Diana’s sudden death triggered a global outpouring of grief and boosted an already thriving “Diana Industry”. Described in an editorial in the Daily Mirror tabloid as the “grief industry”, interest in Diana has also spawned hundreds of “exclusive” biographies by people who claim to have been close to her.
trigger n. （枪的）扳机; v. 引发, 引起, 触发
spawn n.鱼等的）卵; v. 产卵，催生，造成，使产生
词汇的多样性也是看一个语言学习者词汇掌握是否丰富的重要方面。比如一篇文章讲汽车，其中就使用了car / motorcar / automobile / auto / vehicle 等词进行替换，你如果都掌握了，就可以很容易判断文章的主题。还有一篇关于老年人的作文，一般人只会用old people, 如果你使用了the old / the elderly / the aged / the elderly population / senior citizens, 显然就技高一筹。再如阅读理解中原文用legislator, 答案用lawmaker进行替换。以上这些例子都说明了词汇的多样性的重要。
动词作为英语中最活跃的词性，具有强大的组词功能，尤其是与名词的搭配千变万化，但又在很大程度上是约定俗成的。如果不加以注意，就容易犯错误。比如一位同学作文中的表达：People take more emphasis on the health，这里的take就应该用place或者put。曾经请同学翻译一句话：他的英语在这个学校最好。一般人都翻译成：His English is the best in this school. 其实如果平时掌握了地道的动宾搭配，翻译成：His English tops this school. 是不是更好呢？
Chinese President Hu Jintao and British Prime Minister Tony Blair reached vital consensus on Wednesday on promoting the existing comprehensive strategic partnership to a higher level.
（1）. reach consensus on … 在…方面达成共识；
（2）. promote the existing comprehensive strategic partnership 促进现有的全面战略伙伴关系
英语中形容词表达的涵义很广，同一个形容词可以修饰不同的名词，不同的形容词可以修饰同样的名词，学习中一定要注意积累。如有个同学的造句：The traffic in Nanjing is crowded. 这里crowded 就用错了，应该用heavy。另外，heavy 还可以修饰smoker / rain 等等。再如outstanding / superior / rare / top 都可以形容students, 指优秀的学生。不要想到好坏就想到good, bad,。比如不好的效果可以用ill effects , unfavorable effects 等等。
副词的使用经常使你的句子非常简洁和地道，比如你听到小日本被炸了，你的反应是不是pleasantly shocked (愉快的震惊)呢？再如intensely / crucially important 都可以代替very important。如果你是李宇春的忠实粉丝，但如果是a hopelessly devoted fan 而耽误了学习就不好啦。
（32）Take the case of public education alone. The principal difficulty faced by the schools has been the tremendous increase in the number of pupils. This has been caused by the advance of the legal age for going into industry and the impossibility of finding a job even when the legal age has been reached. (This = the tremendous increase in the number of pupils.) In view of the technological improvements in the last few years, business will require in the future proportionately fewer workers than ever before. The result will be still further raising of he legal age for going into employment, and still further difficulty in finding employment when hat age has been attained. If we cannot put our children to work, we must put them in school. （本文是一篇人文类的议论文，讨论的主要对象public education在第一句话中就提到，属于开门见山类的文章。 第一段讲了公立学校面临的主要困难是学生数量的巨大增长，以及增长的原因。）
32. What is the reason for the increase in the number of students?
[定位与替换] 本题问学生数量增长的原因是什么？为典型的因果关系考点。问题指向原文第一段第一句，公立学校面临的主要问题是学生数量的增长。接着讲了两个原因（This has been caused by …）：合法就业年龄的提高（也就是在一定年龄以下不能就业）和达到合法年龄后无法找到工作。所以选B) Raising of the legal age for going to work. 合法工作年龄的提高。
[干扰项分析] A) The requirement of educated workers by business. 企业对受过教育的工人的要求。文中没有提到，属于无中生有。C) The trend toward a shorter workday. 工作时间缩短的趋势。此为第二段第一句的内容，但偏离了考点。D) People's concern for the future of the next generation. 人们对下一代的未来的关心。文中也没有提到，属于无中生有。
Indeed, the human history has not been merely touched by global climate change, some scientists argue, it has in some instances been driven by it. （some scientists argue为插入语，第一个it指代the human history，第二个it指代global climate change）
例3：He got off the plane. Reporters surrounded him. 这两个句子没有语法问题，但放在一起就显得缺乏连贯性。如果改成He got off the plane and was surrounded by reporters 或者He got off the plane. And he was surrounded by reporters 就可以了。所以平时要多研究英文句子是如何衔接的。
