英语高分背诵 议论文举例与应对策略

2009-10-20 18:29:16 来源: 网易教育频道综合 举报
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1. 议论文的分类

根据英语作文从文体上来划分,有叙述文(Narrative Composition)、描写文(Descriptive Composition)、说明文(Expositive Composition)和议论文(Argumentative Composition)四种。考研英语作文短文写作第二部分主要采用的是议论文和说明文这两种文体。结合实际的考研英语真题分析,我们可以把议论文按照如下分类:

(1) 按照作者议论立场。

众所周知,议论文是作者用来表达对社会问题或者现象的思考所启用的文体。针对社会现象,作者深入分析,或弘扬美德、或针砭时弊。前者便是立论性文章,而后者则是驳论性文章。前者旨在提倡社会公德或人间正气,后者则是揭露丑恶或建议改正。

(2) 按照论证方法。

因果法:在议论文中使用因果法进行论证具有较强的说服力。因果法中的“因”是指证明论点的理由;“果”是指要证明的论点。俗语有之,“万事皆有因果”。作者可以先写所观察到的社会问题或现象产生的原因,然后表达影响与结果;也可以先表达某种社会问题或现象对社会的影响与结果,再表明其产生的原因。展开论述时可以一因一果、一果一因,也可一因多果、一果多因。

The hamburger is the most popular food item in the United States. Every year Americans consume billions of them. They are sold in expensive restaurants and in humble dinners. They are cooked at home on the kitchen stove or over a barbecue grill in the backyard. Why are they so popular?

First, a hamburger is extremely easy to prepare. It is nothing more than a piece of ground beef, cooked for a few minutes. Then it is placed in a sliced bun. Nothing could be simpler. Even an unskilled cook can turn out hundreds of them in an hour. Besides that, the simple hamburger can be varied in many ways. You can melt some cheese on top of the beef to create a cheeseburger. You can also add some grilled bacon for an interesting flavour contrast. In addition, you can garnish the hamburger with other things such as lettuce, tomato, onion, mushrooms, avocado, pickles, hot pepper, ketchup, relish, mayonnaise, mustard or whatever you wish!

列举法:这种方法又叫做例证法。这种方法要告知读者一系列事实或列举几方面的事实,使读者相信或接受作者的意见、观点。

There are a number of ways for us to keep fit. First, no matter how busy we are, we should have exercise every day to strengthen our muscles. Second, it is important to keep good hours. For example, if we are in the habit of going to bed early and getting up early, we can avoid overworking ourselves and get enough sleep. Finally, entertainment is also necessary so that we may have some moments of relaxation. If we follow those instructionwe will certainly be in good health.

比较与对比法:比较与对比法是说明和论证的方法。所谓对比,就是通过两种或两种以上的不同事物,或者同一种事物的两种不同情况的比较,进行鉴别,从中得出结论。要想运用好对比法,首先要明确对比的目的,弄清通过对比到底要证明什么。如果目的不明确,对比就失去了意义。展开文章或段落时,比较与对比这两种方法可以交叉使用。

The older form of communication is speech. In the beginning of human history, people could only use direct verbal speech to communicate. But it had many shortcomings. For instance, we could not speak to a person far away when we needed. So distance was a problem. And the spoken word could not be kept secret easily. So people wanted to invent a new method of communication. The next big step forward in communication was the invention of writing. Writing is one of human being’s most important inventions. It solved the problem of distance and keeping secrets, but it too had disadvantages. The written word could not be passed on quickly, so people tried to find a new quicker method of communication.

The most recent development had been electronic means of communication, including the wireless telegraph, radio, telephone and television. The invention and use of electronic means has solved all the problems mentioned above. They are the most effective methods of communication. People will certainly try their best to invent even more modem and useful methods.

 2. 议论文写作格式与要求

一篇文章可由几个自然段组成。文章中的句子和段落均为文章的中心思想服务,形成一个有机的整体。好的段落必须是意思完整,语义连贯,完全体现文章主旨中心,同时又是层次分明,结构严谨,逻辑关系应用合理的。

(1) 段落的组成

一个段落由三部分组成:

主题句(Topic Sentence):点出段落的主题(文章谈论的是什么)

扩展句(Developing Sentence):说明和支持主题。

结尾句(Concluding Sentence):得出结论。


(2) 段落的主题

一篇文章有中心意思,也就是题目。而每个段落有段落主题,段落主题是为文章中心思想服务的。

每个段落只能有一个主题(central idea),它用一个句子加以表达,所以称为主题句。主题提出后需要很多结构严谨的句子来支持和说明,称为扩展句。最后得出一个结论,并用一个结尾句表达。参看下面段落:

This is supposed to be an enlightened age, but you wouldn’t think so if you could hear what the average man thinks of the average women. Women won their independence years ago. After a long, bitter struggle, they now enjoy the same educational opportunities as men in most parts of the world. They have proved repeatedly that they are equal and often superior to men in almost every field. The hard-fought battle for recognition has been won, but it is by no means over. It is men, not women who still carry on the sex war because their attitude remains basically hostile. Even in the most progressive societies, women continue to be regarded as second-rate citizens. To hear some men talk, you’d think that women belonged to a different species!

