In Europe surnames tend to either come from a profession, a father's name and even from the varied landscape of the continent.
'Gruber', is the most popular Austrian surname, an evolution from the Middle High German word for 'pit'. 'Bērzi??', the most used Latvian family name, originates in the word for 'birch', which would signify someone who lived among Birch trees.
Due to the high prevalence of Muslim citizens in sub-Saharan Africa, the most common last name in a number of African countries, including Chad and Egypt, is a variation of Muhammad, the founder of Islam.