2005年6月18日大学英语六级真题

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Part ⅠListening Comprehension (20 minutes)

Section A:

Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Example: You will hear:

You will read:

A) 2 hours.

B) 3 hours.

C) 4 hours.

D) 5 hours.

From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 oclock in the morning and have to finish by 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) “5 hours” is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.

Sample Answer [A][B][C][D]

1. A) It will reduce government revenues.

B) It will stimulate business activities.

C) It will mainly benefit the wealthy.

D) It will cut the stockholders’ dividends.

2. A) She will do her best if the job is worth doing.

B) She prefers a life of continued exploration.

C) She will stick to the job if the pay is good.

D) She doesn’t think much of job-hopping.

3. A) Stop thinking about the matter.

B) Talk the drug user out of the habit.

C) Be more friendly to his schoolmate.

D) Keep his distance from drug addicts.

4. A) The son.                  B) The father.

C) The mother.               D) Aunt Louise.

5. A) Stay away for a couple of weeks.

B) Check the locks every two weeks.

C) Look after the Johnsons’ house.

D) Move to another place.

6. A) He would like to warm up for the game.

B) He didn’t want to be held up in traffic.

C) He didn’t want to miss the game.

D) He wanted to catch as many game birds as possible.

7. A) It was burned down.       B) It was robbed.

C) It was blown up.          D) It was closed down.

8. A) She isn’t going to change her major.

B) She plans to major in tax law.

C) She studies in the same school as her brother.

D) She isn’t going to work in her brother’s firm.

9. A) The man should phone the hotel for directions.

B) The man can ask the department store for help.

C) She doesn’t have the hotel’s phone number.

D) The hotel is just around the corner.

10. A) she doesn’t expect to finish all her work in thirty minutes.

B) She has to do a lot of things within a short time.

C) She has been overworking for a long time.

D) She doesn’t know why there are so many things to do.

Section B Compound Dictation

注意: 听力理解的B节(Section B)为复合式听写(Compound Dictation),题目在试卷二上,现在请取出试卷二。

Part Ⅱ  Reading Comprehension

Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C),and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.

Low-level slash-and-burn farming doesn’t harm rainforest. On the contrary, it helps farmers and improves forest soils. This is the unorthodox view of a German soil scientist who has shown that burnt clearings in the Amazon, dating back more than 1,000 years, helped create patches of rich, fertile soil that farmers still benefit from today.

Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because they lack minerals and because the heat and heavy rainfall destroy most organic matter in the soils within four years of it reaching the forest floor. This means topsoil contains few of the ingredients needed for long-term successful farming.

But Bruno Glaser, a soil scientist of the University of Bayreuth, has studied unexpected patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon. These soils contain lots of organic matter.

Glaser has shown that most of this fertile organic matter comes from “black carbon”-the organic particles from camp fires and charred (烧成炭的) wood left over from thousands of years of slash-and-burn farming. ”The soils, known as Terra Preta, contained up to 70times more black carbon than the surrounding soil, ”says Glaser.

Unburnt vegetation rots quickly, but black carbon persists in the soil for many centuries. Radiocarbon dating shows that the charred wood in Terra Preta soils is typically more than 1,000 years old.

“Slash-and-burn farming can be good for soils provided it doesn’t completely burn all the vegetation, and leaves behind charred wood,” says Glaser. “It can be better than manure (粪肥).” Burning the forest just once can leave behind enough black carbon to keep the soil fertile for thousands of years. And rainforests easily regrow after small-scale clearing. Contrary to the conventional view that human activities damage the environment, Glaser says: ”Black carbon combined with human wastes is responsible for the richness of Terra Preta soils.”

Terra Preta soils turn up in large patches all over the Amazon, where they are highly prized by farmers. All the patches fall within 500 square kilometers in the central Amazon. Glaser says the widespread presence of pottery (陶器) confirms the soil’s human origins.

The findings add weight to the theory that large areas of the Amazon have recovered so well from past periods of agricultural use that the regrowth has been mistaken by generations of biologists for “virgin” forest.

During the past decade, researchers have discovered hundreds of large earth works deep in the jungle. They are up to 20 meters high and cover up to a square kilometer. Glaser claims that these earth works, built between AD 400 and 1400, were at the heart of urban civilizations. Now it seems the richness of the Terra Preta soils may explain how such civilizations managed to feed themselves.

