考研英语模拟题(九)

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Section Ⅰ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

T A recent poll indicated that half the teenagers in the United States believe that communication between them and their parents is__1__and further that one of the prime causes of this gap is __2__listening behavior. As a(an)__3__ in point, one parent believed that her daughter had a severe__4__problem. She was so __5__that she took her to an audiologist to have her ear tested. The audiologist carefully tested both ears and reported back to the parent:"There's nothing wrong with her hearing. She's just __6__you out."

A leading cause of the __7__divorce rate (more than half of all marriages end in divorce) is the failure of husbands and wives to __8__effectively. They don't listen to each other. Neither person__9__to the actual message sent by the other.

In __10__fashion, political scientists report that a growing number of people believe that their elected and __11__officials are out of__12__with the constituents they are supposedly __13__. Why? Because they don't believe that they listen to them. In fact, it seems that sometimes our politicians don't even listen to themselves. The following is a true story: At a national__14__conference held in Albuquerque some years ago, then Senator Joseph Montoya was__15__a copy of a press release by a press aide shortly before he got up before the audience to__16__ a speech. When he rose to speak,__17__the horror of the press aide and the__18__of his audience, Montoya began reading the press release, not his speech. He began, "For immediate release. Senator Joseph M. Montoya, Democrat of New Mexico, last night told the National..." Montoya read the entire six-page release,__19__ with the statement that he "was repeatedly __20__by applause."

1.[A] scarce [B] little [C] rare [D] poor

2.[A] malignant [B] deficient [C] ineffective [D] feeble

3.[A] case [B] example [C] lesson [D] suggestion

4.[A] audio [B] aural [C] hearing [D] listening

5.[A] believing [B] convinced [C] assured [D] doubtless

6.[A] turning [B] tuning [C] tucking [D] tugging

7.[A] rising [B] arising [C] raising [D] arousing

8.[A] exchange [B] interchange [C] encounter [D] interact

9.[A] relates [B] refers [C] responds [D] resorts

10.[A] like [B] alike [C] likely [D] likewise

11.[A] nominated [B] selected [C] appointed [D] supported

12.[A] connection [B] reach [C] association [D] touch

13.[A] leading [B] representing [C]delegating [D] supporting

14.[A] legislative [B] legitimate [C] legalized [D] liberal

15.[A] distributed [B] awarded [C] handed [D] submitted

16.[A] present [B] publish [C] deliver [D] pursue

17.[A] to [B] with [C] for [D] on

18.[A] joy [B] enjoyment [C] amusement [D] delight

19.[A] conclude [B] to conclude [C] concluding [D] concluded

20.[A] disrupted [B] interfered [C] interrupted [D] stopped

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Passage 1

Executives at CBS News said today that Richard Thornburgh, a former governor of Pennsylvania, and Louis D. Boccardi, retired president and chief executive officer of The Associated Press, will conduct an independent investigation of how a flawed report about President Bush's National Guard service made its way onto the air. The two-person team will examine the process used to produce a report broadcast Sept. 8 that contended the president had received favorable treatment to enter the Texas Air National Guard and had not fulfilled all of the Guard's requirements, the executives said in a statement.

"CBS News acknowledged this week that it cannot prove the authenticity of disputed memos featured in the report and that, therefore, it was a mistake to use them," they said. "The two-person review panel will commence its work this week and will have full access and complete cooperation from CBS News and CBS, as well as all of the resources necessary to complete the task," the statement said. "The panel will report its findings to CBS News and CBS. The findings also will be made public."

In another measure of the troubles facing CBS lately, the Federal Communications Commission (F. C. C). announced today that it will fine CBS a record $550,000 for this year's Super Bowl halftime show, in which Janet Jackson the entertainer bared her breast while performing with Justin Timberlake. The Super Bowl incident, which Ms. Jackson termed a "wardrobe malfunction", has prompted new scrutiny of indecency on the airwaves. And in the aftermath, the F.C.C. increased its maximum fines for broadcasting indecent material and many live broadcasts are now aired with delays of 5 to 10 seconds.

The reputation of CBS News, and that of Dan Rather, the anchor who presented the report, have been on the line since questions about documents used to bolster the report began to surface immediately after its broadcast. Twice this week, the network has had to make on-air mea culpas about its work and news gathering practices regarding the National Guard report about the president.

On Monday, the news division announced that Bill Burkett, the source for the questionable documents, had misled a CBS producer, Mary Mapes, and Mr. Rather, about the origins of the documents. In an interview with Mr. Rather shown earlier this week, Mr. Burkett admitted lying about their provenance, saying first that they came from a former Guard officer overseas and then that they came by way of a mysterious couple.

Then, on Tuesday, CBS said that Ms. Mapes had violated network policy by putting Mr. Burkett in touch with Joe Lockhart, a top aide to Senator John Kerry. The rebuke of Ms. Mapes, also broadcast on "The CBS Evening News", has come with some disappointments within the respected news organization about whether news executives have been vigilant enough in asking hard questions about how the producer obtained documents.

1.An independent investigation will be conducted into a CBS report _____.

[A] to negate its authenticity

[B] about how and when it was broadcast

[C] about its production procedure

[D] to restore CBS News' credibility

2.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

[A] CBS News has admitted its mistake of using "disputed memos".

[B] CBS News and CBS will provide all the resources the review panel require.

[C] The findings of the independent committee will be made public.

[D] Bill Burkett told the truth about how he acquired the documents.

23.Because of the Super Bowl incident, _____.

[A] CBS will face a severe fine for making a flawed report

[B] F.C.C. will have strict inspection of broadcasting indecent material

[C] CBS News will choose to create the independent committee

[D] F. C. C. will increase its charge for the delayed live broadcasts

4."Make on-air mea culpas" (Line 3, Paragraph 4) probably means _____.

[A] acknowledging the error

[B] questioning the authenticity

[C] finding excuses for the faults

[D] rearranging the schedule

5.What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs?

[A] The questionable documents are provided originally by a mysterious couple.

[B] It is against CBS News regulations to be associated with any political agenda.

[C] There is a fatal flaw in the checking procedures of many reputable news organization.

[D] CBS News executives had to resign for the untruthful story about the President.


Passage 2

An overturned bus lies on a rural highway, split open like a disjointed limb. Emergency workers slowly mill about, but the purpose of their activity is not clear. A line of cars stretches into the distance, their occupants gazing indifferently on this putative accident.

The images come from "Refraction", a video by the Dutch artist Aernout Mik that opens tomorrow at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in Chelsea. The solo exhibition could bring about a new prominence for Mr. Mik, whose work has been shown with increasing frequency in Europe during the last decade but is not widely known in the United States. Nothing in "Refraction" is quite what it seems. The images are dreamlike, but shot in high-definition video that suggests a newscast gone strangely twisted. The video is about 30 minutes long, with no sound; it runs in a continuous loop and has anything but a narrative arc. It was shot in a single day on a lonely road in rural Romania using participants who received only vague instructions on how to act.

