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四级1998年1月全真试题
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    Part I Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)

    Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:

    In bringing up children, every parent watches eagerly the child's acquisition (学会) of each new skill-the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing. It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feelings of failure and states of worry in the child. This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural enthusiasm for life and his desire to find out new things for himself Parents vary greatly in their degree of strictness towards their children. Some may be especially strict in money matters, others are sever over times of coming home at night or punctuality for meals. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child's own happiness.
    As regards the development of moral standards in the growing child, consistency is vey important in parental teaching. To forbid a thing one day and excuse it the next is no foundation for morality (道德). Also, parents should realize that "example is better than precept". If they are not sincere and do not practice what they preach (说教), their children may grow confused and emotionally insecure when they grow old enough to think for themselves, and realize they have been to some extent fooled.
    A sudden awareness of a marked difference between their parents' principles and their morals can be a dangerous disappointment.

    1. Eagerly watching the child's acquisition of new skills ________.
    A) should be avoided B) is universal among parents
    C) sets up dangerous states of worry in the child
    D) will make him lose interest in learning new things
    2. In the process of children's learning new skills parents ______.
    A) should encourage them to read before they know the meaning of the words they read
    B) should not expect too much of them
    C) should achieve a balance between pushing them too hard and leaving them on their own
    D) should create as many learning opportunities as possible.
    3. The second paragraph mainly tells us that _________.
    A) parents should be strict with their children
    B) parental controls reflect only the needs of the parents and the values of the community
    C) parental restrictions vary, and are not always enforced for the benefit of the children alone
    D) parents vary in their strictness towards their children according to the situation.
    4. The word "precept" (Line 4, Para. 3) probably means "________"
    A) idea B) punishment C) behaviour D) instruction
    5. In moral matters, parents should ________.
    A) observe the rules themselves
    B) be aware of the marked difference between adults and children
    C) forbid things which have no foundation in morality
    E) consistently ensure the security of their children

    Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:

    A good modern newspaper is an extraordinary piece of reading. It is remarkable first for what it contains: the range of news from local crime to international politics, from sports to business to fashion to science, and the range of comment and special features (特写) as well, from editorial page to feature articles and interviews to criticism of books, art, theatre, and music. A newspaper is even more remarkable for the way one reads it: never completely, never straight through, but always by jumping from here to there, in and out, glancing at one piece, reading another article all the way through, reading just a few paragraphs of the next. A good modern newspaper offers a variety to attract many different readers, but far more than any one reader is interested in. What brings this variety together in one place is its topicality (时事性), its immediate relation to what is happening in your world and your locality now. But immediacy and the speed of production that goes with it mean also that much of what appears in a newspaper has no more than transient (短暂的) value. For all these reasons, no two people really read the same paper: what each person does is to put together, out of the pages of that day's paper, his own selection and sequence, his own newspaper. For all thesereasons, reading newspapers efficiently, which means getting what you want from them without missing things you need but without wasting time, demands skill and self-awareness as you modify and apply the techniques of reading.

    6. A modern newspaper is remarkable for all the following except its _______.
    A) wide coverage B) uniform style C) speed in reporting news D) popularity
    7. According to the passage, the reason why no two people really read the "same" newspaper is that __________.
    A) people scan for the news they are interested in
    B) different people prefer different newspapers
    C) people are rarely interested in the same kind of news
    D) people have different views about what a good newspaper is
    8. It can be conclude from the passage that newspaper readers __________.
    A) apply reading techniques skillfully B) jump from one newspaper to another
    C) appreciate the variety of a newspaper D) usually read a newspaper
    selectively 9. A good newspaper offers "a variety" to readers because _______.
    A) it tries to serve different readers
    B) it has to cover things that happen in a certain locality
    C) readers are difficult to please
    D) readers like to read different newspaper.
    10. The best title for this passage would be "________".
    A) The Importance of Newspaper Topicality
    B) The Characteristics of a Good Newspaper
    C) The Variety of a Good Newspaper
    D) Some Suggestions on How to Read a Newspaper

    Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.

    American society is not nap ( 午睡)-friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, "There's even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep". Nobody wants to be caughtnapping or found asleep at work. To quote a proverb: "Some sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness eleven."
    Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. "We have to totally change our attitude toward napping," says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research.
    Last year a national commission led by Dement identified an "American sleep debt" which one member said was as important as the national debt. The commission was concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to recent reports. President Clinton is trying to take a half-hour snooze (打瞌睡) every afternoon.
    About 60 percent of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have "a midafternoon quiet phase," also called "a secondary sleep gate."
    Sleeping 15 minutes to two hours in the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap.
    We Superstars of Snooze don't nap to replace lost shut-eye or to prepare for a night shift. Rather, we "snack" on sleep, whenever, wherever and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself have napped in buses, cars, planes and on boats: on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and museums.

