赖乐器获得有关远古的音乐文化及其发展的重要信息。这里我们有两种证据:保存完好的乐器和艺术中描绘的乐器。通过对图片、文字记载以及乐器等的研究,我们可以了解一千多年以前近东音乐传入中国的情况,也可以勾勒出近东音乐的影响波及欧洲并导致交响乐的大部分乐器发展的大致轮廓。

手稿式乐谱或印刷式乐谱都是物质文化。学者曾经将民乐文化定义为这样的文化,即,人们用耳朵学会吟唱曲子,而不是背诵乐谱。但是对欧洲、英国和美国的研究显示了过去几个世纪里口头和书面资料的相互影响。印刷式乐谱形式单调,因为它们往往将所有歌曲都标准化,但是它们却促使人们创作新的、不同的歌曲。而且,读乐谱的能力对音乐家有着深远的影响,当这种能力得到普及时,它对整个音乐文化将产生深远的影响。

音乐根植于孕育了它的文化背景。现在我们越来越关注民乐中的传统和民族特色,并且在对待许多传统文化遗产时愿意将民乐保存下来。全世界的音乐家忙着记录自己国家的古典音乐,因为它们代表了独特的文化。人们总是渴望保留个性特色,而不是找到所有文化共有的普遍特点。

音乐物质文化的一个更重要的部分应该被提出来:电子媒体--如收音机、唱机、录音机、电视、未来能说会唱的计算机以及其他发明--的影响。这都属于"信息革命",一种和19世纪的工业革命一样重要的20世纪的现象。这些电子媒体不仅限于出现在现代国家,而是影响了整个世界的音乐文化。

答案

1.D 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.A

总体分析

本文是一篇讨论克隆动物和克隆人实验的文章。

第一段:引用专家的话指出克隆人是愚蠢的尝试,接着提到正在进行的克隆动物的实验,指出狗的克隆最具有难度。

第二段:介绍动物克隆实验所反映出来的低效性使威斯苏森教授反对克隆人。

第三段:转折指出,但是克隆狗存在巨大的商机。

第四段:指出克隆动物还远没有成功,并再次引用专家的话否认目前克隆人的可行性。

试题精解

1.下面哪一个最能代表威斯苏森先生对克隆的态度?

[A] 克隆动物是一种愚蠢的尝试。

[B] 克隆人还没有接近成功。

[C] 克隆的效率太低,应该被禁止。

[D] 克隆动物可以,克隆人至少现在还不行。

[精解] 本题考查考生文中人物观点。文中多次引用了威斯苏森先生有关克隆的话,从中我们可以判断出他的态度。[A]中a stupid attempt出现在文章开始部分,是他对于克隆人而非克隆动物的看法。[B]中not yet close to getting it worked out出现在文章末句,是他对待动物实验的看法,不包括克隆人。事实上,克隆人还没有开始,谈不上是否接近成功。第二段末句,威斯苏森先生提到克隆是极其低效的,但没有提出因此就应该被禁止。因此,[C]部分错误。第二段倒数第二句,威斯苏森先生提出,动物实验中对动物卵的浪费以及动物的自然性流产还可以接受,但研究人就不行。可见,他默许克隆动物,反对克隆人,因此[D]正确。

2. 克隆密斯项目似乎不是非常成功,原因可能是。

[A] 没有足够的资金支持这项研究

[B] 克隆狗比克隆猫或牛更复杂

[C] 威斯苏森先生太忙于照料生意

[D] 狗的主人要求和他的宠物一模一样的复制品

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段倒数第二句指出,克隆密斯可能成功也可能失败。该段最后一句解释其原因是:狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。因此[B]为正确项。

第三段首句提到,克隆狗是一个商机,能带来丰厚的科研报酬。该段第三句又提到,对于像密斯的主人这样的消费者来说,高额的花销并不是什么障碍。由此可知,[A]不是项目不成功的原因。[C]属于无中生有项,第三段第二句只提到,多利羊克隆成功后,威斯苏森教授接到很多希望克隆狗的电话,这些电话都潜藏商机。但不能由此推知他忙于商业活动。第三段最后两句提到,密斯的主人知道,密斯的克隆体不一定能有与它一样的脾气秉性。在一份用途声明中,密斯的主人和农业机械大学的团队表示,他们"共同期待能研究密斯的克隆体与它本身的差异之处。"可见[D]也不是原因。

3. 当威斯苏森先生说"克隆是危险的",他的意思是。

[A] 实验室的技术员可能会受到化学物质的感染

[B] 实验室里的猫和狗可能死于疾病

[C] 实验会浪费很多生命

[D] 克隆的动物比一般的动物能活得更长

[精解] 本题考查句意的理解。题干引用的话出现在第二段末。其上文即该段倒数第二句中,威斯苏森先生指出,在猫或牛的克隆试验中,对动物卵的浪费以及许多动物的自然性流产都可以接受,但是克隆人就不行。因此可知,[C]是"危险"的真正含义。其他项文中都未提及。

4. 从第三段我们可以推知。

[A] 富人对克隆人比对克隆动物更感兴趣

[B] 克隆动物宠物正成为一个欣欣向荣的产业

[C] 克隆狗和一般的狗之间没有什么区别

[D] 密斯的主人出重金希望狗能复活

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段首句提到,克隆狗是能带来丰厚科研报酬的商机。下文无论是提到动医学院频繁接到的电话,还是举出一掷千金想克隆爱犬的富人的例子都是为了说明首句的观点。因此从第三段可推出的结论是[B]。

该段主要涉及的是克隆狗,因此无从推知[A];从该段最后两句縹!@#q1a2z3w4s5x6

香香 本文来源:网易教育论坛 责任编辑:王晓易_NE0011
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