 

(3) 写好主题句

定义:主题句为一个完整的句子,用以概括、叙述和说明该段的主题。

位置:主题句一般位于段首,也可置于段尾或段中,考生最好放在段首,这样较易掌握和构思。

例如:

位于段首:在英文中,大部分段落的第一句便是主题句。开门见山地提出问题,后面的扩展句围绕主题句加以说明、支持、补充和解释。

An important part of police strategy, rapid police response is seen by police officers and the public alike as offering tremendous benefits. The more obvious the abilities of police to apply first aid life saving techniques quickly are, the greater likelihood of arresting people who may have participated in a crime. It aids in identifying those who witnessed an emergency or crime as well as in collecting evidence. The overall reputation of a police department too is enhanced if rapid response is consistent and this in itself promotes the prevention of crime. Needless to say rapid response offers the public some degree of satisfaction in its police force.

 

位于段尾:主题句位于段尾便于总结全段的内容,给读者以深刻的印象,是写作中的一种演绎方法。

At present rates of demand, the world has enough oil to last for more than 40 years, enough gas for more than 60 years and enough coal for more than 230 years. Naturally, demand will increase; but so will reserves as companies explore more widely and costs fall. Since 1970 viable reserves of oil have almost doubled while those of gas have leapt three-fold. One distant day a crunch will come, but as it approaches fossil-fuel prices will rise, making alternative forms of energy, perhaps including nuclear power, competitive. That is no reason to spend on nuclear now.

 

位于段中位于段中的主题句起承上启下的作用这类主题句多起转折作用一般由but, however, yet, anyhow, nevertheless等词连接用于引起下文。

What we teach ourselves sometimes, indeed, is more useful than what we learn from others. Some great men had little or no schooling. But these great men probably studied harder by themselves than most boys do in school. The greatest minds do not necessarily of those who have never been able to distinguish themselves at school, have been very successful in life later. It has been said that Wellington and Napoleon were both dull boys at school, and so were Newton and Albert Einstein.

 

无主题句:有的段落中无主题句,段落的主题思想通过文章内容来提示,这种方法能促使读者对文章内容进行思考和分析,但考生一般不宜在考试中采用这种方法:

Money may be deposited or withdrawn from branches of the credit unions and banks during business hours from Monday to Friday (but not on public holidays) or 24 hours a day from the many on-campus automatic teller machines. Business hours for financial institutions vary, but credit unions are usually open from 9 am to 5 pm weekdays, and, generally, banks are open from 9.30 am to 4 pm (5 pm on Fridays). Some services are available on Saturday mornings in selected areas. While prices often compare favorably with prices overseas, because Australia is a large and exciting country it is very easy to overspend, especially if on a tight budget.

 

 

 


 

 

写好主题句的方法:

主题句要概括一定内容,不要空泛,否则扩展句将难以说明和支持它,例如:

空泛:English language is very important.

概括:English language is very important in our daily life.   

空泛:The Olympic Games are exciting.

概括:In the Olympic Games the football teams from many countries compete intensely.

尽量使用简单句或简洁明了的句子,例如::

简洁:Collecting stamps is her hobby.

复杂:She likes collecting stamps which is her hobby.

简洁:I enjoyed watching Gone with the wind very much.

复杂:Gone with the wind was a good film which I enjoyed watching very much.

主题句应该做到句子完整和表达的主题思想完整,例如:

不完整:How to write a composition.

完整:How to write a composition is not an easy thing to talk about.

不完整:If the weather had been fine.

完整:If it had been fine, we would have had a good time.

关键词是直接表达主题的词汇,它决定段落的内容和展开的方法,引导整个段落的发展,例如:

There are several ways to boil the water.

The task can be finished in three steps.

There is a new method to reduce the cost.