(29) Our obsession (迷恋) with thinness is also fueled by health concerns. ……
29. The author criticizes women's obsession with thinness __________.
[定位与替换] 本题询问作者是如何批评妇女对瘦的着迷的。由关键词obsession with thinness定位到第五段第一句。但该句只给出了部分答案。注意also这个词，表明人们对瘦的迷恋还有原因，应该在上面一段。 第四段说瘦现在被认为是新的优点的标志。带来的结果是肥胖被认为是不好的，因为肥胖意味着缺乏精神力量。整个社会以瘦为美，作者对人们迷恋瘦是因为社会风气使然，这是从社会的角度。 第五段第一句的话说，我们对瘦的迷恋部分原因是我们对健康的关注另外，从文中可以看出作者是从医学的观点来说明疾病不一定是和体重有关，太迷恋瘦也有可能造成对健康的损害。所以本题应该选B) from sociological and medical points of view从社会学和医学的角度。解答本题需要整合两段内容，并具有概括能力。
We can see how the product life cycle works by looking at the introduction of instant coffee. When it was introduced, most people did not like it as well as “regular” coffee and it took several years to gain general acceptance (introduction stage). At one point, though, Instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity and many brands were introduced (stage of rapid growth). After a while people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off (stage of maturity). Sales went into a slight decline（衰退）when freeze-dried coffees were introduced (stage of decline).
1. instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity.
我们可以这样模仿：the mobile phone has grown rapidly in popularity.
2. sales leveled off.
或者也可以这样说:sales remained constant / steady / stable / much the same
(31) Throughout the nation's more than 15,000 school districts, widely differing approaches to teaching science and math have emerged. Though there can be strength in diversity, a new international analysis suggests that this variability has instead contributed to lackluster (平淡的) achievement scores by U.S. children relative to their peers in other developed countries.（注意本段的differing / diversity / variability几个同义替换，表明本段强调了美国各个地区的科学和数学教育差异很大〈多样性，多元化〉的事实。文章第二句，作者话锋一转，尽管多元化有好处，但有分析表明这导致了美国的孩子与其它发达国家的同龄人相比，学习成绩比较平淡。这一句提出了美国教育存在的问题，预测后文可能会作详细阐述或提出解决问题的办法，注意这都是可能的考点。平时复习时一定要培养自己归纳、预测原文的能力！）
31. According to the passage, the teaching of science and math in America is _______.
[定位与替换] 本题问美国的科学和数学教学的状况。根据关键词teaching of science and math定位到原文第一段。选B) characterized by its diversity以多样性为特点。解题的重点在准确判断第一段所强调的内容。
[干扰项分析] A) focused on tapping students' potential集中开发学生的潜力，文中无信息支持；C) losing its vitality gradually逐步失去活力，D) going downhill in recent years最近几年走下坡路，文章虽指出了美国的教育体系有缺陷，但并未说其失去活力或走下坡路，故不应选C、D。
Indeed, concludes William H. Schmidt of Michigan State University, who led the new analysis, "no single intellectually coherent vision dominates U.S. educational practice in math or science.'' The reason, he said, "is because the system is deeply and fundamentally flawed." （Indeed, 在这里是加强语气，“确实”的意思，经常在文章中引出作者或者专家的重要观点。专家Schmidt的结论：美国数学和科学的教育实践缺乏连贯一致的知识观念，原因是这个体系有深刻和根本的缺陷。到底是什么缺陷呢？这里专家只是作了抽象的概括，下文中可能会详细阐述。注意coherent和第一段diversity是反义词。）
The new analysis, released this week by the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Va., is based on data collected from about 50 nations as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.（本段不是很重要，主要讲这个分析是基于50个国家的数据。）
Not only do approaches to teaching science and math vary among individual U.S. communities, the report finds (= the new analysis), but there appears to be little strategic focus within a school district’s curricula, its textbooks, or its teachers' activities.（Not only … , but …倒装强调句，语意重心在but后面的内容：美国的各个学区在课程等方面缺乏战略重点。the report finds是插入语）(32) This contrasts sharply with the coordinated national programs of most other countries.（这与大部分其它国家的协调的国家计划形成鲜明对比，是作者的结论句。This指代上面一句的意思，也即美国人的做法。这里也是一个重要的对比考点。）
