Part II Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C), and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
How Marketers Target Kids
Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power, they influence their parents’ buying decisions and they are the adult consumers of the future.
Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade, increasing from a mere $100 million in 1990 to more than $2 billion in 2000.
Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size, dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income.As well, guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids.
Here are some of the strategies marketers employ to target kids:
Today’s kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations, so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. “Pester power” refers to children’s ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power, because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be.
According to the 2001 marketing industry book Kidfluence, pestering or nagging can be divided into two categories—“persistence” and “importance.” Persistence nagging (a plea,that is repeated over and over again) is not as effective as the more sophisticated “importance nagging.” This latter method appeals to parents’ desire to provide the best for their children, and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids.
The Marriage of Psychology and Marketing
To effectively market to children, advertisers need to know what makes kids tick. With the help of well-paid researchers and psychologists, advertisers now have access to in-depth knowledge about children’s developmental, emotional and social needs at different ages. Using research that analyzes children’s behaviour, fantasy lives, art work, even their dreams, companies are able to craft sophisticated marketing strategies to reach young people.
The issue of using child psychologists to help marketers target kids gained widespread public attention in 1999, when a group of U.S. mental health professionals issued a public letter to the American Psychological Association (APA) urging them to declare the practice unethical. The APA is currently studying the issue.
Building Brand Name Loyalty
Canadian author Naomi Klein tracks the birth of “brand” marketing in her 2000 book No Logo.According to Klein, the mid-1980s saw the birth of a new kind of corporation—Nike, Calvin Klein,Tommy Hilfiger, to name a few—which changed their primary corporate focus from producing products to creating an image for their brand name. By moving their manufacturing operations to countries with cheap labour, they freed up money to create their powerful marketing messages. It has been a tremendously profitable formula, and has led to the creation of some of the most wealthy and powerful multi-national corporations the world has seen.
Marketers plant the seeds of brand recognition in very young children, in the hopes that the seeds will grow into lifetime relationships. According to the Center for a New American Dream, babies as young as six months of age can form mental images of corporate logos and mascots. Brand loyalties can be established as early as age two, and by the time children head off to school most can recognize hundreds of brand logos. While fast food, toy and clothing companies have been cultivating brand recognition in children for years, adult-oriented businesses such as banks and automakers are now getting in on the act.
Buzz or Street Marketing
The challenge for marketers is to cut through the intense advertising clutter ( 杂乱) in young people’s lives. Many companies are using “buzz marketing” —a new twist on the tried-and-true “word of mouth” method. The idea is to find the coolest kids in a community and have them use or wear your product in order to create a buzz around it. Buzz, or “street marketing,” as it’s also called, can help a company to successfully connect with the elusive ( 难找的) teen market by using trendsetters to give them products “cool” status.
Buzz marketing is particularly well-suited to the Internet, where young “Net promoters” use chat rooms and blogs to spread the word about music, clothes and other products among unsuspecting users.
Commercialization in Education
School used to be a place where children were protected from the advertising and consumer messages that permeated their world—but not anymore. Budget shortfalls ( 亏空，差额) are forcing school boards to allow corporations access to students in exchange for badly needed cash, computers and educational materials.
Corporations realize the power of the school environment for promoting their name and products.A school setting delivers a captive youth audience and implies the endorsement of teachers and the educational system. Marketers are eagerly exploiting this medium in a number of ways, including:
● Sponsored educational materials.
● Supplying schools with technology in exchange for high company visibility.
● Advertising posted in classrooms, school buses, on computers in exchange for funds.
● Contests and incentive programs: for example, the Pizza Hut reading incentives program in which children receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal.
● Sponsoring school events.
The Internet is an extremely desirable medium for marketers wanting to target children. It’s part of youth culture. This generation of young people is growing up with the Internet as a daily and routine part of their lives. Kids are often online alone, without parental supervision.
Unlike broadcasting media, which have codes regarding advertising to kids, the Internet is unregulated. Sophisticated technologies make it easy to collect information from young people for marketing research, and to target individual children with personalized advertising.
Marketing Adult Entertainment to Kids
Children are often aware of and want to see entertainment meant for older audiences because it is actively marketed to them. In a report released in 2000, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) revealed how the movie, music and video games industries routinely market violent entertainment to young children.
