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Questions 01-05 are based on the following passage:
In managing information resources, the medium may be the key to an effective system. The medium is a vehicle, a tool, or a container for holding information; the information itself is the thing of value.
Three popular categories of information media are paper, film, and electronic storage devices The media choice must not be viewed as a choice among these three, however; it must be viewed a s an opportunity to select from a multitude of media possibilities in combinations that build effective systems. In many instances the person responsible for information-resource management is not the person who determines the medium in which information will be created. In such a case, the manager of a firm's information resources faces a challenge in making a significant contribution to the organization's objectives.
For effective management of information resources, media conversion may be necessary. Examples include keying or scanning paper documents to convert them to electronic media. Other processes convert electronic media from one format to another. For example, disk files created on one system may not be compatible with another system. Various hardware and software combinations can be used to convert files to formats that equipment will accept. For information generated within organizations, this necessity of making systems compatible may be eliminated by cooperative planning. However, very little control can be exercised over the media used to generate information that comes to your organization from the outside.
The medium for information may be selected to satisfy a need that exists when information is created and communicated. For example, a paper record may be created because of its portability and because no special equipment is necessary for later references to that information; electronic transmission may be selected because it is the fastest means of communicating information. A firm may use electronic mail because a network already exists for on-line computer communication. The additional application may cost less than postage to mail paper memos.
01. Which of the following can best sum up the passage?
A. Media Selection in Managing Information Resources.
B. The Importance and Necessity of Media Conversion.
C. Three Categories of Information Media.
D. Various Means of Communicating Information
02. The first paragraph aims at telling the reader ____.
A. the importance of information resources management
B. the relationship between the medium and information
C. the great variety of media for holding information
D. the numerous resources of information
03. According to the author, ____.
A. paper is the best storage device
B. people have three choices in selecting information media
C. it is better to let the person responsible for information-resource management determine the medium
D. the manager should build an effective system by selecting a good combination of different media
04. For effective management of information resources, the manager should ____.
A. convert all paper documents to electronic media
B. make media conversion when necessary
C. control the media used to generate information both inside and outside his organization
D. use one format in processing information
05. The main idea of the last paragraph is ____.
A. paper record is the most convenient medium for later reference
B. electronic mail costs less than postage to mail paper memos
C. different media for information may be selected for different purposes
D. by using different media, a firm can create various information for its objectives
Questions 06-10 are based on the following passage:
Many leading scientists down through the years form Galieo to Einstein have been deeply religious. They have been intrigued by the essential mystery of life and material existence, and have recognized that spiritual as well as scientific understanding is needed.
Two biologists might examine a living cell under a microscope. One will see there the handiwork of God; the other will see only what evolution has chanced to produce. And yet both will agree on the cell's biological history, its composition, its structure, and its function. One physicist will find God in the exquisitely organized and exact laws of the physical universe. Another physicist will not be able to see anything beyond the laws themselves. The religious views of a scientist do not come from his science; they come from his entire philosophy, his whole view of the world. But scientists are not unique in this matter; the same disparity of thinking is to be found among people from all walks of life.
In the modern world, science serves two important functions. One is to provide the basis for a scientific technology. It is in this way that science has the greatest influence on our daily living. Through technology, we advance the structure of civilization and gain increasing domination over the earth and adjoining portions of the universe. The other purpose served by science is one of understanding. Through science, we discover how phenomena occur and, to a limited extent, why they happen the way they do. Vital processes are analysed and studied, that we may know more of how organisms function, and how they have come to be what they are. Through science, we seek to know that a man is - how his body works and why he thinks and dreams. As we search to know ourselves and the workings of our minds, we expect to find solutions to problems of confusion and discontent. Science is a way to understanding, but in some ways it is a narrow path that does not touch on all the questions posed by the facts of human life. Science does not provide a way of life; it does not create a moral order. It is quite obvious that not all human knowledge can be reduced to scientific terms. Interpretations of the ultimate meaning and value of life will, in the final analysis, be made more on the basis of spiritual awareness than on scientific acuity.
06. According to the author, many leading scientists ____.
A. have acknowledged that only religion can explain the mystery of life
B. have been puzzled by the mystery of life and material things
C. have attempted to explain physical life from a religious point of view
D. have engaged in intrigue trying to solve the mystery of life
07. The author suggests in the second paragraph that ____.
A. while some physicists conclude from the laws of nature that there is a God, others draw no such conclusion
B. it is only by studying philosophy that a man can develop religious beliefs
C. by examining a living cell under a microscope biologists can understand the process of evolution
D. there is a disparity of thinking between scientists and people from other walks of life regarding science and religion
08. In the last sentence of the second paragraph, "this matter" refers to ____.
A. the fact that a scientist's religious views derive from his whole outlook on life
B. the fact that some people believe in God while others do not
C. the disparity of thinking between scientists and people from other walks of life
D. the disparity in the religious conclusions drawn from the observation of natural phenomena
09. In the third paragraph "scientific technology" is ____.
A. the application of scientific knowledge to the skills of industry
B. the application of science and industry to daily life
C. science and industry as the basis of progress
D. the use of science and industrial techniques in gaining control of the universe
10. In the third paragraph it is mentioned that by means of science ____ are analyzed and studied.
A. the ways in which cells formed
B. changes in organic life
C. the main ways in which organisms develop
D. processes on which organic life depends
Questions 11-15 are based on the following passage:
Joseph Weizenbaum, professor of computer science at MIT, thinks that the sense of power over the machine ultimately corrupts the computer hacker and makes him into a not very-desirable sort of programmer. The hackers are so involved with designing their program, making it more and more complex and bending it to their will, that they don't bother trying to make it understandable to other users. They rarely keep records of their programs for the benefit of others, and they take rarely time to understand why a problem occurred.
