Unions are organizations of workers that
bargain with employers for economic and job benefits. They exist to create 1 and economic power against private management
and the 2 to
achieve their goals. These goals are primarily higher 3 ,
better working conditions, and job security. 4 organized to achieve these goals are usually
complex in their social and psychological detail.
Union movements occurred in the 5 half of the 1700s in the U.S. Carpenters,
printers, and shoemakers formed organizations as early as 1791 in Philadelphia,
Boston and New York. These 6 in
most cases over social and economic
7 between workers and
employers when rapid 8 in a young development country began to break
down the familiar modes of 9 and the close ties between workers and
long, hard drive for legalization of union 10 Unions fought with companies and 11 courts for legitimacy and status. Unions were 12 as a threat to free enterprise and private
property, and 13 to political and economic stability. They
were also considered radical, and companies resisted them 14 . Violent conducts were frequent on
both sides. The government at times moved in state police to suppress the
more 15 conflicts. Union workers themselves often
punished other workers who did not back their policies.
Unions in the U.S. have always 16 a practical direction. They have not adopted
radical ideologies or 17 goals. A major force in union organizing in
the early part of the century, Samuel Gompers, took a practical approach. He 18 “bread and butter unionism” or “pure and
simple unionism.” He was interested in immediate, practical gains—higher wages
and shorter 19 . He sided with no political party, only 20 politicians who could help.
1. A. political B. principal C. crucial D.
2. A. department B.
government C. section D. compartment
3. A. position B. rank C.
wages D. benefits
4. A. Arrangements B. Adjustments C.
Dynamics D. Movements
5. A. latter B. former C.
early D. later
6. A. arouse B.
arose C. arised D. aroused
7. A. contradiction B. dispute C. conflict D. debate
8. A. improvements B. rhythm
C. pace D.
9. A. production B. living C. communication D. commerce
10. A. pursued B. followed C. gathered
11. A. idealistic B. supportive C. unsympathetic D.
12. A. depicted B. defined
C. determined D.
13. A. therefore B. moreover C. nevertheless D.
14. A. energetically B. vigorously C. spontaneously D.
15. A. brutal B. urgent C.
fierce D. emergent
16. A. stood by B. strove for C. sought after D. stuck to
17. A .unrealistic B. practical C. unreasonable D.
18. A. opposed B. advocated C. rejected
19. A. times B.
hours C. whiles D. periods
20. A. against B. to C.
for D. with
II Reading and Vocabulary: 50 points
used to say, “It’s not what you want in this world, but what you get.”
Psychology teaches that
you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.
You can make a mental
blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us
is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday
living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a
shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an
essential for any type of meal to be served.
Likewise, if you want
to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In
making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly
what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.
This account of
yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education,
experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to
in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal
interviews. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether
your education, your experience, and other qualifications, will pay him to
employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and
reasonably connected manner.
When you have carefully
prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible
to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information
about your could-be job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and
the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a
certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep
in mind: Securing a job is your job now.
1.What do the elders mean when they say,
“It’s not what you want in this world, but what you get.”?
[A] You’ll certainly
get what you want.
[B] It’s no use
[C] You should be
dissatisfied with what you have.
[D] It’s essential to
set a goal for yourself.
2.A blueprint made before inviting a friend
to dinner is used in this passage as ________.
[A] an illustration of
how to write an application for a job
[B] an indication of
how to secure a good job
[C] a guideline for job
[D] a principle for job
3.According to the passage, one must write
an account of himself before starting to find a job because ________.
[A] that is the first
step to please the employer
[B] that is the
requirement of the employer
[C] it enables him to
know when to sell his services
[D] it forces him to
become clearly aware of himself
4.When you have carefully prepared a
blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something ________.
[A] definite to offer
[B] imaginary to
[C] practical to supply
[D] desirable to
It’s a rough
world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your
doormat. Light up stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the
doormat or stove failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or so the thinking
has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers’ misfortunes.
Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing ever-longer warning
labels, trying to anticipate every possible
accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn, among
other things, that you might — surprise! — fall off. The label on a child’s
Batman cape cautions that the toy “does
not enable user to fly.”
While warnings are often appropriate and necessary — the dangers of drug
interactions, for example — and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn’t clear that they actually protect
the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50
percent of the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.
Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue
as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label
probably wouldn’t have changed anything. In May, Julie Nimmons, president of
Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a
game while wearing a Schutt helmet. “We’re really sorry he has become
paralyzed, but helmets aren’t designed to prevent those kinds of injuries,”
says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was
the reason for the athlete’s injury. At the same time, the American Law
Institute — a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations
carry substantial weight — issued new guidelines for tort law stating that
companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a
lengthy list of possible ones. “Important information can get buried in a sea
of trivialities,” says a law professor at Cornell Law
School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal
community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided
for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.
5.What were things like in 1980s when
[A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.
[B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.
[C] Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.
[D] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies
6.Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage
tend to ________.