The FTC studied 44 films rated “Restricted,” and discovered that 80 per cent were targeted to children under 17. Marketing plans included TV commercials run during hours when young viewers were most likely to be watching. The FTC report also highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children. Mature rated video games are advertised in youth magazines; and toys based on “Restricted” movies and M-rated video games are marketed to children as young as four.
1. Guilt can play a role in parents’ spending decisions because _________.
A) they don’t earn as much money as before
B) they don’t have enough time for their kids
C) they postpone children until later in life
D) they think time is more precious than money
2. According to Kidfluence, persistence nagging is ____________.
A) as effective as importance nagging
B) more effective than importance nagging
C) more sophisticated than importance nagging
D) less effective than importance nagging
3. A group of U.S. mental health professionals think that __________.
A) it is unethical to use child psychologists to help marketers target kids
B) it is wise for marketers to use knowledge about children psychology for marketing
C) children’s behavior, fantasy lives, and even their dreams should be analyzed
D) APA should punish marketers for the marriage of psychology and marketing
4. According to the Center for a New American Dream, brand loyalties can be established as early as _______________.
A) six months of age C) age two
B) eighteen months of age D) age three
5. Buzz marketing is well-suited to the Internet because ____________.
A) the Internet is an unregulated medium
B) the interactive environment can spread messages effectively
C) kids can get access to up-dated information from the Internet
D) kids are always online without parental supervision
6. School boards allow corporations access to students because _______________.
A) they take bribes from the corporations
B) they need money and educational materials
C) the corporations help to increase reputation of the schools
D) the corporations are concerned about education
7. According to the Pizza Hut reading incentives program, children receive certificates for free pizza if they _______________.
A) achieve a monthly reading goal
B) like reading books at the Pizza Hut
C) win the reading contest organized by the Pizza Hut
D) eat out frequently at the Pizza Hut
8. For this generation of young people, the Internet is a ____________ part of their lives.
9. According to a report released by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the movie, music and video games industries routinely market ________________ to young children.
10. The FTC report also highlighted the fact that toys based on ___________ are often marketed to young children.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) The woman should have studied French in Paris.
B) The woman didn’t study French in high school.
C) Living in Paris helped improve the woman’s language skills.
D) The woman must have had a good French teacher.
12. A) Phone the Triumph for a reservation.
B) Ask her parents to come a different weekend.
C) Call local hotels again in a few days.
D) Find a hotel again in a few days.
13. A) He decided not to sell the piano.
B) He’s looking for a place to store the piano.
C) No one has bought the piano.
D) He hasn’t been able to find an inexpensive piano yet.
14. A) It took two months to finish the hotel building.
B) He was too busy to notice the opening of the hotel.
C) He did not know the hotel had a restaurant.
D) He would like to meet the woman for brunch next Sunday.
15. A) She has decided not to go to Florida.
B) Her plans aren’t definite.
C) Her friend just returned from Florida.
D) She prefers to travel without her friend.
16. A) Leave the package for him to mail later.
B) Find another person to send the package.
C) Proofread the report for him.
D) Finish the report before Wednesday’s meeting.
17. A) Form a new committee, C) Work out the details for the conference.
B) Join her committee. D) Schedule a committee meeting.
18. A) He is looking for a better employment on the West Coast.
B) He’s looking forward to working on the West Coast.
C) He hopes to keep working where he now lives.
D) He expects his company to move to the West Coast.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) In a factory. C) In a department store.
B) On a cattle farm. D) At a restaurant.
20. A) To entertain the workers.
B) To improve the relationship between the employer and employees.
C) To keep the workers calm and relaxed.
D) To increase production.
21. A) Background music was originally played live during World War II.
B) People might get fed up with hearing background music all day long.
C) People in Los Angeles love selling background music.
D) Background music is only played in public places.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22. A) Economics C) Business Writing
B) Business and Marketing D) Marketing Skills
23. A) Business Writing and Social English.
B) Writing and Social English.
C) Projects and Academic Writing.
D) Writing, Study Skills and Social English.
24. A) Every morning and afternoon C) Five mornings and four afternoons.
B) Every afternoon except Wednesday D) Everyday of the week.