32. The fundamental flaw of American school education is that ________.
[定位与替换]本题是问美国学校教育的根本缺陷是什么。根据关键词fundamental flaw可定位到原文第二段，但答案并不在其中（而是在第四段）。根据对文章的分析，应该选A) it lacks a coordinated national program美国学校教育缺乏一个协调一致的全国性计划。答案是从第四段This contrasts sharply with the coordinated national programs of most other countries. 推得的。本题解题的关键是跨段整合内容。
[干扰项分析] B) it sets a very low academic standard for students它对学生设定了非常低的学术标准，文中无内容支持（只是说美国学生学的多而不精）；C) it relies heavily on the initiative of individual teachers它非常依赖各个教师的主动性，文中无信息支持；D) it attaches too much importance to intensive study of school subjects 它太重视学校课程的深入学习，与文章内容相反，如果选项是attach too much importance to extensive, but not intensive, study of school subjects 才符合原文。
(33) On average, U.S. students study more topics within science and math than their international counterparts do. This creates an educational environment that "is a mile wide and an inch deep," Schmidt notes. （出现比较级时应高度关注。第二句This指代第一句陈述的事实：平均说来，与国际同龄人相比，美国学生在科学与数学方面要学习更多的科目。A mile wide and an inch deep属于形象用法、比喻考点。）
For instance, eighth graders in the United States cover about 33 topics in math versus just 19 in Japan. Among science courses, the international gap is even wider.（作者接着举例说明美国的教育环境是a mile wide and an inch deep。）U.S. curricula for this age level resemble those of a small group of countries including Australia, Thailand, Iceland, and Bulgaria. Schmidt asks whether the United States wants to be classed with these nations, whose educational systems "share our pattern of splintered (支离破碎的) visions" but which are not economic leaders.
33. By saying that the U.S. educational environment is "a mile wide and an inch deep" (Line 2, Para. 5), the author means U.S. educational practice ________.
[定位与替换] 本题问作者对美国教育实践的看法。根据上面两段This指代的事实以及For instance后对a mile wide and an inch deep的进一步解释可以看出，美国教育注重所开科目的广度而不重视深度，所以选D) scratches the surface of a wide range of topics只触及了许多科目的表面。另外，education environment = educational practice。解题的关键是要跨段整合内容，并准确地识别指代和例证的含义。
[干扰项分析] A) lays stress on quality at the expense of quantity牺牲数量来强调质量，和文中内容相反；B) offers an environment for comprehensive education为全面综合教育提供了环境，文中只提到科学和数学教育，并未出现全面综合教育的概念；C) encourages learning both in depth and in scope鼓励既深入又广泛地学习，这只是美国教育改革的方向，与原文内容不一致。
The new report "couldn't come at a better time," says Gerald Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association in Arlington.（本句是某个专家对the new report所作的评价。文章中出现概括性评价之后一般都会作进一步的解释说明、原因分析等，这是命题者较喜欢的考点。）（34）"The new National Science Education Standards provide that focused vision," including the call "to do less, but in greater depth." （The new National Education Standards和The new report属于同义概念。）
34. The new National Science Education Standards are good news in that they will ________.
[定位与替换]本题问新的全国科学教育标准是个好消息的原因。根据关键词The new National Education Standards和good news, 定位到第七段，本题所问的原因在第二句，注意but引起的强调，故选A) provide depth to school science education使学校的科学教育具有深度。解题的关键在于识别句子之间的关系。
[干扰项分析] B) solve most of the problems in school teaching解决学校教学的大部分问题，歪曲并夸张了文章原意；C) be able to meet the demands of the community能够满足社区需求，文中未提及，因为新的全国科学标准是为了弥补教育体制的缺陷而制定的；D) quickly dominate U.S. educational practice迅速在美国的教育实践中处于支配地位，文中也未提及，而是指出了实现这个新标准将面临挑战。
(35) Implementing the new science standards and their math counterparts will be the challenge, he and Schmidt agree, because the decentralized responsibility for education in the United States requires that any reforms be tailored and instituted one community at a time.（…因为美国的教育责任是分散的，它要求任何一项改革只能一次一个社区地量身定制。he and Schmidt agree是插入语，而且是专家观点标志词，紧接着阐述了Implementing the new standards… will be the challenge的原因，考点设置和34题如出一辙，但相对简单，因为because是明显的因果关系考点标志词。）
In fact, Schmidt argues, reforms such as these proposed national standards "face an almost impossible task, because even though they are intellectually coherent, each becomes only one more voice in the babble (嘈杂声)."