The work raises questions about our responses to catastrophe, tragedy and even traffic congestion. Mr. Mik says that "collective consciousness" is an important theme of his work, and he seems to approach his subjects as a sociologist - or entomologist - might. It's not about character, he said in an interview, after flying in from Amsterdam for the opening of the exhibition. "It's always about the individual in a relatively small, or relatively bigger group, being in its environment." The images hint at contemporary anxieties, but cannot be easily fixed in space or time.

Perhaps the most haunting aspect of the video is the view of men dressed in protective white bodysuits, wearing green vests and plucking, with tweezers, at the detritus inside the toppled bus. They appear to be placing the debris into clear plastic sample bags. A possible bioterrorist attack? No other cues provide an answer. Mr. Mik at first intended to make his accident entirely victimless, but at the last moment, he said, he decided to produce shots of a few people who, presumably, were on the bus. Several are wrapped in blue flannel blankets; one woman is in a shiny metallic sheet as an aid worker speaks to her. No one appears traumatized, so the extent and nature of these victims' injuries are unknown. Less depressing, but equally memorable, is a moment when a herd of sheep and goats amble from the surrounding fields onto the road. Their origins and destination are unexplained, but the comparison to the human flock is pretty clear.

Mr. Mik, who is 42 and based in Amsterdam, has had several dozen solo exhibitions across Europe since 1995, but until this year his work has been displayed in the United States only a handful of times. He resists being called a video artist, however, and prefers to describe the work as a mixture of media. "I don't consider it as just video," he said. "I sometimes call myself, provocatively, a sculptor, because I really bring the moving image to the space. It's very much a spatial intervention instead of just film projected somewhere."

1.The word "putative" (Line 3, Paragraph 1) most probably means _____.

[A] dreamy [B] strange [C] terrible [D] supposed

2."Refraction" seems to be the name of _____.

[A] a film [B] a performance [C] a sculpture [D] an exhibition

3.The themes expressed in Aernout Mik's work do Not include _____.

[A] disasters and tragedies

[B] human unconcern about others

[C] group effect

[D] overcrowdedness

4.Which of the following is true about the work "Refraction"?

[A] It was produced and will be exhibited in Chelsea.

[B] All the participants in it were photoed unconsciously.

[C] There is no victim in the accident narrated.

[D] Animals appear in it and are compared to human flock.

5.It is true of Mr. Mik, the artist, that _____.

[A] he is increasingly prominent in the United States

[B] he studies human group behavior from an artistic perspective

[C] he intends to warn viewers against bioterrorist attacks

[D] he considers himself a video artist and a sculptor

Passage 3

Scholastic thinkers held a wide variety of doctrines in both philosophy and theology, the study of religion. What gives unity to the whole Scholastic movement, the academic practice in Europe from the 9th to the 17th centuries, are the common aims, attitudes, and methods generally accepted by all its members. The chief concern of the Scholastics was not to discover new facts but to integrate the knowledge already acquired separately by Greek reasoning and Christian revelation. This concern is one of the most characteristic differences between Scholasticism and modern thought since the Renaissance.

The basic aim of the Scholastics determined certain common attitudes, the most important of which was their conviction of the fundamental harmony between reason and revelation. The Scholastics maintained that because the same God was the source of both types of knowledge and truth was one of his chief attributes, he could not contradict himself in these two ways of speaking. Any apparent opposition between revelation and reason could be traced either to an incorrect use of reason or to an inaccurate interpretation of the words of revelation. Because the Scholastics believed that revelation was the direct teaching of God, it possessed for them a higher degree of truth and certainty than did natural reason. In apparent conflicts between religious faith and philosophic reasoning, faith was thus always the supreme arbiter; the theologians decision overruled that of the philosopher. After the early 13th century, Scholastic thought emphasized more the independence of philosophy within its own domain. Nonetheless, throughout the Scholastic period, philosophy was called the servant of theology, not only because the truth of philosophy was subordinated to that of theology, but also because the theologian used philosophy to understand and explain revelation.

This attitude of Scholasticism stands in sharp contrast to the so-called double-truth theory of the Spanish-Arab philosopher and physician Averroёs. His theory assumed that truth was accessible to both philosophy and Islamic theology but that only philosophy could attain it perfectly. The so-called truths of theology served, hence, as imperfect imaginative expressions for the common people of the authentic truth accessible only to philosophy. Averroёs maintained that philosophic truth could even contradict, at least verbally, the teachings of Islamic theology.

As a result of their belief in the harmony between faith and reason, the Scholastics attempted to determine the precise scope and competence of each of these faculties. Many early Scholastics, such as the Italian ecclesiastic and philosopher St. Anselm, did not clearly distinguish the two and were overconfident that reason could prove certain doctrines of revelation. Later, at the height of the mature period of Scholasticism, the Italian theologian and philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas worked out a balance between reason and revelation.

1.With the Scholastics, the search for new knowledge _____.

[A] stopped completely

[B] slowed down

[C] advanced rapidly

[D] awaked gradually

2.Which of the following best illustrates the relation between reason and revelation?

[A] They are simply identical.

[B] Revelation guides reason.

[C] They are occasionally contradictory.

[D] Reason is used to perfect revelation.

3.It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 of the text that _____.

[A] the position of philosophy as a humble servant was accepted

[B] religion had turned into a hamper to the functioning of philosophy

[C] philosophers often quoted revelation to support themselves

[D] philosophers were sometimes referred to in religious practice

4.Averroёs held that _____.

[A] Islamic theology was often subordinate to philosophy

[B] religious truth was nothing but imaginative fantasy

[C] real truth was inaccessible to many common people

[D] imperfect expressions were result of flawed religion

5.Which of the following is most likely to be discussed in the part succeeding this text?

[A] Relations of St. T. Aquinas' achievements to previous efforts.

[B] How St. T. Aquinas worked out in the balance in discussion.

[C] Other endeavors on the relationship of reason and revelation.

[D] Outstanding features of the mature period of Scholasticism.

Passage 4

Without voluntary donations the NSPCC's work for abused children would stop within six months. Donations make up a massive 85% of the charity's income, yet research shows that many donors don't always feel their money makes much difference-although they continue to give generously.

A fresh new approach to giving will leave donors in no doubt that their support makes all the difference. The NSPCC's Director of Fundraising, Giles Pegram, explains, "In the past, donors tended to see their contribution as a mere drop in the ocean, and child abuse as a vast problem. We want to make them realize that there is a real link between how much money they give and the number of children we can help. We want people to feel connected to the work they are funding, by creating a direct link between their gift and what it will achieve for children."

The new scheme establishes a transparent relationship between the NSPCC and its supporters. In return for a commitment from donors to give a regular monthly gift of £10 or more, the NSPCC promises to be fully accountable to them. Giles Pegram explains, "Donors will get regular updates on how their money turns into practical help for children. They'll be sent news direct from NSPCC projects and stories of individual children their money has helped. We'll give feedback on how their donations are being used and the difference that they as individuals are making to abused children."