25. A) Social English. C) Business English.
B) Study Skills. D) Academic Writing.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
注意：此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) Automobile safety.
B) Increasing fuel efficiency.
C) California’s pollution laws.
D) Electric-powered cars.
27. A) They are cheaper.
B) They don’t pollute as much.
C) They are simpler to drive.
D) They are faster.
28. A) It’s not comfortable.
B) It is difficult to steer.
C) It can’t go long distances without recharging.
D) Its engine easily overheats.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) Three C) Five.
B) Two. D) Four.
30. A) Talk to other people who rent apartments in the same building.
B) Make sure there are good locks on all the windows and doors.
C) Check the water and electricity to see if they are working properly.
D) Walk around the apartment building for dangerous signs.
31. A) Deposit some money in a bank.
B) Read the lease carefully and sign it.
C) Ask the landlord for a damage deposit.
D) Sign the contract and pay a security deposit.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) When they are three years old.
B) Before the age of six.
C) After they are six years old.
D) Between three and six years old.
33. A) They are much wiser than the left-handed persons.
B) They are as clever as the left-handed persons.
C) There are not as creative as lefties.
D) They are more athletic.
34. A) Computer. C) Architecture.
B) Calculation. D) Literature.
35 A) Because they have a quicker response.
B) Because they are usually more strongly built.
C) Because they seem to be men of greater endurance.
D) Because they have a better sense of space.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to
43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Belgium has three main (36) regions: the coastal plain, the central plateau and the highlands. The coastal plain extends (37) 16 to 48 kilometers on the northwest. Along the north sea is a low-lying area (38) ________ mainly of sandy hills and sections of land (39) _________ from the sea. The coastal plain’s elevation ranges from sea level to 20 meters. The central plateau is a (40) _________ rolling, slightly elevated area, (41) ________ by many waterways and containing a number of wide, (42) _________ valleys with a rich soil. The highlands, a densely-wooded plateau, (43) __________ 460 meters in elevation, extend across southeastern Belgium and into northeastern
France. Located here is the highest peak in Belgium with an elevation of 694 meters.
_________________________________. In the highlands, hot summers alternate with cold winters. Heavy rains are confined almost exclusively to the highlands. (45)___________________________________________________________________________________. In Brussels, the average temperatures range from zero to 5 degrees Centigrade in January and from 13 to 22 degrees Centigrade in July. (46)______________________________________________________________________
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Severe winter storms have worsened the nation’s usual post-holiday blood shortage, prompting an urgent call today for people to donate blood. Type O blood is the most urgently needed, because it is the universal blood type, meaning it can be safely transfused to most people in an emergency. “The severe winter weather has forced the cancellation of blood drives and limited our ability to collect blood,” American Red Cross President Elizabeth Dole said. The Red Cross reported having less than one day’s supply of Type O blood on hand in 18 of the organization’s 38 collection regions. The Red Cross provides about half of the nation’s blood supply. America’s Blood Centers, which supplies most of the rest, also has reported shortages.
Reacting to the shortage, a Pittsburgh blood bank asked 40 hospitals in western Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio to postpone elective surgeries through Wednesday. At least 1,000 donors are needed each day for the next several days to stabilize the supply, said Mark Lynch, spokesman for the Central Blood Bank. “We’re talking about (postponing) hip replacement, for example, and orthopedic cases. These are sick people who need surgery, but it’s not life threatening,” he said. When its blood supply is stable, the blood bank needs about 700 donors each day to maintain normal inventory. The Pittsburgh blood bank last asked hospitals to postpone elective surgeries because of a blood shortage in October 1995. Such procedures were canceled for almost a week.
Nationwide, donations typically fall off during the holidays, when donors become too busy to give blood regularly. Bad weather increases shortages both by blocking blood drives and by causing increased blood demand to treat accident victims.
47. The blood shortage urged people ___________.
48. The Red Cross is important in supplying blood because the organization has __________.
49. To ease the situation, what kind of surgeries had to be put off?
50. We can infer from the passage that blood shortage usually occur _______________.
51. Usually 700 donors are needed each day for the blood bank to remain stable in __________.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on
Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
All societies have distinct role expectations for men and for women. In the United States these expectations have been undergoing change for many decades. Today Americans live in a world of diverse family patterns and conflicting images of ideal life styles for men and women. The conventional norms of the first half century defined a successful woman as a wife and mother who stayed home to carry out a full array of household duties. The husband and father was expected to stay away from the home most of the day, earning enough money to pay the bills. Many adults still live by these expectations, but the traditional pattern is no longer held up as an ideal to be followed by everyone. Times have changed; there is no return to yesterday.
