2012-03-19 14:26:42 来源: 网易教育频道综合 举报
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Text 3

In2010, a federal judge shook America’s biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were patented .But in March 2012 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle

On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Muriad Genetics could indeed hold patents to two genes that help forecast a woman’s risk of breast cancer .The chief executive of Mytiad, a company in Utah, said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.

But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over. Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriads A growing number seem to agree. Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature…than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds.”

Despite the appeals court’s decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of individual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.

As the industry advances, however, other suits may have an even greater impact. Companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are unlikely patented or in the public domain. Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy. Companies are eager to win patents for “connecting the dots,” explains Hans Sauer, a lawyer for the BIO.

Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO recently held a convention which included sessions to coach lawyer on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed.

31. It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that the biotech companies would like_____.

[A] their executives to be active

[B] judges to rule out gene patenting

[C] genes to be patentable

[D] the BIO to issue a warning

32. Those who are against gene patents believe that_____.

[A] genetic tests are not reliable

[B] only man-made products are patentable

[C] patants on genes depend much on innovation

[D] courts should restrict access to genetic tests

33. According to Hans Sauer , companies are eager to win patents for_____.

[A] establishing disease correlations

[B] discovering gene interactions

[C] drawing pictures of genes

[D] identifying human DNA

34. By saying“Each meeting was packed”(Line 4,Para.6), the author means that______.

[A] the supreme court was authoritative

[B] the BIO was a powerful organisation

[C] gene patenting was a great concern

[D] lawyers were keen to attend conventions

35. Generally speaking, the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is______.

[A] critical

[B] supportive

[C] scornful

[D] objective

Text 4

The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years.

No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways: they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S., lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them - especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economic at Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

In the Internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly will reshape it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

36. By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggests that the jobless try to ___.

[A] seek subsidies from the government

[B] explore reasons for the unemployment

[C] make profit from the troubled economy

[D] look on the bright side of the recession

37. According to Paragraph 2, the recession has made people___.

[A] realize the national dream

[B] struggle against each other

[C] challenge their prudence

[D] reconsider their lifestyle

38. Benjamin Friedman believes that economic recessions may___.

[A] impose a heavier burden on immigrants

[B] bring out more evils of human nature

[C] promote the advance of rights and freedoms

[D] ease conflicts between races and classes

39. The research of Till Von Wachter suggests that in the recession graduates from elite universities tend to___.

[A] lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

[B] catch up quickly with experienced employees

[C] see their life chances as dimmed as the others

[D] recover more quickly than the others

40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is _____.

[A] certain

[B] positive

[C] trivial

[D] destructive

xiongxiaoling 本文来源:网易教育频道综合 责任编辑:王晓易_NE0011
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