Computer science teachers say they can usually pick out the prospective hackers in their courses because these students make their homework assignments more complex than they need to be. Rather than using the simplest and most direct method, they take joy in adding extra steps just to prove their ingenuity.
But perhaps those hackers know something that we don't about the shape of things to come. "That hacker who had to be literally dragged off his chair at MIT is now a multimillionaire of the computer industry," says MIT professor Michael Dertouzos. "And two former hackers became the founders of the highly successful Apple home computer company."
When seen in this light, the hacker phenomenon may not be so strange after all. If, as many psychiatrists say, play is really the basis for all human activity, then the hacker games are really the preparation for future developments.
Sherry Turkle, a professor of sociology at MIT, has for years been studying the way computers fit into people's lives. She points out that the computer, because it seems to us to be so "intelligent," so "capable," so..."human" affects the way we think about ourselves and our ideas about what we are. She says that computers and computer toys already play an important role in children's efforts to develop an identity by allowing them to test ideas about what is alive and what is not.
"The youngsters can form as many subtle nuances and textured relationships with the computers as they can with people."Turke points out.
11. The passage tells about ____.
A. the strange behaviour of the computer hackers
B. the ultimate importance of bringing up computer hackers
C. the different opinions concerning the hacker phenomenon
D. what has caused the emergence of computer hackers
12. According to Prof. Weizenbaum, what led to the hackers' strange behaviour is ____.
A. their strong desire to control the computer
B. their ignorance of the responsibility of a programmer
C. their incompetence in making new computer programmers
D. their deliberate attempts to make their programs complex and impracticable
13. In Prof. Dertozos' opinion, which of the following is TRUE?
A. Computer industry will certainly make multimillionaires of the hackers.
B. The hackers are likely to be very successful business men
C. The hackers probably have better insight into the future than other people.
D. Only a few hackers will be successful in their later life.
14. We can guess from context clues that the phrase "to develop an identity" (Para. 5) means ____.
A. to become distinguished
B. to seek an answer
C. to build up a creative ability
D. to form a habit
15. The passage tries to convey to its readers the idea that ____.
A. perhaps the hacker phenomenon is not bad at all
B. though the hackers are in fact playing with the computer, there may be some benefits
C. the computer hackers are the hope of the computer industry of tomorrow
D. the computer hackers could be useful if under proper guidance
Questions 16-20 are based on the following passage:
As one works with color in a practical or experimental way, one is impressed by two apparently unrelated facts. Color as seen is a mobile changeable thing depending to a large extent on the relationship of the color to other colors seen simultaneously. It is not fixed in its relation to the direct stimulus which creates it. On the other hand, the properties of surfaces that give rise to color do not seem to change greatly under a wide variety of illumination colors, usually looking much the same in artificial light as in daylight. Both of these effects seem to be due in large part to the mechanism of color adaptation mentioned earlier.
When the eye is fixed on a colored area, there is an immediate readjustment of the sensitivity of the eye to color in and around the area viewed. This readjustment does not immediately affect the color seen but usually does affect the next area to which the gaze is shifted. The longer the time of viewing, the higher the intensity, and the larger the area, the greater the effect will be in terms of its persistence in the succeeding viewing situation. As indicated by the work of Wright and Schouten, it appears that, at least for a first approximation, full adaptation takes place over a very brief time if the adapting source is moderately bright and the eye has been in relative darkness just previously. As the stimulus is allowed to act, however, the effect becomes more persistent in the sense that it takes the eye longer to regain its sensitivity to lower intensities. The net result is that, if the eye is so exposed and then the gaze is transferred to an area of lower intensity, the loss of sensitivity produced by the first area will still be present and appear as an "afterimage" superimposed on the second. The effect not only is present over the actual area causing the "local adaptation" but also spreads with decreasing strength to adjoining areas of the eye to produce "lateral adaptation." Also, because of the persistence of the effect if the eye is shifted around from one object to another, all of which are at similar brightness or have similar colors, the adaptation will tend to become uniform over the whole eye.
16. This selection is concerned primarily with ____.
A. the adaptation of the eye to color
B. the color of colors
C. the properties of colored surfaces
D. the effect of changes in color intensity
17. Whether a colored object would, on two viewings separated in time, appear to the viewer as similar or different would depend mostly on ____.
A. the color mechanism of the eye in use at the time of each viewing
B. what kind of viewing had immediately preceded each of the viewings
C. the properties of the surfaces viewed
D. the individual's power of lateral adaptation
18. If a person's eye has been looking at an object in bright sunlight for some time, and then shifts to an object not well lit - such as a lawn or shrub in shadow - we can expect ____.
