Section I Structure and Vocabulary
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET (20 points)
1. As scheduled, the communications satellite went into ________ round the earth.
[A] circle [B] orbit [C] path [D] course
2. I don’t want to lend any more money to him; he’s already in debt ________ me.
[A] to [B] for [C] of [D] with
3. ________ to speak when the audience interrupted him.
[A] Hardly had he begun [B] No sooner had he begun
[C] Not until he began [D] Scarcely did he begin
4. Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it ____ in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.
[A]is to be analyzed [B]has been analyzed
[C]be analyzed [D]should have been analyzed
5. Humble ____ it may be, there’s no place like home, where he may go.
[A]although [B]as [C]how [D]which
6. Although he thought he was helping us prepare the dinner, he was actually ________ the way.
[A] in [B] by [C] off [D] on
7. Although the false banknotes fooled many people, they did not close examination.
[A] put up [B] keep up [C] stand up to [D] look up to
8. Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely ________ to the outside world.
[A] being lost [B] having lost [C] losing [D] lost
9. Our modern civilization must not be thought of as ________ in a short period of time.
[A] being created [B] to have been created
[C] having been created [D] to be created
10. The students expected there ________ more reviewing classes before the final exam.
[A] is [B] being [C] have been [D] to be
11. The patient has been ________ of the safety of the operation.
[A] assured [B] guaranteed [C] entrusted [D] confirmed
12. Will you ________ this passage to see if there is any misprint?
[A] look up [B] go over [C] dwell on [D] work out
13. The album is as it was the only one ever signed by the President.
[A] unusual [B] unique [C] rare [D] singular
14. Prof. Ward hardly ever went to the theater.
[A] neither the cinema nor [B] neither the cinema or
[C] either the cinema or [D] either the cinema nor
15. The bank is reported ________ in the local newspaper in broad daylight yesterday.
[A] to be robbed [B] robbed
[C] to have been robbed [D] having been robbed
16. Talk to anyone in the drug industry, you’ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.
[A] or [B] so [C] for [D] and
17. Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he ________ our chairman now.
[A] must have been [B] would have been [C] were [D] would be
18. Stressful environments lead to unhealthy behaviors such as poor eating habits, which ________ increase the risk of heart disease.
[A] in turn [B] in return [C] by chance [D] by turns
19. The tourist is prevented from entering a country if he does not have ________ passport.
[A] an operative [B] a valid [C] an efficient [D] an effective
20. The project requires more labor than ________.
[A] has been put in [B] have been put in [C] being put in [D] to be put in
Section II Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Reading to oneself is a modern activity which was almost unknown to the scholars of the classical and 21 worlds, while during the fifteenth century the term “reading” 22 meant reading aloud. Only during the nineteenth century did silent reading become commonplace. One should be wary, however, of 23 that silent reading came about simply because reading aloud is a(n) 24 to others. Examination of factors related to the 25 development of silent reading reveals that it became the usual mode of reading for most adult reading tasks mainly because the tasks themselves changed in 26 .
The last century saw a steady gradual increase in 27 , and thus in the number of readers. As readers increased, the number of potential listeners 28 , and thus there was some 29 in the need to read aloud. As reading for the benefit of listeners grew less common, so came the flourishing of reading as a 30 activity in such public places as libraries, railway carriages and offices, where reading aloud would 31 distraction to other readers.
Towards the end of the century there was still 32 argument over whether books should be used for information or treated 33 , and over whether the reading of material such as newspapers was in some way 34 weakening. Indeed this argument remains with us still in education. 35 , its virtues, the old shared literacy culture had gone and was 36 by the printed mass media on the one hand and by books and periodicals for a 37 readership on the other.
By the end of the century students were being recommended to adopt attitudes to books and to use skills in reading them which were inappropriate, 38 not impossible, for the oral reader. The social, cultural, and technological changes in the century had greatly 39 what the term “reading” 40 .
21.[A] contemporary[B] modern[C] medieval [D] western
22.[A] undoubtedly[B] really[C] absolutely[D] accordingly
23.[A] imagining[B] consuming[C] resuming[D] assuming
24.[A] interruption[B] distraction[C] bother[D] pressure
25.[A] historical[B] historic[C] history[D] historian
26.[A] quality[B] character[C] personality[D] distinctiveness
27.[A] literate[B] illiterate[C] literacy[D] literature
28.[A] receded[B] declined[C] increased[D] expanded
29.[A] limitation[B] necessity[C] reduction[D] shrink
30.[A] private[B] overt[C] public[D] secret
31.[A] cause[B] effect[C] produce[D] realize
32.[A] considerable[B] considerate[C] moderate[D] immoderate
33.[A] respectively[B] honorably[C] respectfully[D] relatively
34.[A] largely[B] intelligently[C] mentally[D] physically
35.[A] However[B]Whatever[C] Whichever[D] Wherever
36.[A] replaced[B] taken[C] followed[D] distinguished
37.[A] specific[B] special[C] specified[D] specialized
38.[A] and[B] if[C] but[D] or
39.[A] translated[B] differed[C] shifted[D] altered
40.[A] inferred[B] advised[C] induced[D] implied
Section III Reading Comprehension
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question four answers are given. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
The entrepreneur, according to French economist J.B. Say, “is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield.” But Say’s definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and nonmonetary rewards.