This new approach means that individual donors will have a good idea of how their money is helping. They will also have control over the kinds of communication they get from the NSPCC-such as email or letters, for example-and how often they receive updates, as well as being given the direct phone number of an NSPCC staff member.

Above all, donors know that the NSPCC, uniquely among children's charities, has remained focused on one single goal throughout its 120-year history-to end cruelty to children. That is its strength: NSPCC workers channel huge passion and expertise into problems which are as pressing in 2005 as they were in 1884.

In summary, according to Pegram, "The NSPCC has brought child abuse, and particularly sexual abuse, out into the open. People are outraged by the idea of child abuse but they don't always know what they can do to help. This new scheme will connect people directly to the work which their money is enabling to happen."

1.According to the passage, the donors _____.

[A] think their donation is meaningless

[B] underestimate the importance of their help

[C] mostly want to give up this kind of charity

[D] are dissatisfied with the NSPCC's lack of transparency

2.The fresh new approach taken by NSPCC will _____.

[A] establish a direct link between recipients and donors

[B] increase the number of children who can receive this kind of help

[C] make the donors better informed about the practical use of their gift

[D] call on more and more people to take part in charity activities

3.According to Giles Pegram, which of the following is probably NOT true?

[A] The donors used to exaggerate the seriousness of child abuse.

[B] The donors have the right to know how their money was spent.

[C] The NSPCC should make efforts to keep in contact with the donors.

[D] The donors' gift means much to the abused children.

4.The NSPCC is an organization that _____.

[A] can not only prevent but also end abuse of children

[B] is different from other children's charities in its purpose

[C] is running a new scheme to save itself from economic collapse

[D] is trying to improve its relationship with the donors

5.The best title for this passage is _____.

[A] Tackling Cruelty to Children

[B] A Fresh New Scheme

[C] A Transparent Relationship IS Needed

[D] Link NSPCC and Its Supporters


Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Today, some 30% of small business owners don't have a Web presence at all, while the vast majority who do are watching their sites sit stale, waiting and wanting for business. Where did things go wrong? There are common principles followed by those whose dreams of online success have become reality.

41. Build your site around your customer:

Thinking of your site as your online storefront, built around delivering the highest-quality customer experience from the moment your customer steps through the "door".

42. Just because you built it doesn't mean they'll come:

If you aren't seeing a large volume of targeted traffic to your site, it's time to up the ante.

43. Integrate customer loyalty programs and promotions:

containing discounts, news, or friendly service reminders. Use discount promotional offers to stay in touch with past visitors to your site.

44. Justify your monthly spending through product bundling:

While pay-per-click Internet advertising is much more cost-effective than traditional media channels, bundling products together will not only increase your sales revenue, but also enable you to get more out of your per-click ad rates.

45. Measure your progress:

Your site may be live, but how is it performing?

Armed with these simple lessons, vow to make your business realize the true promise of the Internet.

[A] A manufacturing company selling $50 items was having trouble justifying the cost of online keyword ads. By bundling products to create packages of $100 or more and advertising to wholesale customers looking to buy in bulk, the manufacturer dropped its sales representative agencies and focused on large-volume buyers, such as Wal-Mart and Target. Needless to say, the company had no trouble exceeding its yearly sales quota.

[B] One of my past clients had a well-designed physical storefront, solid prices, and quality offerings. However, he wasn't able to drive enough store traffic despite targeted advertising efforts in print publications and other offline venues. We decided to shift those ad dollars to an online pay-per-click campaign-in which the advertiser pays whenever someone clicks on its entry posted during the course of a site search based on keywords relevant to his business. The immediate impact was staggering. Online revenue soared tenfold to $1 million from $100,000 within only a few months.

[C] With today's technology, your return can be easily measured. If you rely on your Web site as a sales tool, you can't afford not to invest in site analytics. Make sure your Web solution includes an easy-to-use reporting tool that presents this information in a clear, concise format. After all, while metrics are a critical part of the Web equation, you don't have the time to spend hours digging through reams of data.

[D] Years ago, I worked with a woman who sold purses online through a home-built site that lacked critical e-commerce components. After a simple redesign including product descriptions, comprehensive navigation, and a secure, user-friendly ordering system, her revenue increased fivefold. And she began receiving rave reviews from customers impressed with the ease and convenience of the online shopping experience.

[E] Online success demands more than simple presence. Your Internet investment should pay for itself with new customers and increased sales. Find a trusted partner who can help you navigate today's (and tomorrow's) technology and who understands the bottom-line realities of your business.

[F] One villa rental company had a Web site that generated very few calls and online bookings. I helped the company set up a "last minute deals" distribution list. By subscribing, site visitors would receive weekly e-mails offering 11th-hour discounts on villa rentals. As a result, the company captured contact information for thousands of possible customers, reduced its unused inventory to almost zero, and increased revenue significantly.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

The value which society places on work has traditionally been closely associated with the value of individualism and as a result it has had negative effects on the development of social security. (46) It has meant that in the first place the amount of benefits must be small lest people's willingness to work and support themselves suffers. Even today with flat rate and earnings-related benefits, the total amount of the benefit must always be smaller than the person's wages for fear of malingering. "The purpose of social security," said Huntford referring to Sweden's comparatively generous benefits, "is to dispel need without crossing the threshold of prosperity." Second, social security benefits are granted under conditions designed to reduce the likelihood of even the boldest of spirits attempting to live on the State rather than work. Many of the rules surrounding the payment of unemployment or supplementary benefit are for this purpose. Third, the value placed on work is manifested in a more positive way as in the case of disability. (47) People suffering from accidents incurred at work or from occupational diseases receive preferential treatment by the social security service compared with those suffering from civil accidents and ordinary illnesses.

Yet, the stranglehold which work has had on the social security service has been increasingly loosened over the years. The provision of family allowances, family income supplements, the slight liberalization of the wages stop are some of the manifestations of this trend. (48) Similarly, the preferential treatment given to occupational disability by the social security service has been increasingly questioned with the demands for the upgrading of benefits for the other types of disability. It is felt that in contemporary industrial societies the distinction between occupational and non-occupational disability is artificial for many non-occupational forms of disability have an industrial origin even if they do not occur directly in the workplace. (49) There is also the additional reason which we mentioned in the argument for one benefit for all one-parent families, that a modern social security service must concentrate on meeting needs irrespective of the cause behind such needs.

The relationship between social security and work is not all a one-way affair. (50) It is true that until very recently the general view was that social security "represented a type of luxury and was essentially anti-economic." It was seen as merely government expenditure for the needy. As we saw, however, redundancy payments and earnings-related unemployment benefits have been used with some success by employers and the government to reduce workers' opposition towards loss of their jobs.