11. We learn from the passage that the traditional view of slash-and-burn farming is that        .

A) it does no harm to the topsoil of the rainforest

B) it destroys rainforest soils

C) it helps improve rainforest soils

D) it diminishes the organic matter in rainforest soils

12. Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because       .

A) the composition of the topsoil is rather unstable

B) black carbon is washed away by heavy rains

C) organic matter is quickly lost due to heat and rain

D) long-term farming has exhausted the ingredients essential to plant growth

13. Glaser made his discovery by        .

A) studying patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon

B) examining pottery left over by ancient civilizations

C) test-burning patches of trees in the central Amazon

D) radiocarbon-dating ingredients contained in forest soils

14. What does Glaser say about the regrowth of rainforests?

A) They take centuries to regrow after being burnt.

B) They cannot recover unless the vegetation is burnt completely.

C) Their regrowth will be hampered by human habitation.

D) They can recover easily after slash-and-burn farming.

15. From the passage it can be inferred that .

A) human activities will do grave damage to rainforests

B) Amazon rainforest soils used to be the richest in the world

C) farming is responsible for the destruction of the Amazon rainforests

D) there once existed an urban civilization in the Amazon rainforests

Passage Two

Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.

As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn’t the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, but a fact of Europe’s new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, real-estate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the “irresistible momentum of individualism” over the last century. The communications revolution, the shift from a business culture of stability to one of mobility and the mass entry of women into the workforce have greatly wreaked havoc on(扰乱) Europeans’ private lives.

Europe’s new economic climate has largely fostered the trend toward independence. The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe’s shift from social democracy to the sharper, more individualistic climate of American style capitalism. Raised in an era of privatization and increased consumer choice, today’s tech-savvy(精通技术的) workers have embraced a free market in love as well as economics. Modern Europeans are rich enough to afford to live alone, and temperamentally independent enough to want to do so.

Once upon a time, people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriage-twentysomething professionals or widowed senior citizens. While pensioners, particularly elderly women, make up a large proportion of those living alone, the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice. Living alone was conceived to be negative-dark and cold, while being together suggested warmth and light. But then came along the idea of singles. They were young, beautiful, strong! Now, young people want to live alone.

The booming economy means people are working harder than ever. And that doesn’t leave much room for relationships. Pimpi Arroyo, a 35-year-old composer who lives alone in a house in Paris, says he hasn’t got time to get lonely because he has too much work. “I have deadlines which would make life with someone else fairly difficult.” Only an Ideal Woman would make him change his lifestyle, he says. Kaufmann, author of a recent book called “The Single Woman and Prince Charming,” thinks this fierce new individualism means that people expect more and more of mates, so relationships don’t last long-if they start at all. Eppendorf, a blond Berliner with a deep tan, teaches grade school in the mornings. In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps, resting up for going dancing. Just shy of 50, she says she’d never have wanted to do what her mother did-give up a career to raise a family. Instead, “I’ve always done what I wanted to do: live a self-determined life.”

16. More and more young Europeans remain single because        .

A) they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism

B) they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age

C) they have embraced a business culture of stability

D) they are pessimistic about their economic future

17. What is said about European society in the passage?

A) It has fostered the trend towards small families.

B) It is getting closer to American-style capitalism.

C) It has limited consumer choice despite a free market.

D) It is being threatened by irresistible privatization.

18. According to Paragraph 3, the newest group of singles are         .

A) warm and lighthearted      B) on either side of marriage

C) negative and gloomy       D) healthy and wealthy

19. The author quotes Eppendorf to show that        .

A) some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom

B) the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe

C) some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely

D) most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable

20. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A) To review the impact of women becoming high earners.

B) To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism.

C) To examine the trend of young people living alone.

D) To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships.

Passage Three

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified(GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released.

The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organisations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her.

But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. “They’re trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired,” Ingham told New Scientist.

The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand’s Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week.

“We would lose terrestrial(陆生的) plants...this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings,” she told the commission. She added that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999.

But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of “presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information” and “generating speculative doomsday scenarios(世界末日的局面) that are not scientifically supportable”. They say that her study doesn’t even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What’s more, the network says that contrary to Ingham’s claims, the EPA was never asked to consider the organism for field trials.

The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA’s bio-pesticides(生物杀虫剂) division, says “there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test” the organism.

Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It’s also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use.

Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her.

