双语阅读:性格内向者“假装”外向会更快乐

2019-09-22 06:06:32 来源: 中国日报网 举报
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If you are an introvert, force yourself to be an extravert. You'll be happier.

如果你性格内向,强迫自己变得外向,你会更快乐。

That's the suggestion of the first-ever study asking people to act like extraverts for a prolonged period. For one week, the 123 participants were asked to -- in some cases -- push the boundaries of their willingness to engage, by acting as extraverts. For another week, the same group was asked to act like introverts.

上述建议来自一项前所未有的研究,该研究要求人们在较长时间内像外向者那样行事。研究人员要求123名参与者在一周内,超越自我意愿参加活动,像外向者那样为人处世。另一周里,研究人员要求这群人像内向者那样行事。

The benefits of extraversion have been reported before, including those of "forced extraversion," but usually only for brief intervals. In one study, train-riders were asked to talk to strangers; a control group was directed to remain silent. The talkers reported a more positive experience.

性格外向(包括“强制外向性”)的好处过去曾有报道,但这些研究通常只持续较短时间。在一项研究中,研究人员要求一些火车乘客与陌生人交谈。还有一个对照实验组则被要求保持沉默。交谈者的体验报告更加积极。

UC Riverside researcher Sonja Lyubomirsky wanted to extend the faux extraversion to see if it would result in better well-being.

加州大学里弗赛德分校的研究人员索尼娅·柳博米尔斯基希望延长这种虚假的外向性,以验证这种行为是否会带来更多幸福感。

"The findings suggest that changing one's social behavior is a realizable goal for many people, and that behaving in an extraverted way improves well-being," said Lyubomirsky, a UCR psychologist and co-author of the study, published in the?Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

柳博米尔斯基说:“研究发现表明,对很多人来说,改变社会行为是可以实现的目标,外向的行为方式会增进幸福感。”柳博米尔斯基是一位心理学家,也是该研究的合著者之一。这项研究发表在《实验心理学杂志·综合》期刊上。

An initial challenge for this study was the presumption that extraversion -- as a trait rewarded in US culture -- is best. Many of the adjectives associated with extraversion are more flattering than those tied to introversion. Most people would rather be associated with words like "dynamic" than with words like "withdrawn."

“外向” 在美国文化中是一种受到褒奖的个性特征,这也是该研究面临的最初的挑战,即假定外向的个性特征是最好的。同外向有关的很多形容词比同内向有关的形容词更有表扬意味。相比“沉默寡言”这类词汇,大部分人更喜欢同“活力四射”等词语联系在一起。

So Lyubomirsky's team went for words agreed upon as most neutral. The adjectives for extraversion were "talkative," "assertive," and "spontaneous"; for introversion, "deliberate," "quiet," and "reserved."

因此,柳博米尔斯基的团队找出了一些含义最为中性的词汇。同外向相关的形容词是“健谈”,“坚定自信”和“自发”。同内向有关的形容词是“深思熟虑”,“安静”和“保守”。

Researchers next told participants -- both the Act Introvert group and the Act Extravert group -- that previous research found each set of behaviors are beneficial for college students.

接下来,研究人员告诉“表现内向”组和“表现外向”组的参与者说,此前研究发现,每种行为方式对大学生都是有益的。

Finally, the participants were told to go forth, and to be as talkative, assertive, and spontaneous as they could stand. Later, the same group was told to be deliberate, quiet, and reserved, or vice versa. Three times a week, participants were reminded of the behavioral change via emails.

最后,研究人员让参与者尽可能变得“健谈”、“坚定自信”和“自发”。之后,研究人员又让同一组参与者保持“深思熟虑”,“安静”和“保守”,反之亦然。研究人员每周三次通过电子邮件提醒参与者改变行为方式。

According to all measures of well-being, participants reported greater well-being after the extraversion week, and decreases in well-being after the introversion week. Interestingly, faux extraverts reported no discomfort or ill effects.

研究人员使用多种方式衡量了参与者的幸福感,参与者在外向行为周后表示感觉更幸福,而在内向行为周后表示幸福感减少。有趣的是,假装外向的人没有报告不适或不良反应。

"It showed that a manipulation to increase extraverted behavior substantially improved well-being," Lyubomirsky said. "Manipulating personality-relevant behavior over as long as a week may be easier than previously thought, and the effects can be surprisingly powerful."

柳博米尔斯基说:“结果表明,人为增加外向行为可以极大提升幸福感。人为操纵个性相关行为长达一周或许比过去料想的更容易,而结果可能非常给力,令人意外。”

The researchers suggest that future experiments addressing this question may switch up some variables. The participants were college students, generally more malleable in terms of changing habits. Also, Lyubomirsky said, effects of "faking" extroversion could surface after a longer study period.

研究人员表示,未来有关这一问题的实验可能会改变一些变量。之前的参与者是大学生,在改变习惯方面来讲可塑性较强。柳博米尔斯基还说,“假装”外向的后果在更长的研究时期后可能会显现。

郑娟 本文来源:中国日报网 责任编辑:郑娟_NQ0738
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