A. a time lag in the focusing ability of the eye
B. some inability to see colors of the latter-named objects until loss of sensitivity has been regained
C. the immediate loss of the "afterimage" of the first object
D. adaptation in the central area of the eye but little adaptation in the lateral areas to the new intensity level
19. The present selection has apparently been preceded by some explanation of ____.
A. some experiments with color pigments
B. the nature of color
C. the color properties of various surfaces
D. the mechanism of the eye's adaptation to color
20. This selection tells us all the following EXCEPT that ____.
A. color depends on what other colors are seen
B. the adjustment of the eye to the color it sees affects the next color it sees
C. since properties of surfaces that give rise to color do not change, the surfaces of objects always look just the same in artificial light as in daylight
D. The adjustment of the eye is affected by three variables: size of areas, intensity of color and length of time
Part II Vocabulary and Structure
21. In the past few years, David Roberts has obtained a(n) ____ return on his wise stock investment.
22. Even though she was more than sixty she had very few ____ on her face.
23. "Sorry, sir, I just couldn't help laughing," Charlie ____ with false humility, and his eyes were wide and innocent of evil.
24. Such a change would not ____ to the present wishes of the great majority of people.
25. With a weather-worn face, Ted is ____ a very old man but in fact he is only fifty.
26. We need another month or two to complete the construction of the new hotel. An extra few days will make no ____.
27. My brother Roger, who had the advantage of good looks and ____ personality, decided to take up the stage as a career.
28. The terrified hunter, ____ in arms of a huge bear, fought desperately to loosen its trip.
29. As usual, the correspondent is required to ____ all the facts before he writes his report.
A. check off
B. check out
C. check on
D. check up
30. The son inherited his father's business, but his heart was not in it and before long the firm went ____.
31. The waitress whom you were enquiring about has been ____ because of her poor service.
32. The most unusual ____ which has appeared this Christmas is what one can describe as a musical calendar.
33. Traditional grocers' shops are fast ____ now that there are so many supermarkets.
A. dying down
B. dying away
C. dying out
D. dying off
34. Your dislike for women drivers has no logical foundation; it s due only to ____.
35. Many of the students have a grasp of the main structures, a reasonable vocabulary and a(n) ____ idea of how to pronounce most words they come across.
36. Mr. Peel began a reply, but his wife ____ with a remark again.
A. cut in
B. cut back
C. cut off
D. cut short
37. The old gentleman retained a(n) ____ regard for appearance even after he had come down in the world.
38. They don't want to be involved in the dispute, so they exhibit ____ on such matters.
39. Mr. Huang is an ardent reformer ____ heart and has won great popularity among the workers.
40. My doctor put me ____ starvation diet, that is, he allowed me only tea and milk.
41. Betty was born in a distinguished family, and her upbringing was fairly strict ____ obedience and truthfulness.
A. for the sake of
B. as a result of
C. with a view to
D. in regard to
42. The police chief, who fears that the case could become a national incident, is opposed ____ it any publicity.
A. to give
B. to giving
C. to be giving
D. to have given
43. Optimism is a good characteristic, but if ____ to an excess it becomes foolishness.
B. to carry
44. The way he ate irritated her so much that she ____.
A. should have screamed
B. would have screamed
C. must have screamed
D. could have screamed
45. The space project requires more money than ____ because it needs the most modern and advanced equipment which is extremely expensive.
A. to be put in
B. to have been put in
C. putting in
D. having put in
46. As a woman of strong will, Gemma composed herself ____ when she heard the news of Arthur's death.
A. as she could best
B. as best she could
C. best as she could
D. could best as she
47. Computers are not just becoming ____ our world. To a great degree, they are our world.
A. a more and more part of
B. more and more a part of
C. a part more and more of
D. a part of more and more
48. I should say he is not ____ a scholar as a writer.
A. too much
B. very much
C. so much
D. as much
49. I'd just do as soon as you ____ the research yourself.
B. will do
D. would do
50. I don't know ____ it was that answered the phone this morning.
Part III Error Correction
A good way to get information for essays and reports is to interview people who are experts in  your topic or whose opinions may be interesting. Interviews are also a good way to get a sampling of people's opinions on various questions. Here are some suggestions that will help you make most of a  planned interview:
1. If the person to be interviewed (the interviewee) is busy, cancel an appointment in  advance.
2. Prepare your questions before the interview so that you make best use of your time. In preparing think about the topic about what the interviewer is  likely to know.
3. Use your questions, but don't insist in sticking to  them or proceeding in the order you have listed. Often the interviewee will have important information that was never occurred to you, or one  question may suggest another very useful one.
4. If you don't understand something the interviewee has said, say politely and ask him or  her to clarify it or to give an example.
5. Take notes, if the interviewee goes too slowly  for you, ask him or her to stop for a moment, especially if the point is important. A tape recorder lets you avoid this problem. Therefore,  be sure the interviewee agrees to be taped.
6. As soon as possible after the interview, read over your notes. They may need clarified while the  topic is still fresh in your mind.
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