答案

1.D 2.B 3.A 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.A

11.C 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.C 16.C 17.A 18.C 19.C 20.C

总体分析

本文主要讨论了听行为对人际交流的影响。文章第一段从父母和子女之间的交流出发,说明儿女不听父母的话造成了他们之间的隔阂。第二段从婚姻的角度出发,说明夫妻双方的互不理睬造成交流不畅,从而使离婚率上升。第三段从政治的角度出发,说明政府官员不聆听选民甚至不在意自己所说的话,造成官民隔阂。例证法是本文采用的主要的论证方法。

试题精解

1.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择适当的形容词的能力。空格处填入的形容词在句子中充当表语,说明"青少年与父母的交流是__1__"。首先排除[C]项rare"希罕的,珍贵的",因为它强调事物因罕见而珍贵,而文中需要的是表贬义的词。空格后面部分提到,造成这种隔阂(gap)的首要原因是听的行为。由此可知,这里讨论的是听对人与人之间交流效果的影响,不是交流少,而是交流不好,所以[D]项poor"质差的,效率低的,不理想的"正确。scarce"缺乏的,不足的";little"很少的,几乎无"。

2.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择适当的形容词的能力。空格处填入的形容词修饰listening behavior,说明"__2__听的行为会造成父母和孩子之间沟通不好"。[A]项malignant"恶性的,恶意的"贬义程度太深,不适合描述父母和孩子之间的行为。[D]项feeble "无效的,无力的",形容人时表示"虚弱无力的",形容事物时表示"无效的,无力的",和[C]项ineffective"无效的,无能的"近义,如a feeble argument/joke无力的证据/干巴巴的笑话。由紧接着的下文的举例可知,这里说的听的行为是指主观上拒绝倾听。因此强调客观效度的[C]、[D]项也不适合。[B]项deficient"不完善的,有缺点的,有缺陷的",意为not good enough,在文中指"不完善的听的行为"。符合文意。

例句补充:She developed a malignant tumor in her breast(她得了恶性乳腺癌);Our prisons are our most deficient social service(监狱是我们社会服务中最不完善的地方);This plan is ineffective(这个计划不奏效);Some Party organizations are feeble and lax(一些党的组织松散而无力)。

3.[精解] 本题考查考生对固定搭配的掌握程度。a case in point"典型的例子"是固定搭配,指a clear example of something that you are discussing or explaining,相当于for example,引出下文的例子。An example"一个例子",a lesson"一课,一次教训";a suggestion"一个建议",均不与in point搭配。

4.[精解] 本题考查考生对固定搭配的掌握程度。由上下文语义可知,该处意为:一位母亲认为她女儿有严重的听力问题。表达这个含义的固定搭配是hearing problem。[A]项audio"音频的,声频的",如audio and video equipment(视听设备);[B]项aural "听觉的",a musical with plenty of visual and aural appeal (一出颇娱人耳目的音乐喜剧);[D]项listening"收听的,注意的"。

5.[精解] 本题考查分词词义和用法的辨析。空格处的形容词与so…that结构搭配,作句子的表语。该句与前一句属于一个意群,都是举例中的叙述内容。根据语义,空格处的词与上句的谓语believe呼应,即she was…结构表示"她相信"。[A]项Believing"有信仰的"无法表达这种含义。[B]项convinced和be搭配,表示"确信的,深信的",因此原文意为:她(母亲)(对女儿有严重听力问题)如此确信不疑,于是就带着女儿去看听觉病矫治专家……。[C]项assured"确实的,确定的",修饰人作表语时,一般后面接有of短语或that从句,表示"肯定得到某物或达到某个目标",如He is assured of a place in the final(他在决赛中肯定有一席之地);[D]项doubtless"无疑的(地),确定的(地)",多用作副词,做形容词修饰人时指"免除危险的恐惧,感到安全",如The child slept doubtless and secure.

6.[精解] 本题考查短语动词词义的辨析。四个选项中只有[C]项的核心动词tuck"把……夹入,把……藏入"不能与空格后的sb. out结构搭配,如He tucked the letter in a book so he wouldn't lose it(他把那封信夹在一本书里以免丢失)。但其他三个选项的含义符合上下文的只有[B]项,tune sb. out"不理睬,不注意 ",文中表示"女儿不理睬她的母亲"。Turn sb out"赶出,解雇,罢免",如The voters turned out their local representatives(选民把他们的当地代表给罢免了);tug sb out"费力拉出或拖出",如 We tugged her out(我们费力地把她拉了出来)。

7.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义的辨析。空格处填入的形容词修饰divorce rate,在含义上是指夫妻间倾听失败的结果。[A]项Rising与divorce rate 搭配意为"上升的离婚率",符合文意。[B]项arising多作后置定语,接out of或from sth.,表示"由...引起/产生的",如injuries arising out of an accident(由事故造成的伤害)。[C]项raise是及物动词,因此作定语表达"提高的,提升的"含义时,常用过去分词,如raised eyebrow;[D]项arouse"激起,唤醒",也是及物动词,因此也常用过去分词作定语,如aroused curiosity(激起的兴趣)。它们的现在分词形式raising和arousing多在句中作状语。

8.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词是说明"夫妻之间8的失败导致了离婚率的上升"。全文主要讨论了人与人之间的交流问题,所以[D]项interact"交流,相互作用"正确,如Playing a game is a way for a family to interact(一起做游戏是家庭交流的一种方法)。[A]项exchange"交换,兑换",如They exchanged heated words(他们激烈争吵);[B]项interchange"互换,使相互易位",如The two boys interchanged caps(两个孩子把帽子换着戴);[C]项encounter"遭遇,遇到",如I encountered a former classmate in the theatre(我在戏院里偶然遇到一位老同学)。

9.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词应与to搭配,并符合文意。由前文的They don't listen to each other(他们对对方的话充耳不闻)可知,[C]项responds"作答,作出反应,响应"符合文意,如The government responded to pressure and dropped the proposal(政府感受到压力之后撤销了那项提议),原文意为:每个人对对方传达的确切信息都毫无反应。Relate to"和……有关;欣赏,领略",如I can't relate to that kind of music(我不能欣赏那种音乐);refer to"提到,指称;参考",如He often referred to notes while speaking(他演讲时常看讲稿);resort to"常去;求助,诉诸",如If persuasion won't work, we may have to resort to force(如果说服工作不见效,我们可能只得诉诸武力)。

10.[精解] 本题考查形近词的辨析。第二段和第三段分别论述了听的行为影响交流效果的例子。空格所在短语起过渡作用,表达"类似的,相似的"意思。[A]项like"相似的,同样的"构成的搭配in like fashion意为"以同样的方式"。[B]项alike"相同的,相似的"多做表语,不在名词前做定语,如My mother and I are alike in many ways(我和妈妈有很多相似之处);[C]项likely"很可能的,可靠的"语义与文意不符;[D]项likewise"同样地,照样地,又"是副词,不能直接修饰名词,也应排除。