The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonald’s. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fast-food chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.
Many of the sharp, black-and-white contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faded to gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive, or market oriented. They were “above” the market-driven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the mavericks of society. They were risk-takers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more price-conscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents, and competencies. Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses (e.g., consulting and law) to serve clients.
Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors; searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. Many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonald’s is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.
41. According to the first paragraph, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?
[A] The CEO of a big company. [B] The owner of a profitable restaurant.
[C] A man who started a new kind of business. [D] A successful salesman.
42. According to the text, the professionals .
[A] are quite different from entrepreneurs even now
[B] were considered to be enterprising and market-centered
[C] were price-conscious
[D] have to advertise themselves in nowadays
43. From the text, we learn that .
[A] an entrepreneur should be very extroverted
[B] an entrepreneur should be quick to seize opportunities
[C] change is not norm in an entrepreneur’s eyes
[D] the French economist J.B. Say is the first person who gave the definition of “entrepreneur”
44. The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to .
[A] complete the definition of entrepreneur
[B] tell the readers what is entrepreneur and the main characteristics of entrepreneurs
[C] show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs
[D] illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur
45. What will most possibly follow the text?
[A] An example of how an entrepreneur operates. [B] Another theory about entrepreneurship.
[C] The bad effects of entrepreneurs. [D] The good effects of entrepreneurs.
St. Paul didn’t like it. Moses warned his people against it. Hesiod declared it “mischievious” and “hard to get rid of it,” but Oscar Wilder said, “Gossip is charming.”
“History is merely gossip,” he wrote in one of his famous plays. “But scandal is gossip made tedious by morality.”
In times past, under Jewish law, gossipmongers might be fined or flogged. The Puritans put them in stocks or ducking stools, but no punishment seemed to have the desired effect of preventing gossip, which has continued uninterrupted across the back fences of the centuries.
Today, however, the much-maligned human foible is being looked at in a different light. Psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, even evolutionary biologists are concluding that gossip may not be so bad after all.
Gossip is “an intrinsically valuable activity,” philosophy professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev states in a book he has edited, entitled Good Gossip. For one thing, gossip helps us acquire information that we need to know that doesn’t come through ordinary channels, such as: “What was the real reason so-and-so was fired from the office?” Gossip also is a form of social bonding, Dr. Ben-Ze’ev says. It is “a kind of sharing” that also “satisfies the tribal need—namely, the need to belong to and be accepted by a unique group.” What’s more, the professor notes, “Gossip is enjoyable.”
Another gossip groupie, Dr. Ronald De Sousa, a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, describes gossip basically as a form of indiscretion and a “saintly virtue”, by which he means that the knowledge spread by gossip will usually end up being slightly beneficial. “It seems likely that a world in which all information were universally available would be preferable to a world where immense power resides in the control of secrets,” he writes.
Still, everybody knows that gossip can have its ill effects, especially on the poor wretch being gossiped about. And people should refrain from certain kinds of gossip that might be harmful, even though the ducking stool is long out of fashion.
By the way, there is also an interesting strain of gossip called medical gossip, which in its best form, according to researchers Jerry M. Suls and Franklin Goodkin, can motivate people with symptoms of serious illness, but who are unaware of it, to seek medical help.
So go ahead and gossip. But remember, if (as often is the case among gossipers) you should suddenly become one of the gossipees instead, it is best to employ the foolproof defense recommended by Plato, who may have learned the lesson from Socrates, who as you know was the victim of gossip spread that he was corrupting the youth of Athens: When men speak ill of thee, so live that nobody will believe them. Or, as Will Rogers said, “Live so that you wouldn’t be ashamed to sell the family parrot to the town gossip.”
46. Persons’ remarks are mentioned at the beginning of the text to ____.
[A] show the general disapproval of gossip
[B] introduce the topic of gossip
[C] examine gossip from a historical perspective
[D] prove the real value of gossip
47. By “Gossip also is a form of social bonding” (Para. 5), Professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev means gossip ____.
