|2002年11月04日16:42:05 网易教育 |
the following is a recommendation from the business manager of monarch books.
"monarch books should open a cafè in its store to attract more customers and better compete with regal books, which recently opened a cafè. monarch, which has been in business at the same location for more than twenty years, has a large customer following because it is known for its wide selection of books on all subjects. opening the cafè would clearly attract more customers. the cafè would require relatively little space. space could be made for the cafè by discontinuing the children's book section, which will likely become less popular given that the last national census indicated a significant decline in the percent of the population who are under age ten."
the following appeared as an editorial in a wildlife journal.
"arctic deer live on islands in canada's arctic region. they search for food by moving over ice from island to island during the course of a year. their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed, and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it. unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters, the deer populations are declining. since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends that have caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the decline in arctic deer populations is the result of deer being unable to follow their age-old migration patterns across the frozen sea."
although black bears are common in the eastern canadian province of labrador, grizzly bears—often similar in color, but much larger—were believed to exist only in the western provinces. despite a nineteenth-century explorer's account of having startled and narrowly escaped from a grizzly bear deep in the woods in labrador, modern scientists find no physical evidence that grizzly bears have ever lived in labrador. but recent research into the language and legends of the innu, a people who have lived in labrador for thousands of years, reveals that their language has words for two different kinds of bears, and their ancient legends attribute different characteristics to the two kinds of bears. therefore, there probably were grizzly bears in labrador, and the explorer's account probably accurately identified the bear.
scientists studying historical weather patterns have discovered that in the mid-sixth century, earth suddenly became significantly cooler. although few historical records survive from that time, some accounts found both in asia and europe mention a dimming of the sun and extremely cold temperatures. either a huge volcanic eruption or a large meteorite colliding with earth could have created a large dust cloud throughout earth's atmosphere that would have been capable of blocking enough sunlight to lower global temperatures significantly. a large meteorite collision, however, would probably create a sudden bright flash of light, and no extant historical records of the time mention such a flash. some surviving asian historical records of the time, however, mention a loud boom that would be consistent with a volcanic eruption. therefore, the cooling was probably caused by a volcanic eruption.
the following appeared in a newspaper article published in the country of corpora.
"twenty years ago, one half of all citizens in corpora met the standards for adequate physical fitness as then defined by the national advisory board on physical fitness. today, the board says that only one quarter of all citizens are adequately fit and suggests that spending too much time using computers may be the reason. but since overall fitness levels are highest in regions of corpora where levels of computer ownership are also highest, it is clear that using computers has not made citizens less physically fit. instead, as shown by this year's unusually low expenditures on fitness-related products and services, the recent decline in the economy is most likely the cause, and fitness levels will improve when the economy does."
the following appeared in a letter to the editor of a newsletter on health issues.
"for the past decade, most health experts have advised teenagers to avoid eating greasy foods in order to prevent acne and related skin conditions, but the number of teenagers who sought medical help for these skin problems has actually risen over the same period. in a recent study, teenagers who avoided greasy foods for a month reported approximately as many outbreaks of acne and related skin conditions as did those who ate an average of two servings of greasy food per day. such data indicate that eating greasy foods is unlikely to be a cause of acne and related skin conditions. therefore, health experts should no longer recommend that people avoid such foods."
from a draft textbook manuscript submitted to a publisher.
"as earth was being formed out of the collision of space rocks, the heat from those collisions and from the increasing gravitational energy of the planet made the entire planet molten, even the surface. any water present would have evaporated and gone off into space. as the planet approached its current size, however, its gravitation became strong enough to hold gases and water vapor around it as an atmosphere. because comets are largely ice made up of frozen water and gases, a comet striking earth then would have vaporized. the resulting water vapor would have been retained in the atmosphere, eventually falling as rain on the cooled and solidified surface of earth. therefore, the water in earth's oceans must have originated from comets."
the following appeared in a medical newsletter.
"doctors have long suspected that secondary infections may keep some patients from healing quickly after severe muscle strain. this hypothesis has now been proved by preliminary results of a study of two groups of patients. the first group of patients, all being treated for muscle injuries by dr. newland, a doctor who specializes in sports medicine, took antibiotics regularly throughout their treatment. their recuperation time was, on average, 40 percent quicker than typically expected. patients in the second group, all being treated by dr. alton, a general physician, were given sugar pills, although the patients believed they were taking antibiotics. their average recuperation time was not significantly reduced. therefore, all patients who are diagnosed with muscle strain would be well advised to take antibiotics as part of their treatment."
the following appeared in a memo to the human resources manager at baobob inc., a large architectural firm.