 

(4) 写好扩展句和段落

围绕主题句展开,支持、说明和阐述主题句的句子便是扩展句。扩展句紧扣主题句中的关键词而展开,句子与句子之间逻辑清楚,上下转承,结合得当,简明扼要,重点突出。一般来说,每个自然段除了主题句与结尾句之外,还包含了36个扩展句。所以,写好了扩展句便基本上完成一个自然段落。

做题时,一旦定下了主题和关键词,作者便按照自己的思路来组织段落中的句子,句子之间要具有连贯性,就必须由一系列的逻辑关系构成,例如:并列关系,因果关系,递进关系,转折关系,解释关系,概括关系,顺序关系,让步关系,对照、比较关系,转换关系等等,这些逻辑关系可由一系列的过渡词(transitional words)来完成。过渡词在句子与句子之间、段落与段落之间起到承上启下的作用,使句子或段落之间的衔接自然、连贯,逻辑合理,结构严谨,因此极为重要。

 

常用的几种扩展句和段落写作模式关联表达方法:

表示因果关系常用的表达方法有:

because, since, as, seeing that, the reason why, because of, on account of , due to, so, thus, hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, so that, as a result of, in consequence of, result in, result from, lead to, soas to, owing to, to have an effect on, for the reason, in this way等。

表示列举或例证法常用的表达方法有:

for example, for instance, for one thing, for another, to illustrate, one example is, to begin with, first, second, furthermore, besides, in addition, moreover, finally, in conclusion, in summary, also, a case in point, as an illustration, incidentally, namely, that is等。

表示比较对比关系常用的表达方法有:

similarly, likewise, like, too, equally important, the same as, in common, in the same way, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, in sharp contrast, whereas, rather than, conversely, instead, in/by contrast, but, however, yet, nevertheless

表示分类法常用的表达方法有:

to divideinto, to classifyinto, groupinto, to fall into classes, there arekinds(types, groups, classes, categories, sorts ) of, according to, in terms of, depending on, at the level of等。

表示定义常用的表达方法有:

what is …?, to be defined as, to refer to, the definition of is, to be used to describe, in a very real sense, this is, this means, be explained, it states that, in other words, namely等。

表示总结关系常用的表达方法有:

generally speaking, generally, as a general rule, in general, on a larger scale, to take the idea further, to take the above opinion to an extreme, in a sense, in one sense, in a way, to some extent, in my opinion, in my view, as for me, as far as I am concerned, obviously, undoubtedly, in terms of, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary, in a word, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude.

表示强调关系常用的表达方法有:

anyway, certainly, surely, obviously, to be sure, especially, particularly, above all, indeed, in fact, even worse, needless to say, most important of all, no doubt

表示空间顺序常用的表达方法有:

beyond, above, under, nearby, outside, in here, across, close to, on(to, at)the left(right), ahead of, in front of, above, from, adjacent to, against, around, at the bottom, before, behind, below, beneath, between, beyond, close at hand, close to down, far, farther, in the centre of, in the distance, in the middle of, nearby, near to, next to, on the opposite side, opposite to, on top of , over, under, up等。

 


 

审题:

(1) 试卷发下后,请花半分钟的时间来浏览作文的题目,这里包括议论文在内。

(2) 此后,请看第一部分的题目,明确以下几点:

是一幅图还是两幅或者是以上的图,从而采取相应的首段描写方法

如果是图标与表格题型,考生必须利用图中解释说明的文字清晰地理解写作目的。

(3) 3-5分钟的时间分析并草拟提纲:

考生应对图画进行全面而细致的研究,尤其注意图画中人或物(人与物)的体貌表情特征和背景,确定人物之间,人物与背景之间的主要关系,以便正确掌握图画所传达的信息。

如果图画以系列形式(即两幅以上)出现,考生除了掌握每一幅图画的信息,还应该对图画之间的相应联系有所理解,从而在整体上把握图画所传达的信息。

面对图画题型,考生应该展开合理而丰富的联想,用生动而恰当的言辞抒发自己对图画的所思所想所感。

注意图画题型中的文字提示。文字提示非常重要,文字提示通常十分清楚地提供一些写作要点。

草拟提纲,合理组织材料。考生可以根据图画内容的不同采用不同的段落发展方式。如果画面内容是以描述为主,即按空间方位或时间先后顺序排列,在描述图画时,大家可以按照先写哪个部分,后写哪个部分的写作方式进行。如果画面内容是以解释说明为主,即不需要考生再将图画中所看到的人或事本身进行详细地描写,而是直接写出图画的意义,那么写作时考生应该把图画所蕴涵的含义在首段告诉读者,当然也可以在首段书写图画内涵的社会背景,为下个段落的点题做好铺垫。

(4) 书写的时候注意流利与工整。

(5) 留有时间检查,保持卷面的整洁。

雨佳 本文来源:网易教育频道综合 责任编辑:王晓易_NE0011
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