Although the women’s movement and political controversies about such issues and the Equal Rights Amendment and sexual harassment ( 骚扰) suggest that changing sex roles is a recent issue, this is far from the case. Broad trends can be identified over the past hundred years. Women have increased their participation in the labor force from 18% in 1900 to over 50% today, and they give birth to fewer children than women did in the past. In 1910 the birth rate was 30 per 1,000 population; by the 1900s it had declined to 16 per 1,000. These two trends – increasing participation in the labor force and decreasing family size – suggest that major long-term changes have restructured the role expectations of men and women. These changes are complex. The fact that more women are joining the labor force as full-time workers does not mean that a single sex role pattern is emerging.
On the contrary, we are living in a period of diverse family patterns. According to Kathleen Gerson, “the domestic woman who builds her life around children and homemaking persists, but she now coexists with a growing number of working mothers and permanently childless women.”
Women today face hard choices as they make decisions about work, career, and motherhood. Despite women’s liberation, women still earn less than men in the work place and are still expected to do most of the work in the home. Women work substantially more hours each week in the home and at the workplace than men do. Women are working harder than ever, yet many do not enjoy the benefits of full equality.
52. The traditional roles for men and women ___.
A) are diverse
B) are conflicting
C) have been changing
D) are no longer followed
53. Changing sex roles is not a recent issue because ___.
A) women have increased their participation in the labor force over the past hundred years
B) more and more women are becoming working mothers or childless women
C) the conventional image of women has changed beyond recognition
D) people have changed their expectations of women in modern society
54. The fact that more women are joining the labor force as full time workers mean that ___.
A) women are becoming more independent
B) the family patterns are becoming diverse
C) a single-role pattern is emerging
D) women are eager to work
55. It’s stated in the last paragraph that ___.
A) women today still suffer from inequality in work and life
B) women’s liberation has promoted their social status
C) the society expects more from women than from men
D) women are more capable and diligent than men
56. According to this passage, the statement which is NOT true is ___.
A) many people still follow the conventional norms of life style
B) women today give birth to fewer children than women in the past
C) more and more women choose to work rather than to be housewives
D) men do as much domestic work as women do at home
Obesity generally is defined as an accumulation of fat beyond what is considered normal for a person’s age, sex, and body type. In today’s society obesity is considered a disease, not a moral failing. It occurs when energy intake exceeds the amount of energy expended over time. Only in a small minority of cases is obesity caused by such illnesses as hypothyroidism, or the result of taking medications, such as steroids ( 类固醇), that can cause weight gain.
The more a person weighs, the more blood vessels the body needs to circulate blood throughout the body. The heart takes on a heavy burden as it has to pump harder to force the blood flow through so many vessels. As a result, the heart grows in size and blood pressure tends to rise. Obesity is also a factor in osteoarthritis (because of the extra weight placed on the joints), bone and joint diseases, respiratory ailments, gallbladder disease, complications during pregnancy and delivery, and higher accidental death rate.
Obesity can alter hormone levels, affect immune function, and cause impotence in men and reproductive problems in women. Women who are 30% overweight are twice as likely to die of endometrial cancer, and those who are 40% overweight have four times the risk. Obese women also are more likely to incur cancers of the breast, ovaries, and gallbladder. Obese men are more likely to develop cancers of the rectum, colon, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and prostate.
Obesity can also cause psychological problems. Sufferers are associated with laziness, failure, or inadequate willpower. As a result, overweight men and women blame themselves for being heavy, thus causing feelings of guilt and depression.
Scientific evidence has found an association between BMI (body-mass index) and higher death rates. However, the relative risk of being heavy declines with age. Some researchers have found that data linking overweight and death are inconclusive, while other researchers have found that losing weight may be riskier than dangers posed by extra pounds. Some researchers counter that overweight indirectly contributes to over 300,000 deaths a year.