"several well-known, retired architects were interviewed in architecture today about changes in the field. only one had earned a college degree in architecture. all others had come into the field at an early age by serving apprenticeships that required them to work under the direct supervision of an experienced architect. several of the colleges that we recruit from report that many promising architecture students leave school early in their undergraduate career. therefore, because finding talented architecture graduates is becoming more difficult, baobob inc. should start an aggressive apprenticeship program and hire students who express an interest in architecture directly out of high school rather than wait for them to get out of college."
thirteen years ago, researchers studied a group of 25 infants who showed signs of mild distress when exposed to unfamiliar stimuli such as an unusual odor or a tape recording of an unknown voice. they discovered that these infants were more likely than other infants to have been conceived in early autumn, a time when their mothers' production of melatonin—a hormone known to affect some brain functions—would naturally increase in response to decreased daylight. in a follow-up study conducted earlier this year, more than half of these children—now teenagers—who had shown signs of distress identified themselves as shy. clearly, increased levels of melatonin before birth cause shyness during infancy and this shyness continues into later life.
the following appeared in a newsletter on dental health.
"a recent research study reported the experience of dentists whose patients had, over a period of five years, regularly used flux dental floss as part of their dental hygiene routine. the report indicates that these dentists had 50 percent fewer cases of gum disease than did dentists whose patients did not use flux regularly. in addition, most of the flux users who were surveyed by their dentists agreed that flux's mint flavor would encourage people to floss more often. thus, even though flux may cost more than other brands of floss, it is clearly a worthwhile investment for those who want to be assured of healthy teeth and gums."
the following appeared in a letter to the editor of the shady village newspaper.
"commuters are complaining that the rush hour traffic on blue highway between shady village and bright city has doubled their commuting time. some commuters have asked that an additional traffic lane be built, but the recent creation of such a lane on nearby green highway apparently attracted more commuters, judging from the fact that rush-hour traffic jams actually increased there this past winter. to reduce rush-hour traffic on blue highway, a bicycle lane should be added instead of a traffic lane. this approach will succeed because many citizens of shady village are avid bicyclists; 75 percent of respondents to a recent questionnaire distributed there said they would like to bicycle more hours per week than they currently do."
collectors prize the ancient life-size clay statues of human figures made on kali island but have long wondered how the kalinese artists were able to depict bodies with such realistic precision. since archeologists have recently discovered molds of human heads and hands on kali, we can now conclude that the ancient kalinese artists used molds of actual bodies, not sculpting tools and techniques, to create these statues. this discovery explains why kalinese miniature statues were abstract and entirely different in style: molds could only be used for life-size sculptures. it also explains why few ancient kalinese sculpting tools have been found. in light of this development, collectors should expect the life-size sculptures to decrease in value and the miniatures to increase in value.
the following appeared in a newsletter on nutrition and health.
"although the multimineral zorba pill was designed as a simple dietary supplement, a study of first-time ulcer patients who took zorba suggests that zorba actually helps prevent ulcers. the study showed that only 25 percent of those ulcer patients who took zorba under a doctor's direction developed new ulcers, compared to a 75 percent recurrence rate among ulcer patients who did not take zorba. clearly, then, zorba will be highly effective in preventing recurrent ulcers and if health experts inform the general public of this fact, many first-time ulcers can be prevented as well."
the following appeared in an article from a popular newsmagazine.
"in 1888 a stone was unearthed in northern wisconsin with an inscription in an old scandinavian alphabet and bearing the date 1362. scandinavians were not, however, exploring or emigrating to northern wisconsin in the fourteenth century. recent analysis proves, in fact, that the stone had been buried in the spot where it was found for no more than 100 years. moreover, the community near the discovery site was home to a group of people who had formed a club to study medieval scandinavian culture—a period that includes the fourteenth century. the stone, therefore, is not a genuine artifact of medieval scandinavian culture inscribed in the fourteenth century but most likely a hoax perpetrated by the group."
the following appeared in an article in the health section of a newspaper.