“I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn’t be harassed in this way,”  says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. “It’s n attempt to silence the opposition.”

21. The passage centers on the controversy         .

A) between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification

B) as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued

C) over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants

D) about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university

22. Ingham insists that her testimony is based on         .

A) evidence provided by the EPA of the United States

B) the results of an experiment she conducted herself

C) evidence from her collaborative research with German biologists

D) the results of extensive field tests in Corvallis, Oregon

23. According to Janet Anderson, the EPA        .

A) has cancelled its approval for field tests of the GM organism

B) hasn’t reviewed the findings of Ingham’s research

C) has approved field tests using the GM organism

D) hasn’t given permission to field test the GM organism

24. According to Ann Clarke, the New Zealand Life Sciences Network         .

A) should gather evidence to discredit Ingham’s claims

B) should require that the research by their biologists be regulated

C) shouldn’t demand that Ingham be disciplined for voicing her views

D) shouldn’t appease the opposition in such a quiet way

25. Which of the following statements about Ingham is TRUE?

A) Her testimony hasn’t been supported by the EPA.

B) Her credibility as a scientist hasn’t been undermined.

C) She is firmly supported by her university.

D) She has made great contributions to the study of GM bacteria.

Passage Four

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

Every fall, like clockwork, Linda Krentz of Beaverton, Oregon, felt her brain go on strike. “I just couldn’t get going in the morning,” she says. “I’d get depressed and gain 10 pounds every winter and lose them again in the spring.” Then she read about seasonal affective disorder, a form of depression that occurs in fall and winter, and she saw the light-literally. Every morning now she turns on a specially constructed light box for half an hour and sits in front of it to trick her brain into thinking it’s still enjoying those long summer days. It seems to work.

Krentz is not alone. Scientists estimate that 10 million Americans suffer from seasonal depression and 25 million more develop milder versions. But there’s never been definitive proof that treatment with very bright lights makes a difference. After all, it’s hard to do a double-blind test when the subjects can see for themselves whether or not the light is on. That’s why nobody has ever separated the real effects of light therapy from placebo(安慰剂) effects.

Until now. In three separate studies published last month, researchers report not only that light therapy works better than a placebo but that treatment is usually more effective in the early morning than in the evening. In two of the groups, the placebo problem was resolved by telling patients they were comparing light boxes to a new anti-depressant device that emits negatively charged ions(离子). The third used the timing of light therapy as the control.

Why does light therapy work? No one really knows. “Our research suggests it has something to do with shifting the body’s internal clock,” says psychiatrist Dr. Lewey. The body is programmed to start the day with sunrise, he explains, and this gets later as the days get shorter. But why such subtle shifts make some people depressed and not others is a mystery.

That hasn’t stopped thousands of winter depressives from trying to heal themselves. Light boxes for that purpose are available without a doctor’s prescription. That bothers psychologist Michael Terman of Columbia University. He is worried that the boxes may be tried by patients who suffer from mental illness that can’t be treated with light. Terman has developed a questionnaire to help determine whether expert care is needed.

In any event, you should choose a reputable manufacturer. Whatever product you use should emit only visible light, because ultraviolet light damages the eyes. If you are photosensitive(对光敏感的), you may develop a rash. Otherwise, the main drawback is having to sit in front of the light for 30 to 60 minutes in the morning. That’s an inconvenience many winter depressives can live with.

26. What is the probable cause of Krentz’s problem?

A) An unexpected gain in body weight.

B) Unexplained impairment of her nervous system.

C) Weakening of her eyesight with the setting in of winter.

D) Poor adjustment of her body clock to seasonal changes.

27. By saying that Linda Krentz “saw the light”(Line 4, Para. 1), the author means that she “         ”.

A) learned how to lose weight

B) realized what her problem was

C) came to see the importance of light

D) became light-hearted and cheerful

28. What is the CURRENT view concerning the treatment of seasonal depression with bright lights?

A) Its effect remains to be seen.

B) It serves as a kind of placebo.

C) It proves to be an effective therapy.

D) It hardly produces any effects.

29. What is psychologist Michael Terman’s major concern?

A) Winter depressives will be addicted to using light boxes.

B) No mental patients would bother to consult psychiatrists.

C) Inferior light boxes will emit harmful ultraviolet lights.

D) Light therapy could be misused by certain mental patients.

30. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A) Winter depressives prefer light therapy in spite of its inconvenience.

B) Light therapy increases the patient’s photosensitivity.

C) Eye damage is a side effect of light therapy.

D) Light boxes can be programmed to correspond to shifts in the body clock.

Part Ⅲ Vocabulary (20 minutes)

Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the NOE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

31. Susan has       the elbows of her son’s jacket with leather patches to make it more durable.

A) reinforced                            B) sustained

C) steadied                              D) confirmed

32. Although we tried to concentrate on the lecture, we were         by the noise form the next room.

A) distracted                             B) displaced

C) dispersed                             D) discarded

33. The reason why so many children like to eat this new brand of biscuit is that it is particularly sweet and          .

A) fragile                               B) feeble

C) brisk                                D) crisp

34. Don’t trust the speaker any more, since the remarks he made in his lectures are never    with the facts.

A) symmetrical                          B) comparative

C) compatible                           D) harmonious

35. They had to eat a(n)      meal, or they would be too late for the concert.

A) temporary                            B) hasty

C) immediate                            D) urgent

36. Having a(n)      attitude towards people with different ideas is an indication that one has been well educated.

A) analytical                             B) bearable

C) elastic                                D) tolerant

37. No form of government in the world is       ; each system reflects the history and present needs of the region or the nation.

A) dominant                             B) influential

C) integral                               D) drastic

38. In spite of the        economic forecast, manufacturing output has risen slightly.

A) faint                                 B) dizzy

C) gloomy                              D) opaque

39. Too often Dr. Johnson’s lectures      how to protect the doctor rather than how to cure the patient.

A) look to                               B) dwell on

C) permeate into                          D) shrug off

40. Located in Washington D.C., the Library of Congress contains an impressive      of books on every conceivable subject.

A) flock                                 B) configuration

C) pile                                  D) array

41. Some felt that they were hurrying into an epoch of unprecedented enlightenment, in which better education and beneficial technology would      wealth and leisure for all.

A) maintain                              B) ensure

C) certify                                D) console

42. Fiberoptic cables can carry hundreds of telephone conversations       .

A) homogeneously                         B) spontaneously

C) simultaneously                          D) ingeniously

43. Excellent films are those which      national and cultural barriers.

A) transcend                              B) traverse

C) abolish                                D) suppress

44. The law of supply and demand will eventually take care of a shortage or      of dentists.

A) surge                                 B) surplus

C) flush                                  D) fluctuation

45. One third of the Chinese in the United States live in California,      in the San Francisco area.

A) remarkably                            B) severely

C) drastically                             D) predominantly

46. After the terrible accident, I discovered that my ear was becoming less       .

A) sensible                               B) sensitive

C) sentimental                            D) sensational

47. Now the cheers and applause      in a single sustained roar.

A) mingled                               B) tangled

C) baffled                                D) huddled

48. Among all the public holidays, National Day seems to be the most joyful to the people of the country; on that day the whole country is       in a festival atmosphere.

A) trapped                                B) sunk

C) soaked                                D) immersed

49. The wooden cases must be secured by overall metal strapping so that they can be strong enough to stand rough handling during       .

A) transit                                B) motion

C) shift                                  D) traffic

50. Nowadays many rural people flock to the city to look for jobs on the assumption that the streets there are      with gold.

A) overwhelmed                          B) stocked

C) paved                                D) overlapped

51. It is a wellknown fact that the cat family      lions and tigers.

A) enriches                               B) accommodates

C) adopts                                D) embraces

52. My boss has failed me so many times that I no longer place any       on what he promises.

A) assurance                              B) probability

C) reliance                                D) conformity

53. The English language contains a      of words which are comparatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.

A) latitude                                 B) multitude

C) magnitude                               D) longitude

54. It was such a(n)  when Pat and Mike met each other in Tokyo. Each thought that the other was still in Hong Kong.

A) occurrence                               B) coincidence

C) fancy                                   D) destiny

55. Parents have to learn how to follow a bodys behavior and adapt the tone of their      to the badys capabilities.

A) perceptions                              B) consultations

C) interactions                              D) interruptions

56. Governments today play an increasingly larger role in the      of welfare, economics, and education.

A) scopes                                  B) ranges

C) ranks                                   D) domains

57. If businessmen are taxed too much, they will no longer be       to work hard, with the result that tax revenues might actually shrink.