11.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择适当的形容词的能力。空格处的形容词与elected并列,一起修饰officials,是同时存在或前后相继的关系。[C]项appointed"指定的"符合文意,即"选举后被指派的官员"。[A]项nominated"提名的,推荐的",其动作应发生在elect之前;[B]项selected"挑选的"、[D]项supported"支持的,拥护的"与elected(选举的)意思重叠。

12.[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文选择适当的名词的能力。空格处填入的名词应与out of和with搭配,且符合文意。[B]项reach"范围,影响"不能与with搭配,常见用法为sth. is out of reach或 sth. is out of the reach of sb.,意为"(某人)手不能及,够不到"。[A]项connection"关系,连接"、[C]项association"联合,联想"均不与out of搭配,[A]项用法是in connection with sb./sth."与...有关/相关",[C]项用法是in association with sb./sth."与...一起联合"。[D]项out of touch with sb.意为"和...没有联系/脱节",原文的含义是"官员们由于不听选民的意见而与选民失去了联系,不知民众疾苦",[D]项正确。

13.[精解] 本题考查通过上下文选择适当的动词的能力。空格处所在部分"they are 13"是定语从句,修饰先行词constituents. 填入的分词形式所表示的是代词they即上文的officials对constituents所做的动作。西方国家的政府官员是由选民选举产生,理论上是选民的代表,为人们服务,represent意为"代表,表现",所以[B]项正确。lead"领导";delegate"委派……为代表";support"支持"。

14.[精解] 本题考查通过上下文选择适当的形容词的能力。空格处的形容词与conference搭配。由下文参议员的讲话等可知,该处意为"立法会议",[A]项legislative"立法的,立法机关的"正确。[B]项legitimate意为"合法的,正统的";[C]项legalized "使合法化的 ";[D]项liberal"自由主义的,不拘泥的"显然不合文意。

15.[精解] 本题考查通过上下文选择适当动词的能力。空格处填入动词的被动形式,该动作的实际发出者是a press aide,直接宾语是a copy of a press release,间接宾语是Senator Joseph Montoya,含义为"一份新闻稿被新闻助理...给参议员"。由于新闻助理与参议员没有直接的上下级关系,award"授于,判给"、submit"提交,递交"分别表示上对下和下对上的动作,所以[B]、[D]项不正确。又由于文章没有分发新闻稿的语境,所以[A]项distribute"分发,分配"也不能用。只有[C]项hand"交给,递给"符合语意。

16.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。[A]、[B]和[C]项都能与speech搭配,[C]项deliver"发表(一篇演说等),陈述",指口头发表,符合文意。[A]项present"介绍,赠送,呈现",放入文中指再度呈现或演示别人(一般为名人)的演说;[B]项publish"公布,发表",指在报刊、杂志等上发表;pursue"追赶,从事",不与speech搭配。与speech搭配的动词还有make,give。

17.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。介词to"致,致使(表结果)"的一个搭配是"to one's+情感名词"用作结果状语,意为"令人(喜、怒、哀、乐……)的"。One's既可是形容词性物主代词,也可以是名词所有格。文中to the horror of the press aide意为"使新闻助理大吃一惊的是"。[B]项with"同……,和……"表伴随;[C]项for"为了",表目的;[D]项on"关于,涉及",表主题。

18.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词与of the audience搭配,表明听众对参议员这一举动的反应。[A]项joy"欢乐,喜悦"、[B]项enjoyment"享乐,快乐"、[D]项delight"高兴,喜悦"三个备选项都有"愉快、高兴"的意思,相当于pleasure。显然均不合文意。[C]amusement"乐,趣味",指 the feeling you have when you think something is funny,文中to sb's amusement意为:令某人觉得有趣的是。

19.[精解] 本题考查分词短语作状语。空格所在部分和主语谓语read都是主语Montoya发出的动作,空格所在的动作做状语,即"他在新闻稿的末尾总结到...",能够担任此语法功能的只有现在分词,所以[C]项concluding正确,相当于and he concluded with…。

20.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词被动式应表达掌声对参议员讲话的影响。[A]、[C]两项都有"中断"的意思,但disrupt"使中断,使陷入混乱,破坏",意为to prevent something from continuing in its usual way by causing problems,常指不好事件的发生,如Traffic was disrupted by floods(交通因洪水而中断),不合文意;interrupt"(使)中断",指to stop someone from continuing what they are saying or doing by suddenly speaking to them, making a noise etc,符合文意。interfer"干涉,干预";stop"使停止,使停下来"。

全文翻译

最近的一项民意测验显示:美国一半的青少年认为他们与父母的交流不好,而且造成这种隔阂的一个首要原因是有不理想的倾听行为。一个典型的例子是,一位母亲认为她女儿有严重的听力问题。她对此确信无疑,于是就带着女儿去听觉病矫治专家那儿检查她的耳朵。专家仔细检查了两只耳朵,然后告诉这位母亲说:"她的听力没问题,只是不理睬你而已。"

离婚率上升(一半以上的婚姻以离婚告终)的一个首要原因是夫妻间不能有效地交流。他们彼此充耳不闻。两人对对方发出的确切信息都毫无反应。

同样地,据政治科学家报道,越来越多的人相信他们选举指派的官员与其本应代表的选民失去了联系。为什么呢?因为这些人认为他们不需要倾听选民的意见。实际上,有时我们的政治家们似乎连自己的声音都不听。下面是一个真实的例子:在几年前亚柏克尔克举行的全国立法会议上,一位新闻助理在当时的参议员约瑟夫·蒙图亚演讲前交给了他一份新闻稿。令该新闻助理大吃一惊而使听众感到有趣的是,当蒙图亚起来讲话时,他读的不是演讲稿而是那份新闻稿。蒙图亚先生以"即时新闻稿。新墨西哥州的民主党参议员约瑟夫·蒙图亚昨晚在全国……上说……"开始,读完了全部的六页新闻稿,并以他"不时被掌声打断"结尾。

答案

1.C 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.B

总体分析

本文介绍了美国哥伦比亚广播公司(CBS)出现的两大丑闻和它们造成的影响,以及管理阶层对此采取的措施。

第一、二段:CBS执行人员宣布组成独立小组调查关于总统服役记录的失实报道的制作过程。

第三段:CBS因"超级碗"事件被予以高额罚款,该事件引起联邦通信委员会对电视广播中粗俗行为的新的检查。

第四至六段:失实报道播出后马上引起了质疑。CBS方面公开道歉,宣布消息来源不实,并指出制片人违反了网络政策。该事件的另一结果是人们对CBS新闻执行人员警惕性的失望。

试题精解

1.对CBS (哥伦比亚广播公司)的一篇报道将进行的独立调查。

[A] 是为了否定它的真实性

[B] 是关于它何时以何方式报道的

[C] 是关于它的制作过程

[D] 是为了恢复CBS News(哥伦比亚广播公司新闻网)的可信度

[精解] 本题考查了第一段的事实细节。文章开篇提到,宾州前州长和美联社前任社长兼首席执行官将成立两人独立调查小组,调查一篇关于布什在国民警卫队服役的失实报道是如何被播放出来的。他们将检查制作这个报道的过程(the process used to produce a report)。[C]项是该句的改写,因此是正确答案。

由于第一段已经指出该报道被确认失实,因此 [A]项不是调查的目的。[B]项中"何时"已经在第一段中被确认为9月8日,因此不是调查的内容。[D]项虽然有可能是事实,但在文中未提到,因此不能入选。

2.根据文章,下面哪一项不正确?