[A] satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products
[B] become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products
[C] make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability
[D] feel obliged to view customers’ safety as their first concern
7.The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated
[A] some injury claims were no longer supported by law
[B] helmets were not designed to prevent injuries
[C] product labels would eventually be discarded
[D] some sports games might lose popularity with athletes
8.The author’s attitude towards the issue
seems to be ________
[A] biased [B]
[C] puzzling [D]
(be) liable for (L4)
side with (L2)
Good news for people who always fail to see
the silver lining on clouds. A report in this month’s New Scientist, suggests that a tendency to get down when life beats
you up can be good for you. A growing number of cautionary voices from the
world of mental-health research are claiming that it isn’t a good idea to use
antidepressants to help get rid of unhappiness in the consequence of a marriage breakdown, death or redundancy because, “they fear that the increasing
tendency to treat normal sadness as if it were a disease is playing fast and
loose with a crucial part of our biology. Sadness, serves an evolutionary
Jerome Wakefield, a clinical social worker
at New York University explains that depressive feelings are part of our
biological makeup. “When you find something this deeply in us biologically, you
presume that it was selected because it had some
advantage, otherwise we wouldn’t have been burdened with it. I think that one
of functions of intense negative emotions is to stop our normal functioning, to
make us focus on something else for a while.” While Paul Keedwell, psychiatrist
at Cardiff University claims that even full-blown depression may have its
purpose, saving the sufferer from the effects of long-term stress. Without a
mental pause, he argues, “you might stay in a state of chronic stress until you’re exhausted or dead”.
Although, it is important to be careful when
talking about depression, having the upside traced in your downside will have
an irresistible appeal to all those who take the phrase “Cheer up. Love, it might never
happen” as a personal insult.
It will be manna especially for creative types, who will have long
suspected that crying a lot was a sign of their inward genius. During tests at
Harvard, the News Scientist reports,
people with signs of depression performed better at a creative task, especially
after receiving feedback that was designed to reinforce their low mood.
Although it is old-fashioned to claim that creativity is connected to gloomy
moods and a grey outlook on life, all the best stuff is written by some
grim-faced pencil chewer with a heart pumped by angst.
Richard Yates, whose novel Revolutionary Road is about to win an
Oscar, has written seven novels and two collections of short stories, each more
hopelessly miserable than the last.
After years of accounting the impossibility of his toothless, drunken mother,
his experiences in the second world war and divorces, Yates finally rounds
things off in Disturbing the Peace by
fictionalizing how a cocktail of alcoholism and psychotropic drugs had him take
off his clothes and wander the streets of LA, giving all his money to beggars,
convinced that he was Jesus. It is cruel-but so readable.
So, although the grand majority will never
write anything as good as Yates, there is something to be gained from looking
on the dark side. In a work environment, for example, disconnected people tend to achieve greater success than those of a
sunny nature. It’s enough to make a pessimist dissolve into a Cheshire Cat
9.Researchers in mental-health field regard
[A] a glimmer of hope to people in
[B] a normal disease among the distressed
[C] a biological component of human being
[D] a contributing factor to eventual
10.The views of Jerome Wakefield and Paul
Keedwell on depressive feeling are____.
[A] different [B]
complementary [C] opposite [D] similar
11.The word “manna”(Paragraph 3) most
[A] a gift [B]
a pain [C]
a reward [D] a challenge
12.The story of Richard Yates shows that
depressive men tend to be____.
[A] serious and mature
[B] brave and talented
[C] creative and persistent
[D] unfortunate and degenerate
13.According to the text, we can learn
[A] The number of people addicted to
antidepressants is on the rise
[B] Antidepressants may be going against
human being evolution
[C] The writers are at high risk of
suffering from depressive disorder
[D] Discontented workers may be more popular
than the sunny ones
in the consequence of (L4)
tend to (L3)
III Translate the
following passage into Chinese: 30 points
In country after country, talk of
non-smokers’ right is in the air. While a majority of countries have taken
little or no action yet, some 30 nations have introduced legislative steps to
control smoking. Many laws have been introduced in other countries to help
clear the air for nonsmokers, or to cut cigarette consumption.
In some developed countries the consumption
of cigarettes has become more or less stabilized. However, in many developing
nations, cigarette smoking is seen as a sign of economic progress — and is even
encouraged. As more tobacco companies go international, new markets are sought
to gain new smokers in those countries.
Smoking is harmful to the health of people.
World governments should conduct serious campaigns against it. Restrictions on
cigarette advertisements, plus health warnings on packages and bans on public
smoking in certain places such as theatres, cinemas and restaurants, are the
most popular tools used by nations in support of nonsmokers or in curbing
smoking. But world attention also is focusing on another step which will make
the smoker increasingly self-conscious and uncomfortable about his habit. Great
efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dreadful
consequences of taking up the habit. And cigarette price should be boosted.
In the long run, there is no doubt that
everybody would be much better-off if smoking were banned altogether, but
people are not ready for such drastic action.