A poll by Shape Up America found that 78% of overweight or obese adults have abandoned dieting as a means of losing weight. Diets do not teach people how to eat properly. They merely restrict food intake temporarily, so when the diet ends, weight gain resumes.
57. Which of the following expresses the main idea of this passage?
A) Obesity puts a burden on the heart.
B) Many people are constantly dieting.
C) Obesity is considered to be a disease.
D) Obesity can lead to many serious health problems.
58. According to the passage, _____________________.
A) obesity is often related to medications such as steroids
B) obesity does not affect a person’s chance of getting cancer
C) a diagnosis of obesity is based on a normal weight for one’s age and sex
D) obesity is becoming less of a problem in today’s society
59. According to the passage, why does dieting not result in permanent weight loss?
A) Diets don’t teach people good eating habits.
B) Diets lead to people’s guilt and depression.
C) There are too many diets and each has different requirements.
D) Diets cause feeling of deprivation.
60. Which of the following is implied in Paragraph 5?
A) Losing a lot of weight is not wise for older people.
B) Some surgical methods for weight loss are better than dieting.
C) All obese people need to shed their extra pounds.
D) Obese people should consult their doctors about the pros and cons of losing weight.
61. Which of the following can be concluded from this passage?
A) Obesity is not a major health risk.
B) Scientists agree on the connection between obesity and death.
C) Obese people are likely to be biased against by others.
D) Obese people often blame others for their conditions.
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
We live in a materialistic society and are trained from our earliest years to be acquisitive.
Our possessions, “mine” and “yours”, are clearly 62 from early childhood. When we grow older enough to earn a living, 63 does not surprise us to discover that success is measured 64 the money we earn. We spend the whole of our lives keeping 65 our neighbors, the Joneses. If we buy a new television set, Jones is 66 to buy a bigger and better one.
It is not only in affluent societies 67 people are obsessed with the idea of making more money. Consumer goods are 68 everywhere and modern industry deliberately sets out to create new markets. 69 are the days 70industrial good are made to 71 forever. The wheels of industry must be kept turning. “Built-in obsolescence” provides the means: goods are made to be 72 . Cars get tinnier and tinnier. You no sooner acquire this year’s model 73 you are thinking about its replacement.
This materialistic outlook has seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people these days 74 knowledge only for its own 75 . Every course of studies must lead somewhere: i.e. to a bigger wage packet. The demand for skilled personnel far 76 the supply and big companies compete with each other to recruit students 77 they have completed their studies. Tempting salaries and “fringe benefits” are 78 to them. Recruiting tactics of this kind have led to the “brain drain”, the process 79 highly skilled people offer their services to the highest 80 . The wealthier nations 81 their poorer neighbors of their most able citizens. While Mammon is worshipped as never before, the rich get richer and the poor, poorer.
62. A) signed C) impressed
B) noted D) labeled
63. A) this C) that
B) it D) what
64. A) with respect to C) in terms of
B) in regard to D) on behalf of
65. A) up with C) on about
B) away from D) out of
66. A) bound C) doomed
B) destined D) determined
67. A) what C) if
B) which D) that
68. A) desirable C) desired
B) desirous D) desiring
69. A) Done C) vanished
B) Gone D) passed
70. A) where C) as
B) when D) while
71. A) last C) endure
B) survive D) stand
72. A) damaged C) discarded
B) destroyed D) deteriorated
73. A) than C) rather than
B) when D) then
74. A) learn C) take
B) acquire D) pick
75. A) sake C) reason
B) cause D) justification
76. A) exceeds C) undermines
B) overtakes D) underestimates
77. A) before C) when
B) after D) as soon as
78. A) offered C) rewarded
B) awarded D) presented
79. A) for which C) with which
B) in which D) by which
80. A) opponent C) negotiator
B) bidder D) competitor
81. A) dispose C) deprive
B) disregard D) exploit
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in the brackets.
Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
82. I’d rather you _________( 不要随身携带那些重要文件).
83. This factory, ___________________ ( 由于工人全是女性), was closed for Women’s Holiday.
84. __________________________（你越注意别人对你的印象）, the more you will feel nervous.
85. _______________________________（请随时与我联系）if you need any further information.
86. It’s a waste of time ________________________（试图说服他们).