[A] CBS News承认使用有争议的备忘录是错误的

[B] CBS News 和CBS将提供检查小组要求的所有资源

[C] 独立委员会的发现将被公布于众

[D] 比尔·博凯特告知了他是如何获得文件的真相

[精解] 本题涉及了多处事实细节题,考生应一一定位采用排除法。第二段首句指出,CBS News承认它不能证实报道中引用的有争议的备忘录的真实性。因此,使用它们是错误的。[A]项是它的改写。该段第二、三句都是CBS声明的内容:二人检查小组这周将开始它的工作,将全面接触CBS News 和CBS而与之合作,并将得到完成这个任务所需要的全部资料。小组将把它的发现呈交给CBS News和CBS。这些发现也将公布于众。因此[B]、[C]项符合文意。第五段提到,可疑文件来源提供者比尔·博凯特误导了CBS的制片人。在这周的一次采访中,博凯特先生承认就文件来源撒了谎,开始说它们来源于一位前国民警卫队成员,后来又说它们来源于一对神秘的夫妇。因此,该人并没有告知真相,[D]项错误。

3.因为"超级碗"事件。

[A] CBS将为做失实报道而面临重罚。

[B] F.C.C.(联邦通信委员会)将对广播中的粗俗素材进行严格检查

[C] CBS News将选择创立独立委员会

[D] F. C. C.将增加对延迟的现场直播的收费

[精解] 本题考查了多处事实细节。第三段第一、二句提到,CBS最近面临的另一个麻烦是F. C. C.今天宣布因为今年的"超级碗"事件将对CBS进行高达55万美元的罚款。该事件引起对电视广播中粗俗行为的新的检查。[B]项符合该段内容,其中strict inspection对应原文的new scrutiny。

"超级碗"事件后CBS遭重罚的原因是播放粗俗素材,[A]项中"做失实报道"是总统事件的内容。 [C]项文中未提。文中只提到为调查总统事件而成立的独立小组。该段最后一句提到,此后,F.C.C.还增加了对播放粗俗素材的最高罚款,而且许多现场直播节目现在都延迟5至10秒播出。[D]项将两件事混为一谈,与文意不符。

4.第四段第三行出现的Make on-air mea culpas的含义可能是。

[A] 承认错误

[B] 质疑真实性

[C] 为错误找借口

[D] 重新安排日程

[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文理解词语含义的能力。该短语的上文即第四段提到,在总统事件报道播出后,对支持该报道的文件的真实性的质疑就出现了。此后,CBS News和该报道主播的名誉都面临着危险(on the line)。这周,该广播网络不得不两次对它的工作及为报道总统服役事件而收集新闻的行为...。下文即后面两段主要介绍了CBS宣布该报道来源不可靠,及工作人员工作失职。由此可见,[A]项是符合上下文的正确含义。

5.从最后两段可以推出什么?

[A] 这些可疑的文件最初是由一对神秘的夫妇提供的

[B] 与任何政治议程相关联是违反CBS News规定的

[C] 在许多著名新闻机构的检查程序中都存在致命的漏洞

[D] CBS News执行人员因为总统的不真实故事而不得不辞职

[精解] 本题考查考生对最后两段的理解。第五段末句提到文件来源提供者Mr. Burkett承认撒了谎。该句中saying first…and then that…是其撒谎的内容。因此[A]项不是事实。[B]项是由第六段首句引申出来的内容。该句提到,CBS制片人Ms. Mapes让Mr. Burkett与议员的高级副官接触是违反网络政策的。因此[B]项正确。全文最后一句提到,随着CBS晚间新闻播出对Ms. Mapes的指责,同时出现的是这个著名新闻机构(即CBS)内部对其新闻执行人员在询问制作人是否获得可靠文件上的警惕性的失望。由此我们只能推出CBS,而不是很多新闻机构的检查程序都存在漏洞。[D]项文中未提。


核心词汇或超纲词汇

(1)flaw(n./v.)(产生)瑕疵/缺陷/裂痕

(2)make one's way前进,进行;成功,发迹

(3)authenticity(n.)确实性,真实性;authentic(a.)可信的,真正的,有根据的

(4)feature(n.)特征,特色,特写,特别报导(v.)以……为特色,给予特别注意

(5)malfunction(n.)故障,出错,失误

(6)indecency(n.)下流,不适当,下无礼的言行;indecent(a.)下流的,不恰当的;decent(a.)得体的,大方的;合适的,恰当的

(7)aftermath(n.)结果, 后果in the ~ of war战后时期

(8)bolster(n.)垫子(v.)支持(up)给予支持与鼓励

(9)provenance(n.)起源,出处

(10)vigilant(a.)警惕着的,警醒的vigilance(n.)警惕性

全文翻译

哥伦比亚新闻公司(CBS News) 的执行人员今天说:"宾夕法尼亚前州长理查德· 桑伯格和前美联社社长兼首席执行官路易斯·博卡迪将成立独立的调查小组,调查一篇关于布什在国民警卫队服役的失实报道是如何被播放出来的"。执行人员在一份声明中指出:"两人调查小组将检查制作这个报道的过程。9月8号播出的这篇报道声称,总统布什在进入德克萨斯空军共和卫队时受到了优先待遇,没有满足卫队所有的条件。"

执行人员也说:"CBS News本周承认它不能证实报道中引用的有争议的备忘录的真实性,因此对于它们的使用是错误的"。声明中提到:"二人调查组将于本周着手此项工作,将全面接触CBS News 和CBS而与之合作,并将得到完成这个任务所需要的全部资源。小组将把它的发现呈交给CBS News和CBS。这些发现也将公布于众。"

CBS最近面临的另一个麻烦是F. C. C.今天宣布因为今年的"超级碗"事件将对CBS实行高达55万美元的罚款。在"超级碗"中场表演中,演员珍妮特·杰克逊在和贾斯汀·汀布莱克演出时露出了她的胸部。被杰克逊女士称为"服装故障"的"超级碗"事件激起了新的对广播粗俗素材的调查。此后,F.C.C.还增加了对播放粗俗素材的最高罚款,许多现场直播节目现也在都延迟5至10秒播出。

因为对于支持该报道的材料的疑问在报道播出后立即浮出了水面,CBS News和该报道主播丹·拉瑟的名誉都面临着危胁。本周,该广播网络不得不两次对它的工作及为报道总统服役事件而收集新闻的行为道歉。