[A] is a valuable source of social information
[B] produces a joy that most people in society need
[C] brings people the feel of being part of a group
[D] satisfies people’s need of being unusual
48. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
[A] everyone involved will not benefit from gossip.
[B] philosophers may hold different attitudes toward gossip.
[C] Dr. Ronald De Sousa regards gossips as perfectly advantageous.
[D] people are generally not conscious of the value of medical gossip.
49. We learn from the last paragraph that ____.
[A] gossipers will surely become gossipees someday
[B] Socrates was a typical example of a gossiper becoming a gossipee
[C] Plato escaped being a victim of gossip by no gossiping
[D] an easy way to confront gossip when subjected to it is to live as usual
50. The author’s attitude toward “gossip” can be best described as ____.
[A] neutral [B] positive
[C] negative [D] indifferent
Efforts could potentially avoid at least some of the psychopathy (mental illness) that underlies school shootings, since medicine now can help even the most severely ill. And they would also benefit the many young people struggling with far less extreme brain disorders.
The U.S. Secret Service, which studies “targeted violence”, provides insight on the urgency of the need in its 2002 “Safe School Initiative” report: School attacks, instead of being the random impulsive acts of noisy and cruel fellows, are well-planned events mostly carried out by a single student—who is not evil but mentally ill. Except for being male, the 41 attackers studied fit no profile of family background，race，ethnicity，or even academic performance. Many were A and B students. Few had a history of violent or criminal behavior. But their thoughts were of violence, and their behavior was often intimidating. They frequently expressed violent themes in their writings, in one instance portraying killing and suicide as solutions to feelings of despair. The criminals often had telegraphed to other students and teachers their depression or desperation and either talked about or had attempted suicide. Feelings of persecution by others were common and led to growing resentment and anger.
Psychiatrists and psychologists recognize that these are red flags demanding medical intervention. Yet one of most striking findings in the report was that the vast majority of these students never had a mental-health evaluation. No wonder only 17 percent were diagnosed with a psychiatric illness—it wasn’t looked for. That alone points to a huge mental health gap: If the distress of these students didn’t trigger medical attention, it’s unlikely that less severe struggles that are seen in as many as 15 to 20 percent of other students will do so.
Only recently have we learned that these are neurodevelopmental disorders whose early signs might well be picked up in routine podiatric screening. For example, a classic behavior in a child that can precede psychosis later in 1ife is speaking to almost no one, even family, says Nasrallah.
Genes are known to confer vulnerability, but equally important is the environment. Stress or great disappointment can aggravate symptoms; Connecting with an adult in an ongoing relationship can do the opposite. Interventions like social-skills training combined with talk therapy and targeted medication can make a huge difference. Early treatment can lessen the frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes, leaving many patients with only the mildest of symptoms. And the younger the brain, the more malleable is. The ultimate goal is to not only modify evaluation of disease but keep it from arising in the first place. This is achievable, and the path to get there is becoming clear.
51. According to the US Secret Service, school attacks are characterized as .
[A] reactive [B] revengeful
[C] plotted [D] impulsive
52. One common characteristic of school attackers is that .
[A] they exhibit bad academic performances
[B] they have violent thoughts and intimidating behavior
[C] they regard homicide and suicide as ways of tackling despair
[D] they have records of violence and crimes
53. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 3?
[A] There is a huge gap between human mentality.
[B] The school attackers have never had any mental health evaluation.
[C] Medical attention should be paid to the distress of school attackers.
[D] The findings of the report astonished psychiatrists and psychologists.
54. The word “malleable” (Line 5, Paragraph 5) is closest in meaning to .
[A] miserable [B] adaptable
[C] vulnerab1e [D] feeble
55. What can we conclude from the last paragraph?
[A] Both genes and environment should be improved to tackle brain disorders.
[B] Prevention is by far more important than treatment.
[C] Mental disorders are curable, and the earlier the better.
[D] Early treatment can reduce the sufferings and terminate all the symptoms.
Scientists have known since 1952 that DNA is the basic stuff of heredity. They’ve known its chemical structure since 1953. They know that human DNA acts like a biological computer program some 3 billion bits long that spells out the instructions for making proteins, the basic building blocks of life.
But everything the genetic engineers have accomplished during the past half-century is just a preamble to the work that Collins and Anderson and legions of colleagues are doing now. Collins leads the Human Genome Project, a 15-year effort to draw the first detailed map of every nook and cranny of gene in human DNA. Anderson, who pioneered the first successful human gene-therapy operations, is leading the campaign to put information about DNA to use as quickly as possible in the treatment and prevention of human diseases.
