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双语:冰淇淋和披萨吃多了容易早逝?

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Ultra-processed food linked to early death

冰淇淋、蛋糕、巧克力披萨……这些美味食物不但会让你发胖,还会增加你的早逝风险,因为它们都是超加工食品。研究发现,爱吃超加工食品的人患心脏病和癌症的风险更大,也更容易早逝。

双语:冰淇淋和披萨吃多了容易早逝?
Photo by Nicolás Perondi on Unsplash

Ultra-processed foods - such as chicken nuggets, ice cream and breakfast cereals - have been linked to early death and poor health, scientists say.

科学家指出,鸡块、冰淇淋、早餐麦片等超加工食品与早逝和健康状况不良有关。

Researchers in France and Spain say the amount of such food being eaten has soared.

法国和西班牙的研究人员称,超加工食品的摄入量在近年大增。

What are ultra-processed foods?

什么是“超加工食品”?

The term comes from a way of classifying food by how much industrial processing it has been through.

这个术语源自一种按照工业加工程度对食品进行分类的方式。

The lowest category is "unprocessed or minimally processed foods", which include: fruit, vegetables, milk, meat, legumes, grains such as rice, eggs.

第一类是“没有经过加工或加工程度最小的食品”,包括水果、蔬菜、牛奶、肉、豆类、大米等谷物和鸡蛋。

双语:冰淇淋和披萨吃多了容易早逝?
Photo by Rebekah Howell on Unsplash

"Processed foods" have been altered to make them last longer or taste better - generally using salt, oil, sugar or fermentation.

加工食品是经过处理使其保质期更长或味道更佳的食品,通常加入盐、油、糖或采用发酵的方式。

This category includes: cheese, bacon, home-made bread, tinned fruit and vegetables, smoked fish, beer.

加工食品包括:奶酪、熏猪肉、自制的面包、罐头水果和蔬菜、熏鱼、啤酒。

双语:冰淇淋和披萨吃多了容易早逝?
Photo by Alexander Maasch on Unsplash

Then come "ultra-processed foods", which have been through more substantial industrial processing and often have long ingredient lists on the packet, including added preservatives, sweeteners or color enhancers.

“超加工食品”则是经过更深度的工业加工的食品,通常包装上有长长的一列食品成分,包括防腐剂、甜味剂或色素。

Prof Maira Bes-Rastrollo, from the University of Navarra, told BBC News: "It is said that if a product contains more than five ingredients, it is probably ultra-processed."

西班牙那瓦拉公立大学的迈拉·贝斯-拉斯特罗略教授告诉BBC新闻说:“据称,如果一种产品含有五种以上的配料,那么这种产品很可能就属于超加工食品。”

Examples include: processed meat such as sausages and hamburgers, breakfast cereals or cereal bars, instant soups, sugary fizzy drinks, chicken nuggets, cake, chocolate, ice cream, mass-produced bread, many "ready to heat" meals such as pies and pizza, meal-replacement shakes.

超加工食品的例子有:香肠和汉堡等加工肉类、早餐麦片、谷物棒、速食汤、含糖气泡饮料、鸡块、蛋糕、巧克力、冰淇淋、量产面包、加热就能吃的馅饼和披萨等方便食品、代餐奶昔。

mass-produced:?adj. 大量生产的,大批生产的

双语:冰淇淋和披萨吃多了容易早逝?
Photo by ian dooley on Unsplash

The first study, by the University of Navarra, in Spain, followed 19,899 people for a decade and assessed their diet every other year.

西班牙那瓦拉公立大学开展的第一项研究在十年内跟踪调查了19899人,每隔一年对他们的膳食进行评估。

There were 335 deaths during the study.

在研究期间有335人去世。

But for every 10 deaths among those eating the least ultra-processed food, there were 16 deaths among those eating the most (more than four portions a day).

研究发现,吃超加工食品最少的人和吃超加工食品最多(一天超过4份)的人死亡的比例是10比16。

The second study, by the University of Paris, followed 105,159 people for five years and assessed their diet twice a year.

巴黎大学开展的第二项研究在五年内跟踪调查了105159人,每年对他们的膳食进行两次评估。

It showed those eating more ultra-processed food had worse heart health.

这项研究显示,吃更多超加工食品的人,心脏更不健康。

Rates of cardiovascular disease were 277 per 100,000 people per year among those eating the most ultra-processed food, compared with 242 per 100,000 among those eating the least.

超加工食品吃得最多的人每年患心血管疾病的几率是10万分之277,而超加工食品吃得最少的人每年患心血管疾病的几率是10万分之242。

Dr Mathilde Touvier, from the University of Paris, told BBC News: "[The] evidence is accumulating.

巴黎大学的玛蒂尔德·图维耶博士告诉BBC新闻说:“这样的证据在不断累积。”

"Increasing numbers of independent studies observe associations between ultra-processed foods and adverse health effects."

“越来越多的独立调查观察到超加工食品和对健康的负面影响之间的关联。”

Last year, a link was made with an increased risk of cancer.

去年有研究指出,超加工食品和癌症风险增加有关。

Prof Bes-Rastrollo, from the University of Navarra, told BBC News she was "very certain" they were bad for health.

那瓦拉大学的贝斯-拉斯特罗略教授告诉BBC新闻说,她“非常肯定”超加工食品对身体是有害的。

The first trial of ultra-processed foods showed they led people to eat more and put on weight.

对超加工食品的初次试验显示,超加工食品会引诱人们吃得更多并体重会增加。

Researchers at the US National Institutes of Health monitored every morsel of food that volunteers ate for a month.

美国国立卫生研究院的研究人员花了一个月时间来监控志愿者吃的每一口食物。

And when given ultra-processed food, they ate 500 calories a day more than when they were given unprocessed meals.

当研究人员给志愿者吃超加工食品时,相比起吃未加工食品,志愿者每日多摄入了500卡路里。

The studies were published in the?British Medical Journal.

这些研究发表在《英国医学杂志》上。

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