周一,新闻部门宣布,可疑文件的提供者比尔·博凯特在文件来源上误导了CBS的制片人玛丽·马柏斯和拉瑟先生。在这周和拉瑟先生的面谈中,博凯特先生承认就文件来源撒了谎,开始说它们来源于一位前国民警卫队成员,后来又说它们来源于一对神秘的夫妇。

因此,CBS于周二声明马柏斯女士让博凯特先生与议员约翰·凯瑞的高级副官接触是违反网络政策的。随着对马柏斯女士的指责在CBS晚间新闻的播出,同时出现的是这个著名新闻机构(即CBS)内部对其新闻执行人员在询问制作人如何获得可靠文件上的警惕性的失望。

答案

1.D 2.A 3.B 4.D 5.B

总体分析

本文是一篇介绍荷兰艺术家Aernout Mik及其作品的文章。

第一段:描述了Mik一部作品中的场景。

第二段:介绍了该作品的名字、作者、画面、声音乃至拍摄方式。

第三段:介绍了Mik这部作品的主题特点。

第四段:具体介绍了该作品中几点引人注意的地方。

第五段:介绍了Mik的艺术生涯及其艺术观。

试题精解

1.第一段第三行的单词"putative"最可能意为。

[A] 梦幻的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 骇人的 [D] 假定的

[精解] 本题考查考生通过上下文猜测词义的能力。相关内容在文章第四段。Putative是超纲词,意为commonly believed,presumed,assumed(推定的,假定的,被公认的)。但该词的含义可以根据下文对该"事故"的定性来推断。由下文可知该事故是虚构的情节。因此排除其他项,得出[D]项正确。

文章第二段用了dreamlike一词是用来形容图象(images)如梦幻一般,不能用来修饰"事故"。[A]项应排除。从文章的描述我们无法推出事故是奇怪或骇人的,因此[B]、[C] 项容易排除。

2."Refraction"似乎是的名字。

[A] 一个影片 [B] 一个表演 [C] 一个雕塑 [D] 一个展览

[精解] 本题考查考生在理解的基础上推理的能力。由第二段首句可知"Refraction"是Mr. Mik即将在个展(solo exhibition)上首映(open)的录像影片(video)的名字,这也是全文主要介绍的Mr. Mike的作品,[A]项正确。

3.在Aernout Mik的作品中不包括的主题是。

[A] 灾难和悲剧

[B] 人类对其他事物的冷淡

[C] 群体效应

[D] 过度拥挤

[精解] 本题考查第三段中的事实细节。该段首句提到,Aernout Mik的这个作品提出了关于我们人类对灾难、悲剧,甚至交通堵塞的反应这样的问题。[A]、[D]项中disasters和overcrowdness分别与原文中的catastrophe和traffic congestion同义。该段第二句又接着提到,Mr. Mik 指出"集体意识"也是他作品的一个重要主题。[C]项是对其中collective consciousness的改写。[B]项在文章中没有直接作为主题提到。

4.关于"Refraction"这部作品的正确说法是。

[A] 它在切尔西拍摄的,并将在那展出

[B] 所有参加者都是在无意中被拍摄的

[C] 在讲述的事故中没有受害者

[D] 其中出现的一群动物与人群形成对比

[精解] 本题考查了多处事实细节。第四段最后两句提到了羊群的出现,指出它们与人群形成鲜明的对比(the comparison…is pretty clear),所以[D]项正确。

第二段末句指出该片拍摄于罗马尼亚的乡村,参加者的表演只受到了模糊的指导,所以[A]、[B]项错误。第四段第四句话说:他最终决定拍摄几个受害者。接着五六句具体说明了他们的状况,所以[C]项也错误。

5.关于艺术家Mr. Mik的说法正确的是。

[A] 他在美国正越来越出名

[B] 他从艺术的角度研究人类群体行为

[C] 他企图通过作品警告观众小心生化恐怖袭击

[D] 他认为自己是录像艺术家也是雕塑家

[精解] 本题考查考生在理解文章的基础上推理的能力。第三段主要围绕Mr. Mik作品的主题展开论述。该段提到,他的作品的一个重要主题是集体意识。他从社会学家或昆虫学者(entomologist)的角度来看待作品中的人物。其作品中的人物总是在一个相对较小或大的群体中,即在环境中。[B]项是由该段引申出来的。

第二段第二句及第五段首句都提到,Mr. Mik在欧洲正越来越出名,而在美国其作品却少为人知,所以[A]项错误。第四段提到,从录象中出现的人物的行为可以推测其内容可能是关于生化恐怖袭击的,但没有其他线索可以帮助确定这一推测。此外,文中没有提及警告恐怖袭击的内容,因此[C]项在文中没有确凿依据。第五段后半部分提到,他拒绝被称为"录像艺术家",有时把自己叫做"雕塑家",所以[D]项错误。

核心词汇或超纲词汇

(1)limb(n.)肢(臂、腿);翼;(树的)大枝

(2)putative(a.)推定的,假定的;被公认的

(3)refraction(n.)折光,折射;refract(v.)使折射;refractable(a.)可折射的;refractive(a.)折射的

(4)loop(n.)圈,环;重复,循环(v.)使成圈/环,把东西系在一起

(5)arc(n.)弧,拱;循弧线行进

(6)catastrophe(n.)大灾难,大祸;catastrophic(a.)

(7)congestion(n.)拥塞,充血;congest(v.)

(8)entomologist(n.)昆虫学者;entomology(n.)昆虫学

(9)pluck(v.)采,摘,拔,扯,拉,鼓起(勇气)

(10)tweezers(n.)镊子,小钳;tweeze(v.)以镊子除去,以钳子拔除

(11)detritus(n.)碎石,碎片;堆积物,废墟

(12)debris(n.)碎片, 残骸

(13)traumatize(v.)使受外伤;使受精神[心理]上创伤;trauma(n.)身体上或精神上的创伤

(14)provocatively(ad.)煽动地,挑衅地,引起争论的;provocate(v.)激怒,刺激,惹起

全文翻译

一辆公共汽车翻倒在乡村高速公路上,像脱节的肢体一样四分五裂。急救人员在毫无目标地打转,但他们这种活动的目的并不明确。汽车的队列向远处延伸,车主们冷漠地盯着这场虚构的事故。

这一场景来自于荷兰艺术家Aernout Mik的录像作品。该作品将于明天在切尔西的当代艺术新展览馆展示。此次个人展出将会为Mik先生带来更大的知名度。在过去的十年中,Aernout Mik的作品在欧洲频繁展出,但是在美国仍不是广为人知。在"Refraction"中显示出的东西和它本来的样子很不相同。图象如梦幻一般,却是用高清晰度的录像机拍摄的,它显示了一个极端扭曲的新闻。录像长约30分钟,是无声连续循环播放的,除了叙述的弧度什么也没有。这次拍摄是在罗马尼亚一条僻静的乡村公路上花了一天时间完成。它的参与者只收到关于如何表演的模糊指导。

