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2006年考研英语新题型样题
2005年08月02日16:02:02 英语百分百 

Sample One

Sample One

Directions:

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 41) _______________________. Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  42) _________________________. Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know noting.

  43) _____________________________. There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  44) _________________________________. Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.

  45) _______________________________.

About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.

  [A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.

  [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils, From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world.

  [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star-fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.

[G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.

[答案] 41. B   42. F    43. E    44. A    45. C

Sample Two

Directions:

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

A“I just don’t know how to motivate them to do a better job. We’re in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we’ll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It’s hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn’t — it’s boring, routine paperwork, and there isn’t much you can do about it.

B“Finally, I can’t say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they know it’s not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed.

C“I’ve got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat, They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.

D“Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that’s not fair—too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.

E“The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.

F“So I just don’t know what to do. I’ve been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work.”

GA large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation—how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.

Order:

G

41.

 

42.

 

43.

 

44.

 

45.

 

F

[答案] 41. C    42. E    43. A    44. B    45. D

Sample Three

Directions:

You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. There are two kinds. One is the familiar “tombstone” that lists where you went to school and where you’ve worked in chronological order. The other is what I call the “functional” resume—descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.

  It’s handy to have a “tombstone” for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those un-requested “tombstone” lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.

What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read—a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.

(41) Put yourself first:

In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.

(42) Sell what you can do, not who you are:

Practice translating your personality traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.

Toot your own horn!

Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch—if only you show it.

(43) Be specific, be concrete, and be brief!

Remember that “brevity is the best policy.”

(44) Turn bad news into good:

Everybody has had disappointments in work. If you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.

(45) Never apologize:

If you’ve returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph (summary of background) in place of a chronology of experience. Don’t apologize for working at being a mother; it’s the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education, just don’t mention education.

  The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don’t worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list, you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments (leadership skills, budget management skills, child development skills etc.) Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered. It may take four drafts or more, and several weeks, before you’ve ready to show it to a stranger (friends are usually too kind) for a reaction. When you’ve satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.

  Isn’t that the kind of person you’d want working for you?

AA woman who lost her job as a teacher’s aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote: “Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher’s aide she would rehire if government funds became available.”

BOne resume I received included the following: “Invited by my superior to straighten out our organization’s accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion.” Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward — all in 34 words.

CFor example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills.

DAn acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement “Ready to learn though not so well educated”.

EOne of my former colleagues, for example, wrote resumes in three different styles in order to find out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the one that highlights skills and education background.

FA woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She’d agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story wasn’t in her resume. She answered, “It wasn’t important.” What she was really saying of course was “I’m not important.”

[答案] 41.F   42.C   43.B   44.A   45.D

Sample Four

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

AWhat to do as a student?

BVarious definitions of plagiarism

CIdeas should always be sourced

DIgnorance can be forgiven

EPlagiarism is equivalent to theft

FThe consequences of plagiarism

Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person’s ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one’s ideas. Simply stated, plagiarism is “the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of another.”

41.

 

The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. In many universities, the punishment may range from failure in a particular course to expulsion from the university. In the literary world, where writers are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws, the penalty may range from a small fine to imprisonment and a ruined career. Protection of scholars and writers, through the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and literary communities, is a relatively recent concept. Such social pressures and copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.

42.

 

Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholars’ ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students’ inexactness in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance, and by intention.

43.

 

Plagiarism by accident, or oversight, sometimes is the result of the writer’s inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues. He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.

44.

 

Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their sources. The techniques for documentation — note-taking, quoting, footnoting, listing bibliography — are easily learned and can prevent the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. Although “there is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of them,” the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.

45.

 

The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism by intention. The writer, limited by his laziness and dullness, copies the thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own. He not only steals, he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are original. Such words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.

The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students, as developing scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders, should recognize and assume their responsibility to document all sources from which language and thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will not only respect the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.

[答案] 41.F    42.A    43.D    44.C    45.E



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