Part A |
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A , B, C, and D, you should decide on the best choice and blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET I with a pencil.
Questions 51 to 54'are based on the following passage:
It is a fact 'that young men are more romantic than young women. Young men fall in love at the drop of a hat.' Young women, on the other hand, are much more pragmatic when it comes to choosing mamage partners. Men consider that being with their parmers is sufficient to express their love. Whereas women consider a man romantic only ifthe word love is always on his lips.
Men attach more importance to marriage than women do, and there are fewer male celibates (独身者). Moreover, men find more satisfaction in marriage. A survey found that 87% of the men questioned said that if they married again they would choose the same partners, whereas 76% of the women questioned said the same.
Men feel pain, but they handle it in a different way from women. It is true that after divorce they will not lose control of themselves by crying bitterly, but they suffer more from stomach disorders, plunge into alcoholism and cause traffic accidents. Another survey found that divorced men can only overcome their emotional pain by means of physical exercise.
Men generally dislike admitting that they need other people. They regard admitting loneliness as weakness, as ridiculous and as an expression of a lack of manliness. The fact that men do not like to talk about loneliness does not mean that they never feel lonely. And men do have a good reason for avoiding the topic of loneliness, because they fear that others will usually look down on them.
However, if a woman confides in someone that she is lonely, far from looking down on her, people will be very willing to help her.
Ninety-four percent of men wish to change their image. A study found that a man's self-esteem is often directly connected with his outward appearance. Thin and small men often regard themselves as punny and easily sink into depression.
Men generally think of themselves as decision-makers, and not as shoulders to cry on. So when a person pours out his or her troubles to a man, the latter hastens to give advice. It would be better if he simply lent a sympathetic ear.
51. Which of the following is a proper title of the passage?
A. Do You Really Understand Men? B. The difference between men and women
C. Do you want to change your gender? D. Men versus women
52. According to the passage,_______
A. men are more romantic than women
B. men are more likely to be satisfied with marriage than women
C. men do not like handling things in a different way from women
D. men are more likely to divorce than women
53. Usually a man thinks that admitting loneliness may_______
A. make him become more lonely B. show that he is not manly
C. make others look down upon themselves D. lead to the help from others
54. According to the author, men________when a person talks with them about his or her worries.
A. always like to give some advices B. simply listen carefully
C. will never be a listener D. are policy makers
Questions 55 to 58 are based on the following passage:
Do people who choose to go on exotic, far-flung holidays deserve free health advice before they travel? And even if they pay, who ensures that they get good, up-to-date information? Who,for that matter, should collect that information in the first place? For a variety of reasons, travel medicine in Britain is a responsibility nobody wants. As a result, many travelers go abroad ill prepared to avoid serious disease.
Why is travel medicine so unloved? Partly there's an identity problem. Because it takes an interest in anything that impinges on the health of travelers, this emerging medical specialism invariably cuts across the traditional disciplines. It delves into everything from seasickness, jet lag and the hazards of camels to malaria and plague. But travel medicine has a more serious obstacle to overcome. Travel clinics are meant to tell people how. to avoid ending up dead or in a tropical diseases hospital when they come home. But it is notoriously difficult to get anybody to pay out money for keeping people healthy.
Travel medicine has also been colonized by commercial interests -- the vast majority of travel clinics in Britain are run by airlines or travel companies, And while travel concerns are happy to sell profitable injections, they may be less keen to spread bad news about travelers' diarrhea in Turkey, or to take the time to spell out preventive measures travelers could take. "The NHS finds it difficult :to define travelers' health," says Ron Behrens, the only NHS consultant in travel and tropical medicine and director of the travel clinic of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in London. "Should it come within the NHS or should it be paid for? It's a gray area, and opinion is split. No one seems to have any responsibility for defining its role," he says.
To compound its low status in the medical hierarchy, travel medicine has to rely on statistics that are patchy at best. In most cases we just don't know how many Britons contract diseases when abroad. And even if a disease is linked to travel there is rarely any information about where those afflicted went, what they ate, how they behaved, or which vaccinations they had. This shortage of hard facts and figures makes it difficult to give detailed advice to people, information that might even save their lives.
A recent leader in the British Medical Journal argued: "Travel medicine will emerge as a credible discipline only if the risks encountered by travelers and the relative benefits of public health interventions are well defined in terms of their relative occurrence, distribution and control." Exactly how much money is wasted by poor travel advice? The real figure is anybody's guess, but it could easily run into millions. Behrens gives one example. Britain spends more than ~ 1 million each year just on cholera vaccines that often don't work and so give people a false sense of security: "Information on the prevention and treatment of all forms of diarrhea would be a better priority," he says.
55. According to the passage, travel medicine in Britain is_______
A. not something that anyone wants to manage. B. the responsibility of the government.
C. administered by private doctors. D. handled adequately by travel agents.
56. The main purpose of travel companies' dealing with travel medicine is to_______
A. prevent people from falling iii. B. make money out of it.
C. give advice on specific countries. D. get the government to pay for itl
57. In Behren's opinion the question of who should run travel medicine________
A. is for the government to decide. B. should be left to specialist hospitals.
C. can be left to travel compames. D. has no clear and simple answer.
58. People may think better of travel medicine if_______
A. it is given more resources by the government.
B. more accurate information on its value is available.
C. the government takes over responsibility from the NHS.
D. travelers pay more attention to the advice they get.
Questions 59 to 62 are based on the following passage:
In a recent survey, 25 per cent of Americans said they believed that NASA (US National Aeronautics and Space Administration) had faked landingon the moon and humans had yet to walk upon its surface. Why do so many people believe such a foolish idea and is there any real evidence to support it?
