2012年考研英语模拟题 老龄化

2011-07-03 17:56:56 来源: 考研教育网 举报
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Aging poses a serious challenge to OECD(Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development)countries,in particular,how to pay for future public pension liabilities. And early retirement places an__1__burden on pension financing. There is no easy solution,but__2__retirement could help. Early retirement may seem like a worthy individual goal,but it is a socially__3__one,and makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long. The__4__reason is that more people are retiring early and living longer. That means more retirees depending on the__5__of those in work for their income. The__6__is worrying. In the next 50 years,low fertility rates and__7__life expectancy in OECD countries will cause this old-age dependency rate to roughly double__8__size. Public pension payments,which afford 30-80% of total retirement incomes in OECD countries,are__9__to rise,on average,by over three percentage points in GDP and by as much as eight percentage points in some countries.__10__is the pressure on pension funds that there is a danger of today‘s workers not getting the pensions they expected or felt they__11__for. Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost)of public pensions,or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system,though necessary steps,may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment,many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely,the thinking goes,if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down,then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew. 1.[A] unsolvable [B] additional [C] unsustainable [D] undue 2.[A] delaying [B] retaining [C] detaining [D] hindering 3.[A] ultimate [B] unattainable [C] specific [D] expensive 4.[A] substantial [B] essential [C] potential [D] controversial 5.[A] donating [B] sponsoring [C] subsidizing [D] funding 6.[A] outlook [B] outcome [C] outbreak [D] outset 7.[A] prolonging [B] expanding [C] soaring [D] rising 8.[A] in [B] on [C] by [D] for 9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant 10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It 11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay 12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus 13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity 14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply 15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic 16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding 17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies 18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at 19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate 20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality答案1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C总体分析本文主要讨论了老龄化给经合组织国家现存养老体系带来的挑战。文章第一段指出老龄化给经合组织国家带来的挑战,并提出推迟退休可能对解决该问题有所帮助。第二段分析了早退休给养老体系带来的问题,即越来越多的人早退休而寿命延长,随着出生率的降低,就会有更多退休的人依靠更少工作的人来为他们养老,养老金在国家财政中所占的比例增加,成为无法承受的负担。第三段探讨了解决方法,指出仅仅减少公共养老金的数量,增加私有养老的比例是不够的,许多政府在考虑说服人们晚退休。




贝鲁奇 本文来源:考研教育网 责任编辑:王晓易_NE0011
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