    11. It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is ________.
    A) unreasonable B) criminal C) harmful D) costly
    12. The research done by the Dement Commission shows that Americans ________. A) don't like to take naps B) are terribly worried about their
    national debt
    C) sleep less than is good for them D) have caused many industrial and traffic accidents
    13. The purpose of this article is to ________.
    A) warn us of the wickedness of napping B) explain the danger of sleepiness
    C) discuss the side effects of napping D) convince the reader of the necessity of napping
    14. The "American sleep debt" (Lines 1-2, Para.3) is the result of ________.
    A) the traditional misconception the Americans have about sleep
    B) the new sleep policy of the Clinton Administration
    C) the rapid development of American industry
    D) the Americans' worry about the danger of sleepiness
    15. The second sentence of the last paragraph tells us that it is _______.
    A) preferable to have a sound sleep before a night shift
    B) good practice to eat something light before we go to bed
    C) essential to make up for cost sleep
    D) natural to take a nap whenever we feel the need for it

    Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:

    Violin prodigies (神童), I learned, have come in distinct waves from distinct regions. Most of the great performers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were born and brought up in Russia and Eastern Europe. I asked Isaac Stern, one of the world's greatest violinists, the reason for this phenomenon. "It is very clear," he told me. "The were all Jews(犹太人) and Jews at the time were severely oppressed and ill-treated in that part of the world. They were not allowed into the professional fields, but they were allowed to achieve excellence on a concert stage." As a result, every Jewish parent's dream was to have a child in the music school because it was a passport to the West. Another element in the emergence of prodigies, I found, is a society that values excellence in a certain field and is able to nurture(培育) talent. Nowadays, the most nurturing societies seem to be in the Far East. "In Japan, a most competitive society with stronger discipline than ours," says Isaac Stern, "children are ready to test their limits every day in many fields, including music. When Western music came to Japan after World War II, that music not only became part of their daily lives, but it became a discipline as well. " The Koreans and Chinese, as we know, are just as highly motivated as the Japanese. That's a good thing, because even prodigies must work hard. Next to hard work, biological inheritance plays an important role in the making of a prodigy. J.S.Bach, for example, was the top of several generations of musicians, and four of his sons had significant careers in music.

    16. Jewish parents in Eastern Europe longed for their children to attend music school because _________.
    A) it would allow them access to a better life in the West
    B) Jewish children are born with excellent musical talent
    C) they wanted their children to enter into the professional fields
    D) it would enable the family to get better treatment in their own country
    17. Nurturing societies as mentioned in the passage refer to societies that ________.
    A) enforce strong discipline on students who want to achieve excellence
    B) treasure talent and provide opportunities for its full development
    C) encourage people to compete with each other
    D) promise talented children high positions
    18. Japan is described in the passage as a country that attaches importance to _______.
    A) all-round development B) the learning of Western music
    C) strict training of children D) variety in academic studies
    19. Which of the following contributes to the emergence of musical prodigies according to the passage?
    A) A natural gift. B) Extensive knowledge of music.
    C) Very early training. D) A prejudice-free society
    20. Which of the following titles best summarises the main idea of the passage?
    A) Jewish Contribution to Music B) Training of Musicians in the World.
    C) Music and Society D) The Making of Prodigies.


    Part II Vocabulary and structure (20 minutes)
    21. Although punctual himself, the professor was quite used _______ late for his lecture.
    A) to have students B) for students' being C) for students to be D) to students' being
    22. You should have been more patient ______ that customer; I'm sure that selling hime the watch was a possibility.
    A) of B) with C) for D) at
    23. Neither of the young men who had applied for a position in the university ______.
    A) has been accepted B) have been accepted
    C) was accepted D) were accepted
    24. This box is too heavy, ________ give me a hand?
    A) would you mind B) would you please C) was accepted D) were accepted
    25. ______ he works hard, I don't mind when he finishes the experiment.
    A) As soon as B) As well as C) So far as D) So long as
    26. As early as 1647 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town _______ 50 households or more.
    A) having B) to have C) to have had D) having had
    27. People appreciate ______ with him because he has a good sense of humor.
    A) to work B) to have worked C) working D) having worked
    28. The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he _______ himself.
    A) injure B) had injured C) injured D) would injure
    29. We love peace, yet we are not the kind of people to yield ______ any military threat.
    A) up B) to C) in D) at
    30. Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field, he succeeded _______ other more well-informed experimenters failed.
    A) which B) that C) what D) where
    31. It tap water were as dangerous as some people think, _______ would be getting sick..
    A) a lot of more us B) more a lot of us C) a lot of us more D) a lot more of us
    32. Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, _______ obtaining water is not the least.
    A) for which B) to which C) of which D) in which
    33. Which sport has the most expenses _______ training equipment, players' personal equipment and uniforms?
    A) in place of B) in terms of C) by means of D) by way of
    34. They are going to have the serviceman ______ an electric fan in the office tomorrow.
    A) install B) to install C) to be installed D) installed
    35. I'm sure he is up to the job _______ he would give his mind to it.
    A) if only B) in case C) until D) unless
    36. The car _______ halfway for no reason.
    A) broke off B) broke down C) broke up D) broke out
    37. The newcomers found it impossible to _______ themselves to the climate sufficiently to make permanent homes in the new country.
    A) suit B) adapt C) regulate D) coordinate
    38. A _______ to this problem is expected to be found before long.
    A) result B) response C) settlement D) solution
    39. You have _______ nothing to ________ by refusing to listen to our advice.
    A) gain B) grasp C) seize D) earn
    40. As a result of careless washing, the jacket _______ to a child's size.
    A) compressed B) shrank C) dropped D) decreased
    41. He hoped the firm would ________ him to the Paris branch.
    A) exchange B) transmit C) transfer D) remove
    42. Having decide to rent a flat, we _______ contacting all the accommodation agencies in the city.
    A) set about B) set down C) set out D) set up
    43. The relationship between employers and employees has been studied _______.
    A) originally B) extremely C) violently D) intensively
    44. _______ their differences, the couple were developing an obvious and genuine affection for each other.
    A) But for B) For all C) Above all D) Except for
    45. One day I ______ a newspaper article about the retirement of an English professor at a nearby state college.
    A) came across B) came about C) came after D) came at
    46. She was complaining that the doctor was _________ too much for the treatment he was giving her.
    A) expending B) offering C) costing D) charging
    47. The manager spoke highly of such _______ as loyalty, courage and truthfulness shown by his employees.
    A) virtues B) features C) properties D) characteristics
    48. Since the matter was extremely ________, we dealt with it immediately.
    A) tough B) tense C) urgent D) instant
    49. You don't have to be in such a hurry. I would rather you _______ on business first.
    A) would go B) will go C) went D) have gone
    50. When I try to understand _______ that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes.
    A) why it does B) what it does C) what it is D) why it is