What they and other researchers are plotting is nothing less than a biomedical revolution. Like Silicon Valley pirates reverse-engineering a computer chip to steal a competitor’s secrets, genetic engineers are decoding life's molecular secrets and trying to use that knowledge to reverse the natural course of disease. DNA in their hands has become both a blueprint and a drug, a pharmacological substance of extraordinary potency that can treat not just symptoms or the diseases that cause them but also the imperfections in DNA that make people susceptible to a disease.
And that’s just the beginning. For all the fevered work being done, however, science is still far away from the Brave New World vision of engineering a perfect human—or even a perfect tomato. Much more research is needed before gene therapy becomes commonplace, and many diseases will take decades to conquer, if they can be conquered at all.
In the short run, the most practical way to use the new technology will be in genetic screening. Doctors will be able to detect all sorts of flaws in DNA long before they can be fixed. In some cases the knowledge may lead to treatments that delay the onset of the disease or soften its effects. Someone with a genetic predisposition to heart disease, for example, could follow a low-fat diet. And if scientists determine that a vital protein is missing because the gene that was supposed to make it is defective, they might be able to give the patient an artificial version of the protein. But in other instances, almost nothing can be done to stop the ravages brought on by genetic mutations.
56. It can be inferred from the text that Collins and Anderson and legions of colleagues _____.
[A] know that human DNA acts like a biological computer program
[B] have found the basic building blocks of life
[C] have accomplished some genetic discovery during the past half-century
[D] are making a breakthrough in DNA
57. Collins and Anderson are cited in the text to indicate all the following EXCEPT that ______.
[A] gene-therapy now is already generally used to the treatment and prevention of human diseases
[B] human gene-therapy operations may be applied to the patients
[C] time-consuming effort is needed to accomplish the detailed map of in human DNA
[D] information about DNA may be used in the treatment and prevention of human diseases
58. The word “pirate” (line 2, paragraph 3) most probably means______.
[A] one who robs at sea or plunders the land from the sea
[B] one who makes use of or reproduces the work of another without authorization
[C] to take (something) by piracy
[D] to make use of or reproduce (another’s work) without authorization
59. We can draw a conclusion from the text that_____.
[A] engineering a perfect human is not feasible for the time being
[B] it’s impossible for scientists to engineer a perfect tomato
[C] many diseases will never be conquered by human beings
[D] doctors will be able to cure all sorts of flaws in DNA in the long run
60. The best title for the text may be ______.
[A] DNA and Heredity
[B] The Genetic Revolution
[C] A Biomedical Revolution
[D] How to Apply Genetic Technology
Section IV English-Chinese Translation
Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
The value which society places on work has traditionally been closely associated with the value of individualism and as a result it has had negative effects on the development of social security. (61)It has meant that in the first place the amount of benefits must be small lest people’s willingness to work and support themselves suffers. Even today with flat rate and earnings-related benefits, the total amount of the benefit must always be smaller than the person’s wages for fear of malingering. “The purpose of social security,” said Huntford referring to Sweden’s comparatively generous benefits, “is to dispel need without crossing the threshold of prosperity.” Second, social security benefits are granted under conditions designed to reduce the likelihood of even the boldest of spirits attempting to lice on the State rather than work. Many of the rules surrounding the payment of unemployment or supplementary benefit are for this purpose. Third, the value placed on work is manifested in a more positive way as in the case of disability. (62)People suffering from accidents incurred at work or from occupational diseases receive preferential treatment by the social security service compared with those suffering from civil accidents and ordinary illnesses.
Yet, the stranglehold which work has had on the social security service has been increasingly loosened over the years. The provision of family allowances, family income supplements, the slight liberalization of the wages stop are some of the manifestations of this trend. (63)Similarly, the preferential treatment given to occupational disability by the social security service has been increasingly questioned with the demands for the upgrading of benefits for the other types of disability. It is felt that in contemporary industrial societies the distinction between occupational and non-occupational disability is artificial for many non-occupational forms of disability have an industrial origin even if they do not occur directly in the workplace. (64)There is also the additional reason which we mentioned in the argument for one benefit for all one-parent families, that a modern social security service must concentrate on meeting needs irrespective of the cause behind such needs.
The relationship between social security and work is not all a one-way affair. (65)It is true that until very recently the general view was that social security “represented a type of luxury and was essentially anti-economic.” It was seen as merely government expenditure for the needy. As we saw, however, redundancy payments and earnings-related unemployment benefits have been used with some success by employers and the government to reduce workers’ opposition towards loss of their jobs.
Section V Writing
[A] Title: FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN
[B] Word limit: 160-200 words
[C] Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below
[D] Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
1. Present situation: Lack of communication between parents and children
2. Possible reasons:
1) Different likes and dislikes
1) For parents
2) For children