35. Putting the new science and math standards into practice will prove difficult because ________.
[定位与替换] 本题问实施新的科学和数学标准将会遇到困难的原因。put sth. into practice = implement, will prove difficult = will be the challenge, 所以本题可准确定位到倒数第二段，最后选C) school districts are responsible for making their own decisions学区对自己的决定负责。该选项表达了文中“责任分散”的意思。
[干扰项分析] A) there is always controversy in educational circles在教育界一直存在争论，B) not enough educators have realized the necessity for doing so没有足够的教育者意识到这样做的重要性，D) many schoolteachers challenge the acceptability of these standards许多学校老师质疑这些标准的可接受性，这三个选项文中均无信息支持。
Some studies suggest that straight, horizontal bars painted across roads can initially cut the average speed of drivers in half. However, traffic often returns to full speed within months as drivers become used to seeing the painted bars.
30. What does the author say about straight, horizontal bars painted across roads?
A)They cannot be applied successfully to traffic circles.
B)They tend to be ignored by drivers in a short period of time.
C)They are falling out of use in the United States.
D)They are applicable only on broad roads
请用心体会initially 这个词的内涵，其实，你一看到这个词，就应该准确predict后面可能会有考点，而且肯定会出现but, however, ultimately 一类的转折、对比词。答案B)。
For centuries, explorers have risked their lives venturing into the unknown for reasons that were to varying degrees economic and nationalistic. ……
Although their missions blended commercial and political-military imperatives, the explorers involved all accomplished some significant science simply by going where no scientists had gone before.
Today Mars looms as humanity’s next great terra incognita. And with doubtful prospects for a short-term financial return, with the cold war a rapidly fading memory and amid a growing emphasis on international cooperation in large space ventures, it is clear that imperatives other than profits or nationalism will have to compel human beings to leave their tracks on the planet’s reddish surface. Could it be science, which has long played a minor role in exploration, is at least destined to take a leading role? ……
With Mars the scientific stakes are arguably higher than they have ever been. …..
36. According to the passage, the chief purpose of explorers in going to unknown places in the past was_____ .
A) to display their country’s military might
B) to accomplish some significant science
C) to find new areas for colonization
D) to pursue commercial and state interests
37. At present, a probable inducement for countries to initiate large-scale space ventures is _____ .
A) international cooperation
B) nationalistic reasons
C) scientific research
D) long-term profits
注意：economic / commercial / financial / profit ; nationalistic / political / military / cold war / nationalism; science / scientist/ scientific 都是近义词或同一范畴的词，也就阅读文章中经常出现的同义换词现象。如果一个词的同义词、相关词在一篇文章中多次重复出现，必定是这篇文章的强调的地方，必定和考题相关。另外，请注意这两道题的考法，先考过去，再考现在，一个是was, 一个是is。答案D,C。
例4、考研2004年 Text 1
Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site’s “personal search agent”. It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then emails them when a matching position is posted in the database.
Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSite’s agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs – those it considers the best matches. There maybe more matches in the database; job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them – and they do.
44. Why does CareerSite’s agent offer each job hunter only three job options?
A)To focus on better job matches.
B)To attract more returning visits.
C)To reserve space for more messages.
D)To increase the rate of success.
请注意下面句中them是指代什么：then emails them when a matching position is posted in the database. 有的辅导书上是这么翻译的：然后给网上贴出的对应岗位发个邮件/ 当…时，你就通过EMAIL给这些人寄去相关的资料。其实，这里them指visitors。比如说你访问某个求职网站，登记了你的要求，那么该网站可能会根据你的要求给你发email通知你，这就是所谓的interactive feature.
The Supreme Court’s decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.
Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double effect”, a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects – a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen – is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.
56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that_____ .
A)tors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients’ pain
B)it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives