In the following text, some sentences
have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from
the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices,
which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes,
reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals
were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they
have no descendants alive now. 41) _______________________. Very occasionally
the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build
up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years
ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about
the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and
even of its climate.
42) _________________________. Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved
in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived
in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals,
birds, and insects of which we know noting.
43) _____________________________. There were also crab-like creatures, whose
bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two
pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming.
The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands
of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.
44) _________________________________. Of these, the ammonites are very interesting
and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing
a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber
and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks
on the Dorset Coast.
About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over
and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can
trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse.
Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man
and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.
[A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are
[B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones
and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils, From them we can tell
their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.
[C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the
rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians,
the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant,
sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which
our coal seam, or layer, formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles
and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on
land, in the sea, and in the air.
[D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved
rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world.
[E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple
kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these
are the sea-lilies, relations of the star-fishes, which had long arms and
were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.
[F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried
away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If
the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with
mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become
embedded and preserved.
[G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved
in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by
an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a
more stable form.
[答案] 41. B 42. F 43. E
44. A 45. C
The following paragraphs are given
in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these
paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in
each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for
you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
just don’t know how to motivate them to do a better job. We’re in a budget
crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact,
we’ll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It’s hard for
me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn’t — it’s boring,
routine paperwork, and there isn’t much you can do about it.
I can’t say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of
their paperwork. First of all, they know it’s not true. If their performance
is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force
a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second,
they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out
forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get
got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced
men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat, They
seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in
crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping
people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.
people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as
a performance criterion. However, we know that’s not fair—too many other things
are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but
good paperwork doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll win. We tried setting up team
competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on
to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning
the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no
problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork,
and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately.
This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear,
factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as
one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the
report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than
any other factor.
I just don’t know what to do. I’ve been groping in the dark in a number of
years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of
mine and help me out in my future work.”
large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for
administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout
the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation—how
we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a
police captain became the central focus of the discussion.
[答案] 41. C 42. E 43.
A 44. B 45. D
You are going to read a text about
the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best
example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one
extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
1. (10 points)
The main purpose of a resume is to convince
an employer to grant you an interview. There are two kinds. One is the familiar
“tombstone” that lists where you went to school and where you’ve worked in
chronological order. The other is what I call the “functional” resume—descriptive,
fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.
It’s handy to have a “tombstone” for certain
occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those un-requested
“tombstone” lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.
What follows are tips on writing a functional resume
that will get read—a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting
(41) Put yourself first:
In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm,
you have to feel important about yourself.
(42) Sell what you can do, not who you are:
Practice translating your personality traits, character,
accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five
thousand skill areas in the world of work.
Toot your own horn!
Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities.
Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may
just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch—if only you show it.
(43) Be specific, be concrete, and be brief!
Remember that “brevity is the best policy.”
(44) Turn bad news into good:
Everybody has had disappointments in work. If you have
to mention yours, look for the positive side.
(45) Never apologize:
If you’ve returning to the work force after fifteen years
as a parent, simply write a short paragraph (summary of background) in place
of a chronology of experience. Don’t apologize for working at being a mother;
it’s the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education,
just don’t mention education.
The secret is to think about the self before
you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily
consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or
off the job, that made you feel effective. Don’t worry at first about what
it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list,
you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once
you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments (leadership
skills, budget management skills, child development skills etc.) Try to list
at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing
your resume as if you mattered. It may take four drafts or more, and several
weeks, before you’ve ready to show it to a stranger (friends are usually too
kind) for a reaction. When you’ve satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed
resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard
job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.
Isn’t that the kind of person you’d want working
woman who lost her job as a teacher’s aide due to a cutback in government
funding wrote: “Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher’s
aide she would rehire if government funds became available.”
resume I received included the following: “Invited by my superior to straighten
out our organization’s accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule,
reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded
with raise and promotion.” Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies
how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward — all in 34 words.
example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you
have money management skills.
acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to
the statement “Ready to learn though not so well educated”.
of my former colleagues, for example, wrote resumes in three different styles
in order to find out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the
one that highlights skills and education background.
woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She’d
agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward
was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story
wasn’t in her resume. She answered, “It wasn’t important.” What she was really
saying of course was “I’m not important.”
［答案］ 41.F 42.C 43.B
You are going to read a list of
headings and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the
most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).
The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra
heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
to do as a student?
definitions of plagiarism
should always be sourced
can be forgiven
is equivalent to theft
consequences of plagiarism
Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic
community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person’s
ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to
label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one’s ideas. Simply
stated, plagiarism is “the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication
as one’s own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of another.”
The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation.
In many universities, the punishment may range from failure in a particular
course to expulsion from the university. In the literary world, where writers
are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws, the penalty
may range from a small fine to imprisonment and a ruined career. Protection
of scholars and writers, through the copyright laws and through the social
pressures of the academic and literary communities, is a relatively recent
concept. Such social pressures and copyright laws require writers to give
scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.
Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must
avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other
scholars’ ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed
ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. There are at least
three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students’ inexactness
in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance,
and by intention.
Plagiarism by accident, or oversight, sometimes is the
result of the writer’s inability to decide or remember where the idea came
from. He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten,
or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues.
He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge
that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of
plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons
learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.
Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying
that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their
sources. The techniques for documentation — note-taking, quoting, footnoting,
listing bibliography — are easily learned and can prevent the writer from
making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. Although “there
is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of them,” the
writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.
The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism
by intention. The writer, limited by his laziness and dullness, copies the
thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own. He not only steals,
he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are original. Such
words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used
to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.
The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature
and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful
to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students, as developing
scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders, should recognize and
assume their responsibility to document all sources from which language and
thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will not only respect
the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.
［答案］ 41.F 42.A 43.D