Aernout Mik的这个作品提出了关于我们人类对灾难、悲剧,甚至交通堵塞的反应这样的问题。Mik先生说集体意识是他作品的一个重要的主题。而他似乎从一个社会学家或昆虫家的角度看待作品中的人物。为展览开幕从阿姆斯特丹飞过来后,他在一次采访中说,"那不是关于人物的,它一直是关于处在一个相对较小或大的群体中,即在环境中的个体"。图象暗示了当代的焦虑,但是不能简单地固定于空间和时间中。

录像中最令人难忘的部分可能是身着白色紧身衣裤,外配绿色马甲,在翻倒的汽车里用小钳子夹起碎石的景象。看起来他们好像正在把残骸放入干净的样本塑料袋中。可不可能是生物恐怖主义袭击?没有其他线索为此提供答案。起初,Mik先生有意不为本次事故设计受害者,他说,但是在最后一刻,他决定拍摄几个假定在车上的人。有几个人被包裹在法兰绒的毯子中,一位工作助手在对一位身披闪闪发光的金属床单的女士讲话。好像没有人精神受创,因此这些受害者的伤势也无从了解。还有一刻没有那么令人沮丧但是同样难忘。当时,一群绵羊和山羊步态从容地从周围的田野向路上走来。谁也没有解释它们从哪里来,要去向哪里,但是显而易见的是他们和人群形成了对比。

Mik先生今年42岁,现定居阿姆斯特丹。自1995年以来他已经穿越欧洲举办了数十场个人展览,但是直到今年它的作品在美国才有少数几次展示。他拒绝被称作录像艺术家,而更愿意将自己的作品描述成媒介混合物。他说:"我认为它不仅仅是录像,有时候,我有意称自己为雕塑家,因为我确实把流动的景象带到了生活空间。它不是在某个地方的电影,而更像一种空间性的介入。"

答案

1.A 2.B 3.D 4.C 5.C

总体分析

本文主要论述了哲学和神学或理智和启示之间的关系。文中给出了经院哲学家和神学人员对于二者之间关系的不同看法。考生应着重把握各种院派人士所持的不同观点。

第一段:指出造成经院哲学运动统一性的原因是经院哲学人士共同的目标、态度和方法。他们主要关心的是将理性与启示的知识进行整合。

第二段:主要论述了经院派学者看待理智和启示之间关系的观点。

第三段:论述了与经院派学者的观点成鲜明对比的哲学家阿威罗伊的观点。

第四段:总结指出,因为相信信仰和理智之间的和谐统一关系,经院派哲学家一直试图确定它们各自的范围和能力及二者间确切的关系。

试题精解

1.对于经院哲学家来说,对新知识的追求。

[A] 完全停滞 [B] 速度趋缓 [C] 进展迅速 [D] 逐渐苏醒

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。文章第一段第三句话指出了经院哲学家对新知识的态度,即经院哲学家主要关注的不是发现新知识而是把希腊理学和基督教启示分别已经获得的知识整合起来。由此可见,对于经院哲学家来说,对于新知识的追求是停滞不前的。[A]项为正确答案。

2.下述选项中哪一个最能阐明理智和启示之间的关系?

[A] 它们只是简单的相似

[B] 启示引导理智

[C] 二者偶尔互相矛盾

[D] 理智使启示变得完美

[精解] 本题考查了考生对事实细节的概括能力。文章第二段就理智和启示二者的关系作了详细的论述。该段第一句明确指出,决定经院哲学家持有共同观点最重要的一点是他们确信理智和启示二者间基本的和谐关系。接下来第三句作者提到,二者表面上的对立可以追溯到对理智的错误运用和对启示的误解中,所以[C]项错误。该段后半部分内容中作者对二者的关系进一步展开具体论述:经院哲学家坚信启示能掌握更高层次的真理和确定性;在宗教信仰和哲学推理表面上的冲突中,信仰总是更高层次的裁决者,神学者的决定支配着哲学家的决定。可见[B]项是两者关系的恰当诠释。[A]项和[D]项文中未提及。

3.根据文章的第二段可以推断出。

[A] 哲学作为谦卑的仆人的地位被接受了

[B] 宗教已经成了哲学运行的障碍

[C] 哲学家经常引用启示来支持自己

[D] 宗教实践中有时也会涉及到哲学家

[精解] 本题考查了考生在理解细节的基础上推理引申的能力。文章的第二段主要论述了理智和启示二者之间的关系。该段倒数第二句提到,经院哲学思想在13世纪早期越来越强调哲学的独立性,但在整个经院哲学阶段,哲学一直被称作神学的仆人。可见,哲学的仆人地位并没有被接受。[A]项错误。该段虽然提到神学是最后的仲裁者,乃至哲学被称为神学的奴隶,但并没有确凿的证据说明宗教成了哲学运行的障碍,[B]项属于过度引申。该段的最后一句话提到,神学家用哲学来理解和解释启示,这与[D]项相符,该段只提到神学家利用哲学,而[C]项则未涉及。

4.阿威罗伊认为。

[A] 伊斯兰神学经常屈从于哲学

[B] 宗教真理不过是白日梦

[C] 对于多数普通人来说,真正的真理是很难理解的

[D] 不完美的表达是宗教的缺陷造成的

[精解] 本题考查了文中人物的观点。专有人名Averroёs出现在文章的第三段。该段一开始作者就提到,经院哲学家的态度与哲学家阿威罗伊(Averroёs)所谓的双重真理理论形成了鲜明的对比。接着该段论述了阿威罗伊的理论,即哲学和伊斯兰神学都可以接近真相,但是只有哲学能够完美地得到它。因此,所谓的神学真理对于普通人来讲不过是对事实的不完美的想象的表达。真正的真理只有哲学才可以接近。他还认为,哲学上的真理,至少在口头上,与伊斯兰神学是矛盾的。[C]项是该段第三句的改写。[A]项将原文中的contradict偷换成subordinate to。[B]项属于断章取义,Averroёs 只认为对于普通人来说,神学真理是想象的,但哲学是可以理解它的。[D]论述了文章中没有的因果关系。

5.在下述选项中,那一项最有可能是文章接下来要叙述的?

[A] 圣·托马斯·阿奎纳的成就和先前的努力的关系

[B] 圣·托马斯·阿奎纳如何在讨论中掌握平衡

[C] 在理智和启示之间的关系上的其他努力

[D] 经院哲学成熟时期的突出特点

[精解] 本题考查了考生对文章论证结构的把握。文章最后一段首句为段落主旨句,指出:因为相信信仰和理智之间和谐统一的关系,经院派哲学家总蕕!@#q1a2z3w4s5x6

香香 本文来源:网易教育论坛 责任编辑:王晓易_NE0011
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