A) cultivated                               B) licensed

C) motivated                               D) innovated

58. Jack is not very decisive, and he always finds himself in a       as if he doesn’t know what he really wants to do.

A) fantasy                                  B) dilemma

C) contradiction                             D) conflict

59. He is a promising young man who is now studying at our graduate school. As his supervisor, I would like to      him to your notice.

A) commend                                B) decree

C) presume                                 D) articulate

60. It was a wonderful occasion which we will      for many years to come.

A) conceive                                 B) clutch

C) contrive                                  D) cherish

Part Ⅳ Cloze (15 minutes)

Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Although there are many skillful Braille readers, thousands of other blind people find it difficult to learn that system. They are thereby shut    61    from the world of books and newspapers, having to    62    on friends to read aloud to them.

A young scientist named Raymond Kurzweil has now designed a computer which is a major    63    in providing aid to the    64   . His machine, Cyclops, has a camera that    65    any page, interprets the print into sounds, and then delivers them orally in a robot-like    66    through a speaker. By pressing the appropriate buttons    67    Cyclops’s keyboard, a blind person can “read” any    68    document in the English language.

This remarkable invention represents a tremendous    69    forward in the education of the handicapped. At present, Cyclops costs $50,000.   70   , Mr. Kurzweil and his associates are preparing a smaller    71    improved version that will sell    72    less than half that price. Within a few years, Kurzweil    73    the price range will be low enough for every school and library to    74    one. Michael Hingson, Director of the National Federation for the Blind, hopes that    75    will be able to buy home    76    of Cyclops for the price of a good television set.

Mr. Hingson’s organization purchased five machines and is now testing them in Maryland, Colorado, Iowa, California, and New York. Blind people have been    77    in those tests, making lots of    78    suggestions to the engineers who helped to produce Cyclops.

“This is the first time that blind people have ever done individual studies    79    a product was put on the market,” Hingson said. “Most manufacturers believed that having the blind help the blind was like telling disabled people to teach other disabled people. In that    80   , the manufacturers have been the blind ones.”

61. A) up B) down C) in D) off

62. A) dwell B) rely C) press D) urge

63. A) execution B) distinction C) breakthrough D) process

64. A) paralyzed B) uneducated C) invisible D) sightless

65. A) scans B) enlarges C) sketches D) projects

66. A) behavior B) expression C) movement D) voice

67. A) on B) at C) in D) from

68. A) visual B) printed C) virtual D) spoken

69. A) stride B) trail C) haul D) footprint

70. A) Likewise B) Moreover C) However D) Though

71. A) but B) than C) or D) then

72. A) on B) for C) through D) to

73. A) estimates B) considers C) counts D) determines

74. A) settle B) own C) invest D) retain

75. A) schools B) children C) families D) companies

76. A) models B) modes C) cases D) collections

77. A) producing B) researching C) ascertaining D) assisting

78. A) true B) valuable C) authentic D) pleasant

79. A) after B) when C) before D) as

80. A) occasion B) moment C) sense D) event

Section B Compound Dictation

Certain phrases one commonly hears among Americans capture their devotion to individualism: “Do you own thing.” ”I did it my way.” ”You’ll have to decided that for yourself.” “You made your bed, now (S1) in it.” “if you don’t look out for yourself, no one else will.” “Look out for number one.”

Closely (S2) with the value they place on indi8vidualism is the importance Americans (S3) to privacy. Americans assume that people need some time to themselves or some time alone to think about things or recover their (S4) psychological energy. Americans have great (S5) understanding foreigners who always want to be with another person who dislike being alone.

If the parents can (S6) it, each child will have his or her own bedroom. Having one’s own bedroom, her books, her books and so on. These things will be hers and no one else’s.

Americans assumer that (S9). Doctors, lawyers, psychologists, and others have rules governing confidentiality that are intended to prevent information about their clients’ personal situations form becoming known to others.

American’s attitude about privacy can be hard for foreigners to understand. (10) . When those boundaries are crossed , an American’s body will visibly stiffen and his manner will become cool and aloof.

Part Ⅴ                       Writing

In this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Say No to Pirated Products.

1.       目前盗版的现象比较严重

2.       造成这种现象的原因及危害

3.       我们应该怎么做?

盗版 piracy (n.) 盗版产品 pirated products 知识产权 intellectual property rights 侵犯版权 infringe sb’s copyright; copyright infringement

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