SectionI Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the bestword(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10points)
As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that theirmemory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can’tremember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’sname, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain ___2___, werefer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___ seemingly innocent,this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on ourprofessional, social, and personal ___5___.
Neuroscientists,experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’sactually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercisein much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ cansignificantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking is essentially a___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited.___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice,scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mentaleffort.
Now, a newWeb-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “braintraining program” designed to actually help people improve and regain theirmental ___14___.
The Web-basedprogram ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attentionskills. The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailedfeedback ___17___ your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengthsyou are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you toincrease resistance and vary your muscle use.
1. [A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why
2. [A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses
3. [A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While
4. [A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obscure
5. [A]wellbeing [B]environment [C]relationship [D]outlook
6. [A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures
7. [A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations
8. [A]genre [B]functions [C]circumstances [D]criterion
9. [A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process
10. [A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature
11. [A] Therefore [B] Moreover [C] Otherwise [D]However
12. [A]according to [B]regardless of [C]apart from [D]instead of
13. [A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around
14. [A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility
15. [A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows
16. [A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace
17. [A]to [B]with [C]for [D]on
18. [A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually
19. [A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take
20. [A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar
Read the following four texts. Answer thequestions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on theANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
In order to “changelives for the better” and reduce “dependency” George Osborne, Chancellor of theExchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. Only if the joblessarrive at the jobcentre with a CV, register for online job search, and startlooking for work will they be eligible for benefit and then they should reportweekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?
Moreapparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for thejobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work,not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things becausewe know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get intowork faster.” Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concernedchancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” toan obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newlyunemployed to find work, and subsidises laziness. What motivated him, we wereto understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”— protecting thetaxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimantsreceived their benefits.
Losinga job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in yourheart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generousstate. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you knowthat support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now notwanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now notwanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose andstructure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and yourfamily and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what theywant and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency —permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready toindulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of thejob search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle ofBritish welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk ofunemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Eventhe very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is aboutredefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no mandatory right to abenefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions.Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional onactively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at £71.70 a week, oneof the least generous in the EU.
21. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to
[A]provide the unemployed with easieraccess to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagementin job seeking.
[C]motivate the unemployed to reportvoluntarily.
[D]guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate rightto benefits.
22. The phrase, “to sign on” (Line 3, Para.2) most probably means
[A]to check on the availability of jobs atthe jobcentre.
[B]to accept the government’s restrictionson the allowance.
[C]to register for an allowance from thegovernment.
[D]to attend a governmental job-trainingprogram.
23. What prompted the chancellor to develophis scheme?
[A]A desire to secure a better life forall.
[B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.
[C]An urge to be generous to the claimants.
[D]A passion to ensure fairness fortaxpayers.
24. According to Paragraph 3, beingunemployed makes one feel
25. To which of the following would theauthor most probably agree?
[A]The British welfare system indulgesjobseekers’ laziness.
[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the riskof unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met theiractual needs.
[D]Unemployment benefits should not be madeconditional.
All around theworld, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any otherprofession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few placeswhere clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legalservices in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers madeskyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into lawschools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them insteadbecome the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costlynightmare.
There are manyreasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There isjust one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduatedegree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensivepreparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduatewith $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means thatmany cannot afford to go into government or non-profit work, and that they haveto work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the system would help bothlawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time,but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been tooconservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as anundergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only twoyears of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for awould-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to
do so. Students who do not need the extratraining could cut their debt mountain by a third.
The other reasonwhy costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of thebusiness. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any shareof a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure forchange from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulatorsinsist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from thepressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact,allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improveservices to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employprofessional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, othercountries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legalprofessions. America should follow.
26.a lot of students take up law as theirprofession due to
[A]the growing demand from clients.
[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect of working in big firms.
[D]the attraction of financial rewards.
27.Which of the following adds to the costsof legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduatestudies.
[B]Admissions approval from the barassociation.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in anothermajor.
[D]Receiving training by professionalassociations.
28.Hindrance to the reform of the legalsystem originates from
[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodies governing theprofession.
[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.
[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.
29.The guild-like ownership structure isconsidered “restrictive”partly because it
[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in theprofession.
[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firmshares.
[C]aggravates the ethical situation in thetrade.
[D]prevents lawyers from gaining dueprofits.
30.In this text, the author mainlydiscusses
[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firmsand its causes.
[B]the factors that help make a successfullawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America’s legal professionand solutions to it.
[D]the role of undergraduate studies inAmerica’s legal education.
The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interestingexperiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year’s award inMarch. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature articlein Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers havejoined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental PhysicsPrize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internetentrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, theysay, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who havesucceeded in science.
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful ofscientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old sayinggoes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige ofthe Nobels, The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behindthem, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led research. They could cement the status quo ofpeer-reviewed research. They do not fund peer-reviewed research. Theyperpetuate the myth of the lone genius.
The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism.Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better rewardthose who have made their careers in research.
As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimateconcerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launchedthis year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include.But the Nobel Foundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whommust still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature ofmodern research—as will bedemonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes toacknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course,themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decided what he wanted todo with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, twothings seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if theywere offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money andattention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize andquestion the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’ moneyto do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude andgrace.