    Part IV Cloze (15 minutes)

    During recent years we have heard much about "race": how this race does certain things and that race believes certain things and so on. . Yet, the _51_ phenomenon of race consists of a few surface indications.
    We judge race usually -52- the colouring of the skin: a white race, a brown race, a yellow race and a black race. But -53- you were to remove the skin you could not -54- anything about the race to which the individual belonged. There is -55- in physical structure, the brain or the internal organs to -56- a difference. There are four types of blood. -57- types are found in every race, and no type is distinct to any race. Human brains are the -58-. No scientists could examine a brain and tell you the race to which the individual belonged. Brains will -59- in size, but this occurs within every race. -60- does size have anything to do with intelligence. The largest brain -61- examined belonged to a person of weak -62-. On the other hand, some of our most distinguished people have had -63- brains.
    Mental tests which are reasonably -64- show no differences in intelligence between races. High and low test results both can be recorded by different members of any race. -65- equal educational advantages, there will be no difference in average standings, either on account of race or geographical location.
    Individuals of every race -66- civilization to go backward or forward. Training and education can change the response of a group of people, -67- enable them to behave in a -68- way.
    The behavior and ideals of people change according to circumstances, but they can always go back or go on to something new -69- is better and higher than anything -70- the past.
    51. A) complete B) full C) total D) whole
    52. A) in B) from C) at D) on
    53. A) since B) if C) as D) while
    54. A) speak B) talk C) tell D) mention
    55. A) something B) everything C) nothing D) mention
    56. A) display B) indicate C) demonstrate D) appear
    57. A) All B) Most C) No D) Some
    58. A) same B) identical C) similar D) alike
    59. A) remain B) increase C) decrease D) vary
    60. A) Only B) Or C) Nor D) So
    61. A) ever B) then C) never D) once
    62. A) health B) body C) mind D) thought
    63. A) big B) small C) minor D) major
    64. A) true B) exact C) certain D) accurate
    65. A) Provided B) Concerning C) Given D) Following
    66. A) make B) cause C) move D) turn
    67. A) and B) but C) though D) so
    68. A) ordinary B) peculiar C) usual D) common
    69. A) that B) what C) whichever D) whatever
    70. A) for B) to C) within D) in

    Part IV. Section B Compound Dictation

    Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. Then listen to the passage again. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from S1 to S7 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from S8 to S10 you are required to fill in the missing information, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
    Very few people can get a college degree before 11, but Michael was an exception. He started high school when he was 5, finishing in just nine months. He became the (S1) _____________ youngest college graduate when he was 10 years and 4 months old, earning an (S2) ____________ degree. Now at 11 Michael's working on a master's degree in (S3) ________________ intelligence.
    But Michael's (S4) ________________ hasn't always come easy. (S5) ________________ his intelligence, he still lacks important life (S6) _____________-.
    In one class, he had to struggle to understand (S7) ______________- novels, because, he says, "I'm 11. I've never been in love before." Another challenge was his size. (S8) ____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. He likes computers so much (S9) _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. He wants to make robots do all the heavy tasks. (S10) _____________________________________________________________________

    Part IV Writing (30 minutes)

    Directions: For this part. You are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Harmfulness of Fake Commodities. You should write at least 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:
    1. 目前社会上有不少假冒伪劣商品(fake commodities). 为什么会有这种现象?
    2. 举例说明假冒伪劣商品对消费者个人,社会等的危害.
    Harmfulness of Fake Commodities


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