2013-01-06 08:55:46 来源: 跨考教育 举报
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Ⅰ Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choosethe best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)

Peopleare, on the whole, poor at considering background information when makingindividual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that  1   the ability to make judgments which areunbiased by  2   factors.But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big  3   was leading decision-makers to be biased bythe daily samples of information they were working with.  4   , he theorised that a judge  5   of appearing too soft             6

crime might be more likely to send someone to prison  7  he had already sentenced five or six otherdefendants only to probation on that day。


8  this idea, he turned to theuniversity-admissions process. In theory, the  9  ofan applicant should not depend on the few others  10   randomly for interview during the same day,but Dr Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11 。

Hestudied the results of 9,323 MBA[微博] interviews,  12  by31 admissions officers. The interviewers had  13  applicantson a scale of one to five. This scale 14  numerous factors into consideration. Thescores were  15  used in conjunction with an applicant'sscore on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT[微博], a standardised examwhich is  16 out of 800 points, tomake a decision on whether to accept him or her。

DrSimonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series ofinterviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one  17 that, then the score for the nextapplicant would  18  by an average of 0.075 points. This mightsound small, but to  19 theeffects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points thanwould otherwise have been  20 。

1.[A] grant

[B] submits         [C]transmits  [D] delivers

2.[A] minor         [B]objective        [C]crucial     [D] external

3.[A] issue         [B] vision          [C]picture     [D] moment

4.[A] For example   [B] On average      [C] Inprinciple[D] Above all

5.[A] fond          [B]fearful

[C] capable     [D]thoughtless

6.[A] in

[B] on              [C]to          [D]for

7.[A] if

[B]until            [C] though      [D] unless

8.[A] promote      [B]emphasize        [C] share       [D] test

9.[A] decision     [B] quality         [C]status      [D] success

10.[A] chosen       [B]stupid           [C]found

[D] identified

11.[A] exceptional [B] defensible      [C]replaceable [D] otherwise

12.[A] inspired     [B]expressed            [C]conducted       [D] secured

13.[A] assigned     [B]rated                [C]matched         [D] arranged

14.[A] put          [B]got                  [C]gave             [D]took

15.[A]instead       [B]then                 [C]ever            [D] rather

16.[A]selected      [B]passed

[C]marked          [D] introduced

17.[A]before        [B] after               [C]above           [D] below

18.[A] jump         [B] float               [C]drop            [D] fluctuate

19.[A]achieve      [B]undo

[C] maintain        [D]disregard

20. [A] promising   [B] possible            [C]necessary       [D] helpful


Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following fourtexts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark youranswers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Inthe 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played byMeryl Streep, scold her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashiondoesn’t affect her. Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’ssweater descended over the years from fashion shows to department stores and tothe bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment。

Thistop-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or atodds with feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-yearindictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decades or so, advances in technologyhave allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react totrends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quckier turnroundsmean less wasted inventory, more frequent releases, and more profit. Thoselabels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposal—— meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertisethat——and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. Byoffering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands havehijacked fashion cycles, shaking all industry long accustomed to a seasonalpace。

Thevictims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. ForH&M to offer a 5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2300-plus stores around theworld, it must rely on low-wage, overseas labor, order in volumes that strainnatural resources, and use massive amount of harmful chemicals。

Overdressedis the fashion world’s answer to consumer activist bestsellers like MichaelPollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fillsa hunger and need, yet is non-durable, and wasteful,” Cline argues, Americans,she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year——about 64items per person——and no matter how much they giveaway, this excess leads to waste。

Towardsthe end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named SKB,who, since 2008 has make all of her own clothes——andbeautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; herexample, can’t be knocked off。

Thoughseveral fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on laborand the environment——including H&M, withits green Conscious Collection Line——Cline believeslasting-change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealismcommon to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanityis a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’tafford to it。

21.  Priestly criticizes her assistantfor her

[A] poor bargaining skill。

[B] insensitivity to fashion。

[C] obsession with high fashion。

[D]lack of imagination。

22. According to Cline, mass-maket labelsurge consumers to

[A] combat unnecessary waste。

[B] shut out the feverish fashion world。

[C] resist the influence of advertisements。

[D] shop for their garments morefrequently。

23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to

[A] accusation。

[B] enthusiasm。

[C] indifference。

[D] tolerance。

24. Which of the following can be inferredfrom the lase paragraph?

[A] Vanity has more often been found inidealists。

[B] The fast-fashion industry ignoressustainability。

[C] People are more interested inunaffordable garments。

[D] Pricing is vital toenvironment-friendly purchasing。

25. What is the subject of the text?

[A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle。

[B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth。

[C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry。

[D] Exposure of a mass-market secret。

Text 2

An old saying has it that half ofall advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half . Inthe internet age, at least in theory ,this fraction can be much reduced . Bywatching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy。

In the past couple of weeks aquarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grainedinformation: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked andsent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

In December 2010 America'sFederal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track"(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell adwertisersthat they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer andApple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. InFebruary the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that theindustry would get cracking on responging to DNT requests。

On May 31st Microsoft Set off therow: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8,would have DNT as a default。

It is not yet clear howadvertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stoptracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tellwhether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are stickingwith Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press onanyway。

Also unclear is why Microsoft hasgone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad business too, which it says will complywith DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upsetGoogle, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT doesnot seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm hascompared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that countbefore. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, bloggde:"webelieve consumers should have more control." Could it really be thatsimple?

26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioural”

ads help advertisers to:

[A] ease competition among themselves

[B] lower their operational costs

[C] avoid complaints from consumers

[D]provide better online services

27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3)refers to:

[A] online advertisers

[B] e-commerce conductors

[C] digital information analysis

[D]internet browser developers

28.  Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default

[A] many cut the number of junk ads

[B] fails to affect the ad industry

[C] will not benefit consumers

[D]goes against human nature

29. which of the following is ture according to Paragraph.6?

[A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose

[B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT

[C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers

[D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads

30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog isone of:

[A] indulgence

[B] understanding

[C] appreciaction

[D] skepticism

Text 3

Up until a few decades ago, ourvisions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowinglypositive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leadingto lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all。

Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we havegained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroidstrike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted toassume that humanity has little future to look forward to。

But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossilrecord shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so whyshouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and itbecomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if nothundreds, of thousands of years . Look up Homo sapiens in the "RedList" of threatened species of the International Union for theConversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concernas the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, andthere are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline."

So what does our deep future hold? A growingnumber of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about thatquestion. For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project amedical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of yearshence 。

Perhaps willfully , it may be easier to thinkabout such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. Thepotential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, isdazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writersand futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's onereason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated tothe near future。

But take a longer view and there is a surprisingamount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holdsthe key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patternsshaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-basedforecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves。

This long perspective makes the pessimistic viewof our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the futureis not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of therisks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lotof those to come。



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