31. The Fundamental Physics Prize is seenas
[A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs’ wealth.
[B]a possible replacement of the NobelPrizes.
[C]an example of bankers’ investments.
[D]a handsome reward for researchers.
32. The critics think that the new awardswill most benefit
[A]the profit-oriented scientists.
[B]the founders of the new awards.
[C]the achievement-based system.
33. The discovery of the Higgs boson is atypical case which involves
[A]controversies over the recipients’status.
[B]the joint effort of modern researchers.
[C]legitimate concerns over the new prizes.
[D]the demonstration of research findings.
34. According to Paragraph 4,which of thefollowing is true of the Nobels?
[A]Their endurance has done justice tothem.
[B]Their legitimacy has long been indispute.
[C]They are the most representative honor.
[D]History has never cast doubt on them.
35.The author believes that the now awardsare
[A]acceptable despite the criticism.
[B]harmful to the culture of research.
[C]subject to undesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of public attention.
“The Heart of the Matter,” the just-released report by the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importanceof the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberaldemocracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report’s failure to address thetrue nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm thangood.
In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sentletters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by“federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators,individual benefactors and others” to “maintain national excellence inhumanities and social scientific scholarship and education.” In response, theAmerican Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Amongthe commission’s 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers,judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy,filmmaking, music and journalism.
The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Becauserepresentative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the reportsupports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government,particularly American history and American government; and encourages the useof new digital technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, thereport calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherentcurricula that improve students’ ability to solve problems and communicateeffectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and theencouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the greatchallenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreignlanguages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs.
Unfortunately, despite 2½ years in the making, "The Heart ofthe Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature ofliberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commissionignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities haveproduced graduates who don’t know the content and character of liberaleducation and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiryonce at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities andsocial sciences as vehicles for publicizing “progressive,” or left-liberalpropaganda.
Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation ofhistory and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study whileportraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets andself-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimeslegitimate, intellectual investigation.
The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet itsreport may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of thechallenge that Congress asked it to illuminate.
36. According to Paragraph 1, what is theauthor’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?
37. Influential figures in the Congressrequired that the AAAS report on how to
[A] retain people’s interest in liberaleducation
[B] define the government’s rolein education
[C] keep a leading position in liberaleducation
[D] safeguard individuals’ rights toeducation
38. According to Paragraph 3, the reportsuggests
[A] an exclusive study of American history
[B] a greater emphasis on theoreticalsubjects
[C] the application of emergingtechnologies
[D] funding for the study of foreignlanguages
39. The author implies in Paragraph 5 thatprofessors are
[A] supportive of free markets
[B] cautious about intellectual investigation
[C] conservative about public policy
[D] biased against classical liberal ideas
40. Which of the following would be thebest title for the text?
[A] Ways to Grasp “The Heart of the Matter”
[B] Illiberal Education and “The Heart ofthe Matter”
[C] The AAAS’s Contribution to LiberalEducation
[D] Progressive Policy vs. LiberalEducation
The following paragraphs are given in awrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize theseparagraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling theminto the numbered boxes. Paragraphs Aand E have been correctly placed Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (10points)
[A] Some archaeological sites have alwaysbeen easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece, the pyramids of Gizain Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sitesare exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have been located bymeans of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident.Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterflyhunter who literally fell into its deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztecartifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the1970s.
[B]In another case, American archaeologistsRene Million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entirecity of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City. Atits peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements inthe world. The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornateceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where commonpeople lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where tofind what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface ofthe ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) largeareas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information.Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding thelarger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single largesettlement or entire landscapes. In one case, many researchers working aroundthe ancient Maya city of Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds of small ruralvillages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by makingsurveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution anddensity of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD500 and 850, when Copan collapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologiststoday rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety ofhigh-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologies, such as differenttypes of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allowarchaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerialsurveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such asancient buildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, arediscovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searchescan take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of theEgyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun existed from information found in other sites.Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before helocated the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir ArthurEvan combed antique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching fortiny engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominatedGreece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evans’s interpretations of these engravingseventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knossós) on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists topinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involvea lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery.They often include a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials atselected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buriedremains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording,and metal detectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and thelandscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools inplanning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the resultsof archaeological research.
41. → A →42. → E →43. → 44. →45.
Read the following text carefully and thentranslate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should bewritten neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Musicmeans different things to different people and sometimes even different thingsto the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic,philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view,have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it ismetaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound.I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical messagethrough physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is also thereason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do isarticulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.
Beethoven’simportance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature ofhis compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions ofharmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break allsigns of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in thelast piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by theweight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, anda courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for theunderstanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
Thiscourageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers ofBeethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, forexample in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing thevolume with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a suddensoft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
Beethovenwas a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was notinterested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behaviorand the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especiallysignificant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with therights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thoughtand of personal expression.
Beethoven’smusic tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of humanexistence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring thedisorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, animprovement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is notby chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the EroicaSymphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)Onecould interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering isinevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of your university,suggesting how to improve students’physical condition.
Youshould include the details you think necessary.
Youshould write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Donot sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Donot write the address. (10 points)
Write an essay of 160-200 wordsbased on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) interpret its intended meaning,and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on theANSWER SHEET(20 points)
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