"according to the available medical records, the six worst worldwide fluepidemics during the past 300 years occurred in 1729, 1830, 1918, 1957, 1968, and 1977. these were all years with heavy sunspot activity—that is, years when the earth received significantly more solar energy than in normal years. people at particular risk for the flu should therefore avoid prolonged exposure to the sun."
the following appeared in the health section of glenntown's local newspaper.
"several national medical studies suggest that older people who have pets tend to enjoy better health than those who do not have pets: those who have pets have lower rates of high blood pressure and arthritis. it seems clear that having to care for an animal promotes good health for the older person. therefore, glenntown should establish a program to give a small pet such as a dog or cat to all of its citizens who are over the age of 65. this will help to insure that our senior citizens enjoy good health and have fewer medical bills."
the following appeared in a report by the school district of eyleria.
"nationally, the average ratio of computers to students in kindergarten through grade 12 (k-12) is 1:5. educators indicate that this is very good ratio. this means that across the country, all students have access to and can use computers daily in their classrooms. in eyleria's k-12 schools, the ratio of computers to students is 1:7. this number is sufficient to ensure that all of eyleria's students, by the time they graduate from high school, will be fully proficient in the use of computer technology. thus, there is no reason to spend any of the schools' budget on computers or other technology in the next few years."
the following appeared as a letter to the editor of a local solano newspaper.
"the solano school district should do away with its music education programs. after all, music programs are not especially popular in our schools: only 20 percent of our high school students participated in music programs last year. furthermore, very few of the solano district's college- bound students are interested in majoring in music at the university level. also, when the school district of our neighboring town of rutherford eliminated its music programs two years ago, the overall grade point average in the high school increased by 10 percent the next year. surely the money spent on solano music programs could be better used to improve the quality of traditional academic courses."
the following appeared as part of a memo from the manager of a hazardous-waste disposal company.
"our new plan will help us better protect our staff against exposure to toxic chemicals: we are fitting each new safety suit with an alarm that will sound in the main control booth when the suit is punctured. the control booth will notify the managers on duty, who will then take the necessary steps to ensure employees' safety. in addition to the obvious safety-related benefits, the fast reaction time will ensure minimal work stoppage and thus result in increased worker productivity and company profitability."
the following appeared as an editorial in one of coleville's city newspapers.
"even though a high percentage of coleville city's businesses failed last year, we who live in coleville city should keep in mind the fact that the coleville region has attracted a great many new businesses over the last three years. it is well known that new businesses are, on average, much more likely to fail than are long-established ones, so the business failures should not be considered a sign of poor economic health. indeed, many analysts regard the presence of a significant number of new companies among a region's businesses as a sign of economic health. thus coleville city appears to be in good, not poor, economic shape."
the following appeared in the editorial section of a student newspaper.
"in a recent survey, most students who were studying beginning russian gave higher course-evaluation ratings to classes taught by non-native russian speakers than to classes taught by native russian speakers. the reason that the non-native speakers were better teachers of russian is easy to see: the non-native speakers learned russian later in life themselves, and so they have a better understanding of how the language can be taught effectively. therefore, in order to improve instruction for all languages and also save money, our university should hire non-native speakers as language instructors instead of trying to find and recruit native speakers."
there is a general idea that waiters and waitresses are more likely to receive larger gratuities from large groups of people. a recent research study suggests this is not true. the researchers examined the relationship between the size of tips in restaurants and the number of meals charged on the bill. they found that, while most tips were around 15 percent, the minimum percentage considered appropriate, people dining alone tipped consistently more (19 percent) and those dining in groups of four or more tipped considerably less (13 percent) than this 15 percent standard. these results strongly suggest that people dining in a group are less likely to feel personally responsible for leaving an adequate or generous tip.
there is a general idea that a translation always fails to preserve some of the qualities that distinguish the original work—i.e., that 'something always gets lost in translation.' writers, critics, and the general reading public unthinkingly accept this clichè. but this belief is unwarranted: translators are sometimes distinguished authors themselves, and some authors may even translate their own works. as the translator pointed out in the preface to an english version of dante's works, the violin and the piano make different sounds, but they can play what is recognizably the same piece of music. 【源文件来自ETS 】