Section B 听力短文
Wilma Subra had no intention of becoming a public speaker. After graduating from college with degrees in chemistry and microbiology, she went to work at Gulf South Research Institute in Louisiana. As part of her job, she conducted field research on toxic substances in the environment, often in minority communities located near large industrial polluters. She found many families were being exposed high, sometimes deadly, levels of chemicals and other toxic substances, but she was not allowed to make her information public.
Frustrated by these restrictions, Subra left her job in 1981, created her own company, and has devoted the past two decades to helping people fight back against giant industrial polluters. She works with families and community groups to conduct environmental tests, interpret test results, and organize for change. Because of her efforts, dozens of toxic sites across the country have been cleaned up, and one chemical industry spokesperson calls her “a top gun for the environmental movement.”
How has Wilma Subra achieved all this? Partly through her scientific training, partly through her commitment to environmental justice. But just as important is her ability to communicate with people through public speaking. “Public speaking,” she says, “is the primary vehicle I use for reaching people.”
If you had asked Subra before 1981, “Do you see yourself as a major public speaker?” She would have laughed at the idea. Yet today she gives more than 100 presentations a year. Along the way she has lectured at Harvard, testified before Congress, and addressed audiences in 40 states, as well as in Mexico, Canada, and Japan.
26. What did Wilma Subra do as part of her job while working at Gulf South Research Institute?
27. What did Wilma Subra leave her job in 1981?
28. What results have Wilma Subra’s efforts had in the part two decades?
29. What does the speaker say has contributed to Wilma Subra’s success?
One of the biggest challenges facing employers and educators today is the rapid advance of globalization. The market place is no longer national or regional, but extends to all corners of the world. And this requires a global ready workforce. Universities have a large part to play in preparing students for the 21st century labor market by promoting international educational experiences. The most obvious way universities can help develop global workforce is by encouraging students to study abroad as part of their course. Students who have experienced another culture first hand are more likely to be global ready when they graduate.
Global workforce development doesn’t always have to involve travel abroad however. If students learn another language and study other cultures, they will be more global ready when they graduate. It is important to point out that students also need to have a deep understanding of their own culture before they can begin to observe, analyze and evaluate other cultures. In multi-cultural societies, people can study each other’s cultures, to develop intercultural competencies, such as critical and reflective thinking, and intellectual flexibility. This can be done both through the curriculum and through activities on campus, outside of the classroom, such as art exhibitions, and lectures from international experts. Many universities are already embracing this challenge, and providing opportunities for students to become global citizens. Students themselves, however, may not realize that when they graduate, they will be competing in a global labor market, and universities need to raise awareness of these issues amongst undergraduates.
Q30: What is one of the biggest challenges facing employers ጉand educators today?
Q31: What should students do first before they can really understand other cultures?
Q32: What should college students realize according to the speaker?
To see if hair color affects a person’s chances of getting a job, researchers at California State University asked 136 college students to review the resume and photograph of a female applicant for a job as an accountant. Each student was given the same resume. But the applicant’s picture was altered, so that in some photos her hair was golden, in some red and in some brown. The result? With brown hair, the woman was rated more capable, and she was offered a higher salary than when she had golden or red hair. Other studies have found similar results. Many respondents rate women with golden hair with less intelligent than other people, and red heads as more temperamental. Women with red or golden hair are victims of the common practice of stereotyping.
A stereotype is a simplistic or exaggerated image that humans carrying in their minds about groups of people. For example, lawyers are shrewd dishonest is a popular stereotype. Stereotyping can occur in public speaking classes. When trying to choose a speech topic, some males think that women are uninterested in how to repair cars, while some females think that men are uninterested in creative hobbies, such as knitting and needle point. We should reject stereotypes, because they force all people in a group into the same simple pattern. They fail to account for individual differences, and the wide range of characteristics among members of any group. Some lawyers are dishonest, yes! But many are not. Some women are uninterested in repairing cars, yes! But some are enthusiastic mechanics.