Perhaps the most persuasive evidence that the Apollo missions were faked comes from inconsistencies in the photographs and films taken on the moon. Shadows in many of the pictures are cast not in straight parallel lines as from the Sun but as if they were from a nearby floodlight.
The list Of Apollo inconsistencies goes on and on, and so does NASA's explanations for them.As with most conspiracy theories, it's just a case of who you want to believe. So is there any unquestionable evidence that the Apollo missions really took place, that the most momentous landmark event in human history actually happened? Luckily the answer is in the rocks.
The Apollo missions returned 382 kilograms of rock and there is one thing that is absolutely clear: They are not from Earth. The oldest Apollo rocks, for example, are 4.44billion years old and thus formed some 640 million years before the oldest rocks found on Earth. The great age of the lunar rocks is because the moon, unlike our planet, is geologically dead. There would be no way to fake these rocks. Perhaps then the Apollo samples really aren't Earth rocks at all but some rare meteorite cleverly usedby NASA? However, the oxygen they contain is very different from known meteorites (except those from the moon) and similar to that of the Earth.
59. The word "fake"can be replaced by __
A. fate B. counterfeit C. taken D. supported
60. Why is it sure that the Apollo rocks are not from Earth?
A. They are too heavy. B. They are too huge.
C. They are older than the oldest rocks on Earth.
D. They are NASA samples.
61. Which of the following adjectives may best describe the author's view about the faking of the Apollo landings?
A. Negative. B. Subjective.
C. Objective. D. Confirmative.
62. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?
A. Apollo missions were faked.
B. Moon rocks offer proof of landings of Apollo.
C. Apollo inconsistencies offer proof of landings.
D. A is not favored by common people.
Questions 63 to 65are based on the following passage:
Social change is more likely to occur in heterogeneous societies than in homogeneous ones,simply because there are more diverse points of view available in the former. There are more ideas,more conflicts of interest, and more groups and organizations of different persuasions. In addition,there is usually a greater worldly interest and tolerance in heterogeneous societies. All these factors tend to promote social change by opening more areas of life to decision rather than subjecting them to authority. In a quite homogeneous society, there are fewer occasions for people to perceive the need or the opportunity for change, because everything seems to be the same and, if not satisfactory, at least customary and undisputed.
Within a society, social change is also likely to occur more frequently and more readily in the material aspects of the culture than in the non-material, for example, in technology rather than in values; in what has been learned later in life rather than what was learned early; in the less basic, less emotional, or less sacred aspects of society than in their opposites, like religion or a system of prestige; in the simple elements rather than in the complex ones; in form rather than in substance; and in elements congenial to the culture rather than in strange elements.
Furthermore, social change is easier if it is gradual. For example, it comes more readily in human relations on a continuous scale rather than one with sharp dichotomies. This is one reason why change has not come more quickly to Black Americans as compared to other American minorities, because of the sharp difference in appearance between them and their white counterparts.
63. According to the passage, the main difference between a homogeneous society and a heterogeneous one lies in_________
A. the number of opportunities offered B. the nature of conflicts of interest
C. the awareness of the need for change D. the role of social organizations
64. The author would most probably agree that changes are more likely to be successful in_______
A. production methods B. ideological concepts
C. religious beliefs D. social behaviour
65. The passage is mainly about_______
A. the nature of social changes
B. certain factors that determine social changes
C. certain factors that facilitate social changes
D. the difference between different social groups
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then give short answers to the five questions.
Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET 2.
The construction of extremely bright sources of x-rays has been one of the great – and infrequently told--success stories of science and technology over the past few decades. These facilities, based on evacuated (抽成真空的) , circular tubes several hundred meters in diameter, carry electrons at nearly the speed of light, giving off brilliant bursts of radiation that enable experimenters to examine matter on a scale measured in atoms. Using this extraordinary light, scientists have gained invaluable insights into diverse objects and phenomena, including the structure of molecules, advanced semiconductors and magnetic materials, and the details of complex chemical reactions.
Such scientific achievements have been made possible by equally impressive engineering ,advances. Using the brightness of these x-ray sources as a yardstick (测量的尺度) , their rate of improvement since the early 1960s is matched by few other technologies. For example, the increase in computational speed available with the highest-performance computers is often mentioned as an example of the rapid pace of information-age progress. Yet the increase in brightness of the x-ray sources over the same period has occurred far faster.
The latest devices, examples of which have come on line over the past five years in various countries, are nearly 100 times brighter than anything built in the previous generation. In fact, these new sources are producing radiation a billion times brighter than that from the sun. Eight of these facilities are now operating, and another two are to begin operating in the near future.
Fueling this surge (高潮) in construction of new sources, despite price tags in the range of $100 million to $1 billion per site, is the promise of the most intimate look yet at the structure, composition and chemical bonding of crystals and molecules, in materials ranging from semiconductors to proteins.
The astonishing brightness of these devices means that their x-rays come from a source with an extremely small cross-sectional area and that they shine in a very narrow cone ( 圆锥体 ) . The x-rays come from electrons travelling in a bunch with a diameter about the same as that of a human hair.
66. The extremely bright sources of x-rays are based on_________
67. What has this extraordinary light helped scientists do?
68. The new sources of x-rays are producing radiation_________ than that from the sun.
69. All together, there are about_________ new sources operating or to begin operating around the world.
70. What is the size of the bunch of electrons -- the source of X-rays?